Alan resides in the Atlanta area with his wife. Both have been married for 40 years and are the parents of two children. Elisa Nichole Miller was very dedicated to diversity and progress in all her endeavors. She was purposeful and a genuine Bible scholar. Her favorite scripture was Psalm , 8. Degree online at Strayer University.
Some of her accomplishments include senior level positions at A. Sunrise: June 11, Sunset: December 12, Show More. Average Review. Write a Review. Booklogix Publishing Services. General information on the availability or significant lack of mineral deposits e. Information on the principal native species, especially mammals, reptiles, birds, fish and shellfish, insects, and micro-fauna including in the paleoenvironment; historical changes e.
Information on the general type of flora e. Discussions of how an archaeological site, its cultural strata, and its artifacts and non-artifactual constituents were affected by the natural and cultural environment after being deposited and before being excavated. These processes include erosion, floods, animal use of the site such as pack rat middens or animal burrows, taphonomic processes not discussed elsewhere, looting of the site, human disturbances of the site and its artifacts, and differential preservation of artifacts and non-artifactual constituents.
General statements dealing with several types of scientific biological data about the members of the society. Occurrence and distribution of biological characteristics will be included in the narrower terms of this category. Mean, range, and sex distribution of physical measurements e. Color of skin, hair, and eyes; form, length, and distribution of hair; musculature; secondary sexual characteristics; physical descriptions; etc. Information on genetic characteristics of the population e.
Statements about affiliation with races and subraces; supporting evidence; extent of race mixture; etc. Data relating to physical growth and mental development during infancy and childhood; eruption of teeth; age at puberty for each sex; age at menopause and onset of senile impotence; characteristics of menstruation and menopause; physical senescence; etc.
Information on physiological systems and their functions e. This category contains general statements dealing with several distinct types of mechanisms and manifestations of individual behavior and personality as these appear to the observer and the scientist.
This category includes information on acuity of vision, hearing, taste, smell, and touch e. Information on the nature and intensity of basic impulses or drives e. Specific information concerning the mechanisms of conditioning and habit formation e. Information on the incidence, nature and cultural patterning of unconscious mental processes e. Evidences and inferences concerning the influence of constitutional factors, of physiological strains, and of social pressures and physical environment on the development of personality; psychological and psychoanalytic interpretations of personality formation under particular sociocultural conditions; evidence as to levels of personality development e.
Conception of the self in relation to others; enhancement and defense of the self; social participation and isolation; individual roles in relation to culturally defined statuses; interpretations of personality as reflecting social norms; conformity; etc. Occurrence of idiosyncratic habits e.
Incidence and distribution of hypertension and of symptoms of neurotic or functional disorders e. Observations and interpretations of individual behavior, character, and personality; clinical analyses; case records; biographical materials; collections and interpretations of individual dreams; results of tests designed to measure acquired behavior or personality e. Generalizations or conclusions relating to groups or classes of individuals will be filed elsewhere under appropriate headings. This category contains general statements covering several distinct types of information on population, including vital statistics.
Detailed information will be found in the narrower terms. This category includes enumerations and estimates with dates ; density e. Information on the distribution of population by age, sex, locality, marital status, mode of life e. Data on birth rates; distribution of births e. Incidence, nature, and distribution of various diseases and accidents e. Death rates crude and corrected ; infant and maternal mortality; distribution of deaths e.
Theories and attitudes relating to the control of population; measures designed to stimulate or limit population growth; concepts of optimum population; etc. General statements dealing with several specific types of information on history and culture change. Occurrence of similar culture traits in other societies; inferences from trait distributions; cultural comparisons, etc. Ethnogenesis includes the processes of forming, maintaining, and reforming cultural identity. Ethnogenesis may result from depopulation, invasion, relocation, enslavement, genocide, or cultural revitalization.
Ethnogenesis may occur when cultures from disparate groups combine to form new associations and new ways of life to create a new culture such as the Seminole. In cultural revitalization the identity of a group is reconstituted and may include new or borrowed symbols and elements as well as elements from the past. Cultural revitalization may result from many causes or events. These causes or events may include the influence of a messianic religious movement such as the Ghost Dance in North America or being part of a larger culture that acknowledges the need for reparation of past wrongs, such as those mentioned above, and in which recognition of ethnic identity and pride in cultural heritage is encouraged.
For information on these topics before this time see the cross-references. This category is used to index only brief synopses of prehistoric sequences or summaries thereof. Prehistoric culture sequences and chronology; archaeological supplementation of the historical record; evidence from epigraphy; historical inferences from archaeological data; brief descriptions about the time periods or dates of archaeological sites or artifacts; etc.
The scope note was rewritten in Information on oral historical traditions and evidence as to their reliability; dynastic lists and genealogies; historical inferences from myth and tradition; etc. Inferences as to origins, migrations, contacts, prehistory, and culture history from various types of evidence e. Data on the history of the culture or ethnic group that is derived from written sources e.
Analyses or general summaries of discoveries and inventions originating within the cultural group; factors involved e. This category is for discussions of innovation and inventions in general. For information on specific inventions, see the category appropriate to the specific subject. This category is used to index information on contacts and encounters either casual or formal with people of other cultures.
Changes in fundamental underlying conditions; linear trends e. Economic growth potentials, real and projected, of a territorial or political region e. For more specific information on planning and development, see relevant topical categories. Summary statements on the total culture as analyzed, interpreted, or described. Consequently much of the material pertinent to the individual topics below will be found only under other headings.
General orientation of the culture; predominating interests, values, themes, and motivations; characterizations of the total culture e. Internal cultural consistency or its lack; allegations of integration or disintegration; adjustments of parts of the culture to one another; adaptation of cultural forms to biological and social needs and to physical environment; environmental adjustment; etc. Native and scientific definitions of custom e. Social foresight; concept of progress; reform movements and utopian goals; prevention of waste; social planning; conservation policies; etc.
The category, term, and scope note were rewritten in General statements dealing with various aspects of language. The categories below are devoted to the use and scientific analysis of language. Terminology pertinent to special aspects of culture will commonly be found only under appropriate topical headings elsewhere. Notions about language; standards of correctness; individual speech idiosyncrasies; ideas about speech impediments e. Relative paucity or richness of vocabulary; range of vocabulary in ordinary use; receptivity to loan words; elaboration of vocabulary in particular directions; special vocabularies e.
Morpheme classes e. Phonemic inventory including suprasegmentals such as stress and pitch ; articulation and allophony of phonemes; distribution of phonemes; morphophonemic adjustments; etc. Differentiation in styles e. General problems of meaning and linguistic symbolism; semantics of morphological and lexical elements; affectual connotation e.
Dominant language or languages; affiliation with other languages and position within a linguistic stock or family; dialectal differentiation; comments on processes of linguistic change e. This category is used to index information on true languages e. Patterned expressions of emotion e. This category is used to index information on Internet communications including information on the technology hardware and software , facilities and services; the World Wide Web; specialized personnel e.
This category is used for to index information on the technologically simple transmission of messages. The category includes information on signaling devices e. This category is used to index information on informal verbal transmission e. This category is used to index information on newspapers and magazines; gathering of news and information e. This category is used to index information on traditional mail services for paper documents and packages e. The category also contains information service providers, and fees; etc. This category is used to index information on technology instruments, modems, lines fiber optic, etc.
This category is used to index information on radio, television, radar, sonar, etc. This category is used to index information on attitudes; importance accorded them; modes of expression; measurements e. This category is designed primarily to cover the expression and molding of public opinions and attitudes; in nearly all instances information on specific attitudes will be classified elsewhere under the relevant subject categories. This category is used to index information on conscious and unconscious structuring of space between individuals in interpersonal communication; ideas and knowledge about and interpretation of such space as a special elaboration of culture; etc.
General statements dealing with several aspects of communication over time, by means of more or less permanent records. Aids to memory; elaborated devices e. Picture writing e. Methods e. Organized production and distribution of records; products e. Techniques of photographic reproduction; equipment used; products and their uses; specialists; business elaboration of photographic services; etc. Techniques of audiovisual recording; appliances used e.
Collections and repositories of institutional or personal records e. Miscellaneous materials and supplies for offices, libraries, and museums; description and manufacture of expendable supplies not elsewhere classified e. Seasonal distribution and succession of food-getting and other economic activities; seasonal migrations in the gathering or production of food e. Edible materials gathered e.
Birds sought; methods and techniques e. Animals sought; hunting methods and techniques e. Animals sought e. Species sought e. Description of fishing implements and equipment; miscellaneous gear used in fishing e. Commercial elaboration of the fishing industry; cultivation of fish and shellfish; non-food marine industries e. General statements dealing with several of the specialized aspects of animal husbandry indicated below. Captive and tamed animals; domesticated insects e. Practical and scientific knowledge about animal husbandry; veterinary science; specialized knowledge of animal nutrition and disease control; selective breeding of animals; artificial insemination; raising of hybrids; special elaborations e.
Large-scale herding of grazing animals e. Milking; handling and processing of milk; manufacture of butter and cheese; dairy equipment; special care of dairy animals; creameries; specialized distribution of milk products; organization and regulation of the dairy industry; etc. Domesticated fowl of economic importance; care and treatment e. Specialized raising of sheep and other animals for wool; dipping; shearing; combing and carding; special equipment and apparatus; personnel and organization; etc.
Uses of animal by-products e. This category contains general statements dealing with several of the specialized aspects of agriculture detailed below. This category is used to index general data on agriculture. This category is used to index information on plants cultivated and their relative importance; size of fields; special treatment accorded each crop; intensity of cultivation e. Descriptions of practical and scientific knowledge of plant breeding, soils, and parasites; related practices e. Data on the specialized cultivation of cereal crops e.
This category is used to index information on horticulture or gardening where differentiated from field agriculture; truck gardening; specialized production of particular root crops, leaf plants, or vegetable fruits e. Specialized cultivation of trees and shrubs e. Information on the specialized production of crops for animal fodder e. Data about the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants, shrubs, and trees; flower gardens; greenhouses; special techniques, care, and equipment; business elaboration e.
This category is used to index specialized cultivation of crops for their fibers e. Description of the specialized cultivation of plants not classifiable under the foregoing headings e. General statements dealing with several aspects of the techniques by which foodstuffs are transformed from their original state into forms more suitable for preservation or consumption.
Techniques of food preservation e. Data on culturally elaborated or commercialized techniques of preservation and storage are indexed with more specialized sibling categories. Processing of edible materials e. Data on culturally elaborated or commercialized techniques of food preparation are indexed for more specialized sibling categories. The specialized industry of animal slaughtering and meat packing. Techniques of slaughtering; methods of preservation e. Ice harvesting and manufacture; specialized production of refrigerated fruits and vegetables; ice cream manufacture; cold storage plants; technology and equipment; personnel and organization; etc.
Industrialized processing of meat, fish, and vegetable foods in air-tight containers e. Industrialized processing of cereal products e. Industrialized processing of sweet condiments and confections e. Specialized processing of foods and nutrients not classifiable under the foregoing categories e. Ideas about food and ingestion; eating sparingly or to excess; attitudes toward wasting food; special adjustments to hunger or famine; dieting; cultural elaboration of food appetites e.
Staple and other foods consumed; seasonal changes in diet; proportion of various foods in diet; group differences in diet e. Kinds of condiments used in the preparation and consumption of food e. Regularity of eating; informal eating e. Specialized eating establishments e. Prevalence of cannibalism; participants; victims e. General statements covering several aspects of the allaying of thirst and special appetite cravings, with the manufacture of artificial means of satisfying them, and with the preparation of drugs for other purposes.
Use of water for drinking; manifestations and control of thirst; ideas and practices related to the drinking of water; etc. Drinking of nonalcoholic beverages e. Types of alcoholic beverages used e. Industrialized production of beverages e. Specialized dispensers of beverages; types of establishment e. Drugs consumed for non-therapeutic purposes e. Industrialized production of tobacco; specialized techniques and equipment; organization of labor and production; regulation; etc.
Materia medica and pharmacology; manufacture of narcotics, drugs, and poisons; processing techniques; products; organization of labor and production; regulation; specialists e. General statements dealing with several aspects of the processing of raw materials to yield textile products and other flat goods such as leather and paper. Preparation of hides and furs e. Industrialized processing of skins; specialized manufacture of leather goods other than wearing apparel e.
Types of cordage made e. Techniques of manufacture e. Fabrics created by weaving, knitting, crochet, netting techniques, etc. Note: known examples involve the use of cordage in creating the fabric, in contrast to Category Manufacture of non-interworked fabrics e. Industrialized production of textile products; cotton, woolen, silk, and rayon mills; cordage manufacture; specialized techniques and apparatus; economic importance of and self-sufficiency in textile manufactures; organization of labor and production; etc. Manufacture of paper; materials e. General statements covering several aspects of the manufacture, description, use, and care of wearing apparel.
Nude and covered parts of body; services of clothing e. Clothing of special occasions e. Dress accessories e. Industrialized production of shoes and hats; ready-made garment industries; industrial manufacture of underwear, hose, shirts, gloves, and furs; specialized techniques and equipment; organization of labor and production; etc. Methods of laundering clothes; repair techniques e.
General statements dealing with several aspects of methods of adorning the body other than by the wearing of clothing, and with the manufacture of the means of adornment. Types of ornament worn e. Shaving and depilation; hair styles e. Preparation of cosmetics, ointments, and perfumes; production of personal grooming articles e.
Immortality of the Soul
Scarification and tattooing; cranial deformations; tooth filing and removal; piercing of ears, nose, and lips; genital mutilation e. Barbers and hairdressers; manicurists; tattooers; specialized cosmetic services e. Cutting, polishing, and mounting of gems; specialized work in precious metals; lapidary art; manufacture of valuable ornaments and costume jewelry; specialized jewelers; etc. General statements dealing with several aspects of the extraction from nature of raw materials other than food. Transformation of raw materials into tools, structures, clothing, and other finished products is classified elsewhere.
Completeness and efficiency with which the potentialities of the land and its resources are utilized; distribution of waste land, forests, pasture, tilled land, and areas of settlement and industrial use; diversification and specialization e. Sources of water e. Kinds of timber exploited; gathering of firewood; logging operations e. Exploitation of forests and other uncultivated areas for products other than timber or food e. Exploration for oil and natural gas; methods of extraction e.
Minerals exploited e. Minerals sought e. Extent to which the quality of the physical environment has been altered as the result of human activity; causes, incidence and types of pollution e. This category is used for information on the technology of converting basic raw materials into finished or semi-finished products. Data on the acquisition of raw materials, descriptions of the finished products, and information on the manufacture of complex artifacts will be classified elsewhere.
The Secret Meaning of Wisdom: 652 Rewarding Life Notes for Sons and Daughters
This category also includes data on spatial and temporal variation and trends in these technologies. This category contains information on the technology used for working bone, horn, and shell and for information on spatial and temporal trends and variations in these technologies. This category includes information on techniques of cutting, drilling, and polishing; treatment of special materials e. The category includes information on methods of seasoning wood; techniques of shaping e.
Manufacture of pottery and glass; preliminary processing of materials e. This category includes information on the technologies used in working stone including information on materials and types of stone used and products not elsewhere described. Methods of shaping stone e. This category is used to index discussions of smelting and refining of ores; alloys; methods of casting; hot and cold forging; tempering; soldering; welding; special apparatus e.
Temporal and spatial variations and trends in metallurgy are also included in this category. Non-industrialized specialization in metallurgical crafts; types of specialists e. Industrial production of iron and steel products e. Industrialized processing of nonferrous metals e. General statements on several topics primarily concerned with the technological skills involved in assembling raw or semi-finished materials to construct buildings and other structures, together with certain business and industrial activities directly related thereto.
Civil and structural engineering; construction industries; specialized builders, contractors, and wreckers; organization of labor and production; etc. Data on construction and materials not classifiable under succeeding categories will be filed here. Techniques of excavating, grading, and earth removal; use of special implements and apparatus; specialized personnel and organization; etc.
Laying of bricks and stones; use of mortar; mixing and laying of adobe and concrete; types of construction e. Erection and assembly of structural steel elements e. Special treatment of wooden materials in building construction; techniques of joining e. Laying and fitting of water, gas, and sewer pipe; installation and repair of plumbing fixtures; implements and apparatus; steamfitting; specialized personnel and organization; etc. Wiring structures for electricity; installation of electrical fixtures and appliances; special equipment and apparatus; specialized personnel and organization; etc.
Structural specialists not classifiable under the preceding categories e. Manufacture of building and construction supplies not elsewhere described e. General statements describing several types of structures detailed below. The uses of each type of structure are described under appropriate headings. Styles of domestic and non-domestic buildings; architectural theory and principles; practice of architecture e. Description of residential buildings; seasonal, local and status differences in dwelling types; caves as dwellings; durability and portability of dwellings; mode of construction; adequacy e.
Description of domestic nonresidential buildings e. Description of public buildings e. Description of clubhouses, theaters, stadiums, gymnasiums; special characteristics and construction of each; etc. Description of shrines, temples, churches, libraries, museums, schools, and other religious and educational structures; special characteristics of each; mode of construction; etc. Description of office buildings, retail stores, and other business structures; special characteristics of each; mode of construction; etc. Description of factories and other manufacturing plants; special characteristics of each type; mode of construction; etc.
Description of structures not classifiable above e. General statements covering several aspects of the material equipment, care, and upkeep of dwellings and nonresidential buildings. House plots and building lots; courtyards; walls, fences, and gates; grading; gardens and ornamental plants; swimming pools; landscape architecture; upkeep of grounds; choice of house site; etc.
Pegs, racks, shelves, and cupboards; description of furniture e. Systems for the lighting, heating, insulation, ventilating and air-conditioning of buildings; hearths and fireplaces; special lighting equipment e. Description of building equipment not classifiable elsewhere e. Information on the upkeep of dwelling and outbuildings e. The scope note was updated in , , and Prevalence and functional differentiation of household servants e.
Upkeep and repair of public, business, industrial, religious, educational, and recreational buildings; maintenance activities e. General statements covering several specific aspects of the physical configuration and material facilities of settlements ranging in size and complexity from a temporary camp to a great metropolis. Information on the location and distribution of settlements; house census; physical types and descriptions of settlements and the incidence of each e.
Adequacy of housing facilities e. Type and plan of settlement paths and streets; paving, gutters, and sidewalks; type and amount of urban traffic e.
This category is used to index information on sewerage system; sewage disposal plants; collection and disposal of garbage and waste; street-cleaning services; purification of water; municipal sanitary facilities and regulations; refuse pits; middens; etc. Availability of publicly and privately operated municipal utilities e. Availability and location of markets, retail shops, wholesale outlets, warehouses, office buildings, banks, restaurants, hotels, garages, and other business facilities; trading centers and trade areas; business directories; etc.
Availability, location, use, and maintenance of municipal parks, playgrounds, and athletic fields; zoological and botanical gardens e. Fire protection services e. Degree of differentiation of rural, small town, and urban modes of life; characteristics of each and contrasts between them; effects of urbanization upon social institutions; trends in urban development; etc. General statements dealing with several aspects of the utilization of the sources of energy in nature and with the transformation of such energies into industrial power.
Sources of energy utilized and not utilized; potential and developed power resources; public and private programs of power development; etc. For the use and development of specific power resources see the siblings of this category. Generation of fire; techniques and apparatus e. Sources of light; methods of producing light; practical and scientific knowledge about lighting; uses of light; outdoor lighting systems e. Sources of heat; methods of producing and regulating heat; beliefs about heat and cold; practical and scientific knowledge about heat; uses of heat; etc.
Generation of power for industrial purposes through the combustion of fuels; engines e. Generation of industrial power by harnessing the energy of flowing or falling water; hydraulic engines e. Conversion of other energies into electricity; electrical generators; electric power plants; special installations and apparatus; methods of storage and transmission; electrical engineering; actual and potential output of electric power; specialized personnel; organization of labor and production; regulation; etc.
Generation of power through nuclear fission and fusion; materials used; special installations and apparatus; actual and potential output of atomic power; specialized personnel; organization of labor and production; regulation; disposal of radioactive waste; etc. Special utilization of sources of power not classifiable under previous categories e. General statements dealing with several aspects of the processing of raw materials in a series of industries where the technology is primarily chemical rather than physical.
Industrial chemistry; research laboratories, equipment, and techniques; specialized personnel e. Refining and processing of petroleum; manufacture of coal products e. Processing of natural rubber; refining techniques; methods of shaping and molding; products and their uses e. Manufacture of plastics and other synthetic products; materials used; processing techniques and apparatus; products and their uses; organization of labor and production; etc. Production of acids, bases, and other industrial chemicals; materials used; processes of manufacture; special techniques and apparatus; products and their uses; organization of labor and production; etc.
Paints, dyes, and pigments; materials used in their manufacture; processing techniques; special equipment; products and their uses e. Manufacture of agricultural fertilizers; specialized techniques and equipment; materials and products; organization of labor and production; etc. Manufacture of soap, detergents, and other oil and fat products e. Production of gunpowder, nitroglycerin, and other explosives; materials used; processing techniques and equipment; products and their uses e.
General statements dealing with several aspects of the manufacturing processes which produce tools and machines, and with their technological and economic organization. Descriptions of the specific artifacts used in or produced by these industries are indexed under other headings. Production of agricultural, industrial, and other tools; manufacture of cooking and eating implements and utensils e. Machine shops; industrial manufacture of all types of machines and complex mechanical appliances other than those operated by electricity and those employed in transportation, heating, lighting, and photography; industrial specialization; economic importance of and self-sufficiency in machine industries; organization of labor and production; etc.
Construction of electric motors, generators, and transformers; manufacture of electrical equipment e. Manufacture of stoves, furnaces, bakery equipment, and other non-electrical heating appliances; production of ice-making machinery; manufacture of heat-regulating appliances e. Lens-grinding; manufacture of optical instruments and supplies; manufacture of still and motion-picture cameras and projectors; manufacture of photographic equipment and supplies e.
Construction and repair of boats, ships, and underwater craft; manufacture of shipbuilding materials and equipment e. Locomotive works; manufacture of rolling stock; production of railway equipment e. Wagon making; manufacture of bicycles and motorcycles; production of automobiles, trucks, and buses; manufacture of automobile parts and accessories e.
Construction of air and space craft; manufacture of airplane parts, accessories, and servicing equipment; industrial specialization; organization of labor and production; etc. General statements describing several distinct types of machines and complex appliances and with the mechanical knowledge embodied in them.
Knowledge and utilization of simple machines e. Power generating machines e. Electric motors, generators, and transformers; machines and appliances operated by electric current e. Grinding and mixing machines; sewing machines; laundry appliances e. Scales; meters; thermostats; clocks and watches; calculating machines; cash registers; phonographs; scanners; sound recorders; typewriters; etc. Pumps;hoisting machines e. Farm tractors; machines used in animal husbandry e. This category is used to index information on computer technology including information on hardware, software i.
General statements describing several distinct types of artifacts employed in industrial activities and of the motor habits involved in their use. The manufacture and industrial uses of the artifacts are treated under a variety of other headings, and are described below only in instances where there is no provision for their description elsewhere.
Striking and thrusting weapons e. Tools with many potential uses such as cutting tools e. Tools used for specialized tasks such as writing instruments e. In order to acquire her realm, Cyrus first sent an offer of marriage to their ruler, the empress Tomyris , a proposal she rejected. He then commenced his attempt to take Massagetae territory by force c. Sending him a warning to cease his encroachment a warning which she stated she expected he would disregard anyway , Tomyris challenged him to meet her forces in honorable warfare, inviting him to a location in her country a day's march from the river, where their two armies would formally engage each other.
He accepted her offer, but, learning that the Massagetae were unfamiliar with wine and its intoxicating effects, he set up and then left camp with plenty of it behind, taking his best soldiers with him and leaving the least capable ones. The general of Tomyris's army, Spargapises , who was also her son, and a third of the Massagetian troops, killed the group Cyrus had left there and, finding the camp well stocked with food and the wine, unwittingly drank themselves into inebriation, diminishing their capability to defend themselves when they were then overtaken by a surprise attack.
They were successfully defeated, and, although he was taken prisoner, Spargapises committed suicide once he regained sobriety. Upon learning of what had transpired, Tomyris denounced Cyrus's tactics as underhanded and swore vengeance, leading a second wave of troops into battle herself. Cyrus the Great was ultimately killed, and his forces suffered massive casualties in what Herodotus referred to as the fiercest battle of his career and the ancient world. When it was over, Tomyris ordered the body of Cyrus brought to her, then decapitated him and dipped his head in a vessel of blood in a symbolic gesture of revenge for his bloodlust and the death of her son.
Herodotus also recounts that Cyrus saw in his sleep the oldest son of Hystaspes Darius I with wings upon his shoulders, shadowing with the one wing Asia, and with the other wing Europe. Herodotus therefore, as I surmise, may have known of the close connection between this type of winged figure and the image of Iranian majesty, which he associated with a dream prognosticating the king's death before his last, fatal campaign across the Oxus. Muhammad Dandamayev says maybe Persians took back Cyrus' body from the Massagetae, unlike what Herodotus claimed. Ctesias , in his Persica , has the longest account, which says Cyrus met his death while putting down resistance from the Derbices infantry, aided by other Scythian archers and cavalry, plus Indians and their war-elephants.
According to him, this event took place northeast of the headwaters of the Syr Darya. Cyrus the Great's remains may have been interred in his capital city of Pasargadae , where today a limestone tomb built around — BC  still exists, which many believe to be his. Strabo and Arrian give nearly identical descriptions of the tomb, based on the eyewitness report of Aristobulus of Cassandreia , who at the request of Alexander the Great visited the tomb twice.
According to Plutarch , his epitaph said,. O man, whoever you are and wherever you come from, for I know you will come, I am Cyrus who won the Persians their empire. Do not therefore begrudge me this bit of earth that covers my bones. Cambyses continued his father's policy of expansion, and captured Egypt for the Empire, but soon died after only seven years of rule. He was succeeded either by Cyrus's other son Bardiya or an impostor posing as Bardiya, who became the sole ruler of Persia for seven months, until he was killed by Darius the Great. The translated ancient Roman and Greek accounts give a vivid description of the tomb both geometrically and aesthetically; the tomb's geometric shape has changed little over the years, still maintaining a large stone of quadrangular form at the base, followed by a pyramidal succession of smaller rectangular stones, until after a few slabs, the structure is curtailed by an edifice, with an arched roof composed of a pyramidal shaped stone, and a small opening or window on the side, where the slenderest man could barely squeeze through.
Within this edifice was a golden coffin , resting on a table with golden supports, inside of which the body of Cyrus the Great was interred.
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Upon his resting place, was a covering of tapestry and drapes made from the best available Babylonian materials, utilizing fine Median worksmanship; below his bed was a fine red carpet, covering the narrow rectangular area of his tomb. Years later, in the chaos created by Alexander the Great 's invasion of Persia and after the defeat of Darius III , Cyrus the Great's tomb was broken into and most of its luxuries were looted. When Alexander reached the tomb, he was horrified by the manner in which the tomb was treated, and questioned the Magi and put them to court.
The edifice has survived the test of time, through invasions, internal divisions, successive empires, regime changes, and revolutions. The last prominent Persian figure to bring attention to the tomb was Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Shah of Iran the last official monarch of Persia, during his celebrations of 2, years of monarchy. Just as Alexander the Great before him, the Shah of Iran wanted to appeal to Cyrus's legacy to legitimize his own rule by extension. British historian Charles Freeman suggests that "In scope and extent his achievements [Cyrus] ranked far above that of the Macedonian king, Alexander, who was to demolish the [Achaemenid] empire in the s but fail to provide any stable alternative.
The achievements of Cyrus the Great throughout antiquity are reflected in the way he is remembered today. His own nation, the Iranians, have regarded him as "The Father", the very title that had been used during the time of Cyrus himself, by the many nations that he conquered, as according to Xenophon : . And those who were subject to him, he treated with esteem and regard, as if they were his own children, while his subjects themselves respected Cyrus as their "Father" What other man but 'Cyrus', after having overturned an empire, ever died with the title of "The Father" from the people whom he had brought under his power?
For it is plain fact that this is a name for one that bestows, rather than for one that takes away! The Babylonians regarded him as "The Liberator". The Book of Ezra narrates a story of the first return of exiles in the first year of Cyrus, in which Cyrus boastfully proclaims: "All the kingdoms of the earth hath the LORD, the God of heaven, given me; and He hath charged me to build Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Cyrus was distinguished equally as a statesman and as a soldier. Due in part to the political infrastructure he created, the Achaemenid Empire endured long after his death.
The rise of Persia under Cyrus's rule had a profound impact on the course of world history. Iranian philosophy , literature and religion all played dominant roles in world events for the next millennium. Despite the Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century AD by the Islamic Caliphate , Persia continued to exercise enormous influence in the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age , and was particularly instrumental in the growth and expansion of Islam.
Many of the Iranian dynasties following the Achaemenid Empire and their kings saw themselves as the heirs to Cyrus the Great and have claimed to continue the line begun by Cyrus. Alexander the Great was himself infatuated with and admired Cyrus the Great, from an early age reading Xenophon's Cyropaedia , which described Cyrus's heroism in battle and governance and his abilities as a king and a legislator.
Cyrus's legacy has been felt even as far away as Iceland  and colonial America. Many of the thinkers and rulers of Classical Antiquity as well as the Renaissance and Enlightenment era,  and the forefathers of the United States of America sought inspiration from Cyrus the Great through works such as Cyropaedia.
Thomas Jefferson , for example, owned two copies of Cyropaedia , one with parallel Greek and Latin translations on facing pages showing substantial Jefferson markings that signify the amount of influence the book has had on drafting the United States Declaration of Independence. According to Professor Richard Nelson Frye , Cyrus — whose abilities as conqueror and administrator Frye says are attested by the longevity and vigor of the Achaemenid Empire — held an almost mythic role among the Persian people "similar to that of Romulus and Remus in Rome or Moses for the Israelites", with a story that "follows in many details the stories of hero and conquerors from elsewhere in the ancient world".
His personality as seen by the Greeks influenced them and Alexander the Great, and, as the tradition was transmitted by the Romans, may be considered to influence our thinking even now. On another account, Professor Patrick Hunt states, "If you are looking at the greatest personages in History who have affected the World, 'Cyrus the Great' is one of the few who deserves that epithet, the one who deserves to be called 'the Great'.
The empire over which Cyrus ruled was the largest the Ancient World had ever seen and may be to this day the largest empire ever. Though it is generally believed that Zarathushtra 's teachings maintained influence on Cyrus's acts and policies, so far no clear evidence has been found to indicate that Cyrus practiced a specific religion. Pierre Briant wrote that given the poor information we have, "it seems quite reckless to try to reconstruct what the religion of Cyrus might have been.
The policies of Cyrus with respect to treatment of minority religions are well documented in Babylonian texts as well as Jewish sources and the historians accounts. Cyrus had a general policy of religious tolerance throughout his vast empire. Whether this was a new policy or the continuation of policies followed by the Babylonians and Assyrians as Lester Grabbe maintains  is disputed. He brought peace to the Babylonians and is said to have kept his army away from the temples and restored the statues of the Babylonian gods to their sanctuaries.
The Jewish Bible's Ketuvim ends in Second Chronicles with the decree of Cyrus, which returned the exiles to the Promised Land from Babylon along with a commission to rebuild the temple. This edict is also fully reproduced in the Book of Ezra. In the first year of King Cyrus, Cyrus the king issued a decree: "Concerning the house of God at Jerusalem, let the temple, the place where sacrifices are offered, be rebuilt and let its foundations be retained, its height being 60 cubits and its width 60 cubits; with three layers of huge stones and one layer of timbers.
And let the cost be paid from the royal treasury. Also let the gold and silver utensils of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took from the temple in Jerusalem and brought to Babylon, be returned and brought to their places in the temple in Jerusalem; and you shall put them in the house of God. The Jews honored him as a dignified and righteous king. In one Biblical passage, Isaiah refers to him as Messiah lit. He will rebuild my city and set my exiles free, but not for a price or reward, says God Almighty. These particular passages Isaiah 40—55, often referred to as Deutero-Isaiah are believed by most modern critical scholars to have been added by another author toward the end of the Babylonian exile c.
Josephus , the first-century Jewish historian, relates the traditional view of the Jews regarding the prediction of Cyrus in Isaiah in his Antiquities of the Jews , book 11, chapter 1: . In the first year of the reign of Cyrus, which was the seventieth from the day that our people were removed out of their own land into Babylon, God commiserated the captivity and calamity of these poor people, according as he had foretold to them by Jeremiah the prophet, before the destruction of the city, that after they had served Nebuchadnezzar and his posterity, and after they had undergone that servitude seventy years, he would restore them again to the land of their fathers, and they should build their temple, and enjoy their ancient prosperity.
And these things God did afford them; for he stirred up the mind of Cyrus, and made him write this throughout all Asia: "Thus saith Cyrus the king: Since God Almighty hath appointed me to be king of the habitable earth, I believe that he is that God which the nation of the Israelites worship; for indeed he foretold my name by the prophets, and that I should build him a house at Jerusalem, in the country of Judea.
Accordingly, when Cyrus read this, and admired the Divine power, an earnest desire and ambition seized upon him to fulfill what was so written; so he called for the most eminent Jews that were in Babylon, and said to them, that he gave them leave to go back to their own country, and to rebuild their city Jerusalem, and the temple of God, for that he would be their assistant, and that he would write to the rulers and governors that were in the neighborhood of their country of Judea, that they should contribute to them gold and silver for the building of the temple, and besides that, beasts for their sacrifices.
Cyrus was praised in the Tanakh Isaiah —6 and Ezra —11 for the freeing of slaves, humanitarian equality and costly reparations he made. However, there was Jewish criticism of him after he was lied to by the Cuthites , who wanted to halt the building of the Second Temple. Ezra — The historical nature of this decree has been challenged. Professor Lester L Grabbe argues that there was no decree but that there was a policy that allowed exiles to return to their homelands and rebuild their temples.
He also argues that the archaeology suggests that the return was a "trickle", taking place over perhaps decades, resulting in a maximum population of perhaps 30, Davies called the authenticity of the decree "dubious", citing Grabbe and adding that J. Briend argued against "the authenticity of Ezra 1.
Briend, in a paper given at the Institut Catholique de Paris on 15 December , who denies that it resembles the form of an official document but reflects rather biblical prophetic idiom. He also wrote that "appeals to Marduk in the cylinder and to Yahweh in the biblical decree demonstrate the Persian tendency to co-opt local religious and political traditions in the interest of imperial control. Some contemporary Muslim scholars have suggested that the Qur'anic figure of Dhul-Qarnayn is a representation of Cyrus the Great.
Cyrus founded the empire as a multi- state empire governed by four capital states; Pasargadae , Babylon , Susa and Ecbatana. He allowed a certain amount of regional autonomy in each state, in the form of a satrapy system. A satrapy was an administrative unit, usually organized on a geographical basis. A ' satrap ' governor was the vassal king, who administered the region, a 'general' supervised military recruitment and ensured order, and a 'state secretary' kept the official records.
The general and the state secretary reported directly to the satrap as well as the central government. During his reign, Cyrus maintained control over a vast region of conquered kingdoms, achieved through retaining and expanding the satrapies. Further organization of newly conquered territories into provinces ruled by satraps, was continued by Cyrus's successor Darius the Great. Cyrus's empire was based on tribute and conscripts from the many parts of his realm.
Through his military savvy, Cyrus created an organized army including the Immortals unit, consisting of 10, highly trained soldiers. Cyrus's conquests began a new era in the age of empire building, where a vast superstate , comprising many dozens of countries, races, religions, and languages, were ruled under a single administration headed by a central government.
This system lasted for centuries, and was retained both by the invading Seleucid dynasty during their control of Persia, and later Iranian dynasties including the Parthians and Sasanians. I am an Iranian, a descendant of Cyrus the Great. This emperor proclaimed at the pinnacle of power 2, years ago that he "would not reign over the people if they did not wish it".
He promised not to force any person to change his religion and faith and guaranteed freedom for all. The Charter of Cyrus the Great should be studied in the history of human rights. Cyrus has been known for his innovations in building projects; he further developed the technologies that he found in the conquered cultures and applied them in building the palaces of Pasargadae. He was also famous for his love of gardens ; the recent excavations in his capital city has revealed the existence of the Pasargadae Persian Garden and a network of irrigation canals.
Pasargadae was a place for two magnificent palaces surrounded by a majestic royal park and vast formal gardens; among them was the four-quartered wall gardens of " Paradisia " with over meters of channels made out of carved limestone , designed to fill small basins at every 16 meters and water various types of wild and domestic flora. The design and concept of Paradisia were exceptional and have been used as a model for many ancient and modern parks, ever since.
The English physician and philosopher Sir Thomas Browne penned a discourse entitled The Garden of Cyrus in in which Cyrus is depicted as an archetypal "wise ruler" — while the Protectorate of Cromwell ruled Britain. So nobly beautifying the hanging Gardens of Babylon, that he was also thought to be the author thereof. It had been placed in the foundations of the Esagila the temple of Marduk in Babylon as a foundation deposit following the Persian conquest in BC. It was discovered in and is kept today in the British Museum in London.
The text of the cylinder denounces the deposed Babylonian king Nabonidus as impious and portrays Cyrus as pleasing to the chief god Marduk. It describes how Cyrus had improved the lives of the citizens of Babylonia, repatriated displaced peoples and restored temples and cult sanctuaries. In the s the Shah of Iran adopted the Cyrus cylinder as a political symbol, using it "as a central image in his celebration of years of Iranian monarchy.
The United Nations has declared the relic to be an "ancient declaration of human rights" since , approved by then Secretary General Sithu U Thant , after he "was given a replica by the sister of the Shah of Iran ". Neil MacGregor , Director of the British Museum, has stated that the cylinder was "the first attempt we know about running a society, a state with different nationalities and faiths — a new kind of statecraft. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
King and founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Cyrus the Great with a Hemhem crown , or four-winged Cherub tutelary divinity, from a relief in the residence of Cyrus in Pasagardae. Campaigns of Cyrus the Great. Further information: Cyrus. See also: Achaemenes , Achaemenid family tree , and Teispids. Further information: Battle of Opis. Main article: Tomb of Cyrus. Main article: Cyrus Cylinder. Further information: the full Achaemenid family tree.
Cyrus family tree . Ruler of Persia [i]. Prince imposter Gaumata ruled as Smerdis [i]. Part of a series on the. Mythological history. Pishdadian dynasty Kayanian dynasty. Ancient period. Imperial period.
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Medieval period. Early modern period. Safavid dynasty — Hotak dynasty — Afsharid dynasty — Talysh Khanate — Zand dynasty — Qajar dynasty — Modern period. Pahlavi dynasty — Interim Government Islamic Republic —present. Related articles. Iran Chamber Society. Retrieved Persia and the Persian Question. Cambridge University Press. Cyrus II The Great". IX; see also M. The Ancient Near East: c. Perrot, Jean ed. Retrieved 11 March The quote is from the Greek historian Herodotus. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. Parker and W. Dubberstein, Babylonian Chronology B. Cyrus the Great Cyrus's religious policies.
See also: G. Buchaman Gray and D. IV , 2nd edition, published by The University Press, Excerpt: The administration of the empire through satrap, and much more belonging to the form or spirit of the government, was the work of Cyrus Retrieved January 26, Birth of the Persian Empire. Holliday