Y chocando ya botellas contra botellas, que no  vasos contra vasos. Tal era su terror.
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En tanto, el boticario ajustaba una nueva cuenta. Vierais  entonces un cuadro tan sublime como espantoso. The first figures refer to the original pages of text, and second figures to the reference figures in text. The province of Galicia lies in the northwest corner of Spain. By lifting and carrying a bull-calf daily, he was able, so the legend runs, ultimately to carry the full-grown bull. He came to his death by trying to pull asunder a split tree, which, reacting, held him fast until devoured by the wolves. Restored to power in , he reigned till Cuarto is also, however, a fourth part of a lacerated body—cf.
Hacer cuartos may be translated by this phrase and hacer ochavos by make mincemeat. Vez is often used in the singular with plural value. Out of loyalty to the royal family, an insurrection of the populace of Madrid took place, which was put down by the French only after the most desperate and heroic resistance by the ill-armed Spaniards. The French pretended to be defending Egypt against the Turks. He occupied the throne after her death. Pavia : the first three cities are in southern Italy; Pavia is a town of northern Italy near Milan , the scene of a battle in which Francis I of France was defeated by the Spanish in He remained a prisoner in Spain till Observe that ni , like many of the Spanish negative pronouns and adverbs, sometimes loses its negative value.
Vide Book of Judges, xiii-xvi. Con el libro o sea con el manuscrito. A las nueve en punto cf. Yo me encargo de ello. Nos pasamos a los carlistas. Diez franceses, todos ellos oficiales. Vino el mismo rey. Viene ahora mismo. Me doy por vencido. Estuvo a la izquierda. Anduvo a ciegas. Se puso de pie cf. Lo hicieron pedazos. Version 1. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
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Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law. Pedro de Alvarado's brother Jorge wrote another account to the king of Spain that explained it was his own campaign of — that established the Spanish colony. The Tlaxcalan allies of the Spanish who accompanied them in their invasion of Guatemala wrote their own accounts of the conquest; these included a letter to the Spanish king protesting at their poor treatment once the campaign was over.
Other accounts were in the form of questionnaires answered before colonial magistrates to protest and register a claim for recompense. Accounts of the conquest as seen from the point of view of the defeated highland Maya kingdoms are included in a number of indigenous documents, including the Annals of the Kaqchikels , which includes the Xajil Chronicle describing the history of the Kaqchikel from their mythical creation down through the Spanish conquest and continuing to The book was written in and is regarded as one of the most important works of Guatemalan history, and is the first such book to have been written by a criollo author.
Private adventurers thereafter entered into contracts with the Spanish Crown to conquer the newly discovered lands in return for tax revenues and the power to rule. The newly conquered territory became New Spain , headed by a viceroy who answered to the king of Spain via the Council of the Indies. Warriors were ordered to be gathered from each of the Mexica and Tlaxcaltec towns. The native warriors supplied their own weapons, including swords, clubs and bows and arrows.
As Alvarado left the Aztec capital, he led about Spanish and approximately Tlaxcaltec and Cholultec warriors and Mexica, meeting up with the gathered reinforcements on the way. When the army left the Basin of Mexico, it may have included as many as 20, native warriors from various kingdoms although the exact numbers are disputed. Further Mesoamerican warriors were recruited from the Zapotec and Mixtec provinces, with the addition of more Nahuas from the Aztec garrison in Soconusco. In the early 16th century the territory that now makes up Guatemala was divided into various competing polities, each locked in continual struggle with its neighbours.
On the eve of the conquest the highlands of Guatemala were dominated by several powerful Maya states. Maya warfare was not so much aimed at destruction of the enemy as the seizure of captives and plunder.
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Pedro de Alvarado described how the Xinca of the Pacific coast attacked the Spanish with spears, stakes and poisoned arrows. The Maya had historically employed ambush and raiding as their preferred tactic, and its employment against the Spanish proved troublesome for the Europeans. The conquistadors were all volunteers, the majority of whom did not receive a fixed salary but instead a portion of the spoils of victory, in the form of precious metals , land grants and provision of native labour.
Spanish weaponry and tactics differed greatly from that of the indigenous peoples of Guatemala. This included the Spanish use of crossbows , firearms including muskets and cannon ,  war dogs and war horses. In Guatemala the Spanish routinely fielded indigenous allies; at first these were Nahua brought from the recently conquered Mexico, later they also included Maya.
It is estimated that for every Spaniard on the field of battle, there were at least 10 native auxiliaries. Sometimes there were as many as 30 indigenous warriors for every Spaniard, and it was the participation of these Mesoamerican allies that was particularly decisive. The Spanish engaged in a strategy of concentrating native populations in newly founded colonial towns, or reducciones also known as congregaciones. Native resistance to the new nucleated settlements took the form of the flight of the indigenous inhabitants into inaccessible regions such as mountains and forests.
Epidemics accidentally introduced by the Spanish included smallpox , measles and influenza. These diseases, together with typhus and yellow fever , had a major impact on Maya populations. In and , before the arrival of the Spanish in the region, a number of epidemics swept through southern Guatemala.
Population levels in the Guatemalan Highlands did not recover to their pre-conquest levels until the middle of the 20th century. Smallpox was reported in San Pedro Saloma, in The conquest of the highlands was made difficult by the many independent polities in the region, rather than one powerful enemy to be defeated as was the case in central Mexico. Other groups soon rebelled however, and by numerous rebellions had engulfed the highlands. Alvarado wrote that they sent warriors to assist him, although the Kaqchikel recorded that they sent only This included the Mam inhabitants of the area now within the modern department of San Marcos.
James of the Knights of Guatemala". Since the Spanish conquistadors founded their first capital at Iximche, they took the name of the city used by their Nahuatl-speaking Mexican allies and applied it to the new Spanish city and, by extension, to the kingdom. From this comes the modern name of the country. The Spanish and their allies arrived at the lakeshore after a day's hard march, without encountering any opposition.
Seeing the lack of resistance, Alvarado rode ahead with 30 cavalry along the lake shore. The Spanish could not pursue the survivors further because canoes sent by the Kaqchikels had not yet arrived. This battle took place on 18 April. The following day the Spanish entered Tecpan Atitlan but found it deserted. Pedro de Alvarado camped in the centre of the city and sent out scouts to find the enemy.
Pedro de Alvarado rapidly began to demand gold in tribute from the Kaqchikels, souring the friendship between the two peoples. A Kaqchikel priest foretold that the Kaqchikel gods would destroy the Spanish, causing the Kaqchikel people to abandon their city and flee to the forests and hills on 28 August 7 Ahmak in the Kaqchikel calendar. Ten days later the Spanish declared war on the Kaqchikel. He reported that the houses of the city were still in excellent condition; his account was the last description of the city while it was still inhabitable. Annals of the Kaqchikels .
The Kaqchikel kept up resistance against the Spanish for a number of years, but on 9 May , exhausted by the warfare that had seen the deaths of their best warriors and the enforced abandonment of their crops,  the two kings of the most important clans returned from the wilds. At the time of the conquest, the main Mam population was situated in Xinabahul also spelled Chinabjul , now the city of Huehuetenango , but Zaculeu's fortifications led to its use as a refuge during the conquest.
Momostenango quickly fell to the Spanish after a four-hour battle.
The Mam army advanced across the plain in battle formation and was met by a Spanish cavalry charge that threw them into disarray, with the infantry mopping up those Mam that survived the cavalry. Gonzalo de Alvarado slew the Mam leader Canil Acab with his lance, at which point the Mam army's resistance was broken, and the surviving warriors fled to the hills. Messengers from the community's leaders arrived from the hills and offered their unconditional surrender, which was accepted by Alvarado.
The Spanish army rested for a few days, then continued onwards to Huehuetenango only to find it deserted. The fortress was surrounded on three sides by deep ravines and defended by a formidable system of walls and ditches. Gonzalo de Alvarado, although outnumbered two to one, decided to launch an assault on the weaker northern entrance. Mam warriors initially held the northern approaches against the Spanish infantry but fell back before repeated cavalry charges.
The Mam defence was reinforced by an estimated 2, warriors from within Zaculeu but was unable to push the Spanish back. As Alvarado dug in and laid siege to the fortress, an army of approximately 8, Mam warriors descended on Zaculeu from the Cuchumatanes mountains to the north, drawn from those towns allied with the city.
The relief army was broken and annihilated, allowing Alvarado to return to reinforce the siege. The Spanish attempted an approach from the west through a narrow pass but were forced back with heavy losses. Alvarado himself launched the second assault with Tlaxcalan allies but was also beaten back. The Poqomam then received reinforcements, possibly from Chinautla, and the two armies clashed on open ground outside of the city. The battle was chaotic and lasted for most of the day but was finally decided by the Spanish cavalry, forcing the Poqomam reinforcements to withdraw. Armed with the knowledge gained from their prisoners, Alvarado sent 40 men to cover the exit from the cave and launched another assault along the ravine from the west, in single file owing to its narrowness, with crossbowmen alternating with soldiers bearing muskets, each with a companion sheltering him from arrows and stones with a shield.
This tactic allowed the Spanish to break through the pass and storm the entrance of the city. The Poqomam warriors fell back in disorder in a chaotic retreat through the city, and were hunted down by the victorious conquistadors and their allies. Those who managed to retreat down the neighbouring valley were ambushed by Spanish cavalry who had been posted to block the exit from the cave, the survivors were captured and brought back to the city.
The siege had lasted more than a month and because of the defensive strength of the city, Alvarado ordered it to be burned and moved the inhabitants to the new colonial village of Mixco. There are no direct sources describing the conquest of the Chajoma by the Spanish but it appears to have been a drawn-out campaign rather than a rapid victory. Some Iximche Kaqchikels seem also to have been relocated to the same towns.
Some of these settlements eventually received official recognition, such as San Raimundo near Sacul. Within a few decades taxes were instead paid in beans, cotton and maize. The indigenous population soon rebelled against excessive Spanish demands, but the rebellion was quickly put down in April By the time the Spanish physically arrived in the region this had collapsed to , because of the effects of the Old World diseases that had run ahead of them.
After the western portion of the Cuchumatanes fell to the Spanish, the Ixil and Uspantek Maya were sufficiently isolated to evade immediate Spanish attention. Uspantek activity became sufficiently troublesome that the Spanish decided that military action was necessary. Gaspar Arias , magistrate of Guatemala, penetrated the eastern Cuchumatanes with sixty Spanish infantry and three hundred allied indigenous warriors. Although his officers advised against it, Olmos launched a disastrous full-scale frontal assault on the city. As soon as the Spanish began their assault they were ambushed from the rear by more than two thousand Uspantek warriors.
The Spanish forces were routed with heavy losses; many of their indigenous allies were slain, and many more were captured alive by the Uspantek warriors only to be sacrificed on the altar of their deity Exbalamquen. A year later Francisco de Castellanos set out from Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala by now relocated to Ciudad Vieja on another expedition against the Ixil and Uspantek, leading eight corporals, thirty-two cavalry, forty Spanish infantry and several hundred allied indigenous warriors. The expedition rested at Chichicastenango and recruited further forces before marching seven leagues northwards to Sacapulas and climbed the steep southern slopes of the Cuchumatanes.
On the upper slopes they clashed with a force of between four and five thousand Ixil warriors from Nebaj and nearby settlements. A lengthy battle followed during which the Spanish cavalry managed to outflank the Ixil army and forced them to retreat to their mountaintop fortress at Nebaj. The Spanish force besieged the city, and their indigenous allies managed to scale the walls, penetrate the stronghold and set it on fire.
Many defending Ixil warriors withdrew to fight the fire, which allowed the Spanish to storm the entrance and break the defences.
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The Spaniards were barely able to organise a defence before the defending army attacked. Although heavily outnumbered, the deployment of Spanish cavalry and the firearms of the Spanish infantry eventually decided the battle. The surrounding towns also surrendered, and December marked the end of the military stage of the conquest of the Cuchumatanes.
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In the Mercedarian Order built the first church in Santa Eulalia. The continued resistance was so determined that the Chuj remained pacified only while the immediate effects of the Spanish expeditions lasted. He described the inhabitants as quarrelsome and complained that they had built a pagan shrine in the hills among the ruins of pre-Columbian temples, where they burnt incense and offerings and sacrificed turkeys. He reported that every March they built bonfires around wooden crosses about two leagues from the town and set them on fire.
The governor ordered the captain to remain in the village and use it as a base of operations for penetrating the Lacandon region. The San Mateo group headed northeast into the Lacandon Jungle. In the half century preceding the arrival of the Spanish, the Kaqchikel were frequently at war with the Pipil of Izcuintepeque modern Escuintla. The Pipil withdrew their scouts because of the heavy rain, believing that the Spanish and their allies would not be able to reach the town that day. However, Pedro de Alvarado pressed ahead and when the Spanish entered the town the defenders were completely unprepared, with the Pipil warriors indoors sheltering from the torrential rain.
In the battle that ensued, the Spanish and their indigenous allies suffered minor losses but the Pipil were able to flee into the forest, sheltered from Spanish pursuit by the weather and the vegetation. Pedro de Alvarado ordered the town to be burnt and sent messengers to the Pipil lords demanding their surrender, otherwise he would lay waste to their lands. The defending warriors were described by Alvarado as engaging in fierce hand-to-hand combat using spears, stakes and poisoned arrows.
The battle took place on 26 May and resulted in a significant reduction of the Xinca population. Tacuilula feigned a peaceful reception only to unsuccessfully raise arms against the conquistadors within an hour of their arrival. Taxisco and Nancintla fell soon afterwards. Because Alvarado and his allies could not understand the Xinca language, Alvarado took extra precautions on the march eastward by strengthening his vanguard and rearguard with ten cavalry apiece.
In spite of these precautions the baggage train was ambushed by a Xinca army soon after leaving Taxisco. Many indigenous allies were killed and most of the baggage was lost, including all the crossbows and ironwork for the horses. Pedro de Portocarrero led the second attempt with a large infantry detachment but was unable to engage with the enemy due to the difficult mountain terrain, so returned to Nancintla. Alvarado sent out Xinca messengers to make contact with the enemy but they failed to return.
Messengers from the city of Pazaco , in the modern department of Jutiapa,  offered peace to the conquistadors but when Alvarado arrived there the next day the inhabitants were preparing for war. Alvarado's troops encountered a sizeable quantity of gathered warriors and quickly routed them through the city's streets. After the conquest of the Pacific plain, the inhabitants paid tribute to the Spanish in the form of valuable products such as cacao , cotton , salt and vanilla , with an emphasis on cacao.
He also had with him Chontal Maya carriers from Acalan. On 15 April the expedition arrived at the Maya village of Tenciz. With local guides they headed into the hills north of Lake Izabal , where their guides abandoned them to their fate. The expedition became lost in the hills and came close to starvation before they captured a Maya boy who led them out to safety.
He crossed the Dulce River to the settlement of Nito, somewhere on the Amatique Bay ,  with about a dozen companions, and waited there for the rest of his army to regroup over the course of the next week. He at first believed he had reached the Pacific, but soon realised his error. The polysyllabic nouns ending in consonant followed by non stressed vowel add a -s to build the plural: casa, casas; parque, parques, libro, libros; tribu, tribus; banco, bancos, etc.
Some nouns recently included in Spanish also follow the rule: babi, babis; casete, casetes; confeti, confetis; ovni, ovnis; penalti, penaltis; poni, ponis, etc. In the case of the nouns ending in -z , when passing from singular to plural, this letter turns into -c; this way the same sound is retained. In Spanish is not possible the combination ze.