This energy can originate from another person, a group or cult, a dead or living spirit, entities, elemen- tals, objects or even yourself in some way. The latter is particularly true of those who have been messing around in black magic or attempting to manipulate events through their thought processes.
There is no better way to invite bad energy upon yourself than by purposefully sending bad energy to another. Obsessive, fearful and anxious people, in particular, seem to invite astral attack on themselves as they are always subconsciously inviting "the worst that can happen" into their realm of possibility. They want so desperately to change events that their aura—the membrane that protects the soul—actually grows thin and exposes them to danger.
Hatred is like a virus. It not only poisons and infects the aura of the person that you are attacking, it is also the spiritual equivalent of "shitting in your own backyard. Alcoholics, addicts, manic- depressives, depressives and people with similar dis- orders often cannot sustain themselves on their own energies. Some are so adept at developing a sixth sense that compensates for the ravages of their disease lack of perception, damaged gut instincts, irrationality, desperation, bad judgment that you can literally feel like they are sticking a hose into your gut and sucking your will to live.
Sometimes you have no choice but to deal with such a person in your life. As a result, you may be in need of constant psychic protection. Healers, mediums, psychics, priests, nuns, nurses, artists and those who open up the self to sense impressions, are vulnerable to astral attack. It is easy to pick up thoughts or spirits when you are working in a place such as a hospital, doctor's office or funeral home. If you find yourself working in such an environment, you are probably in need of some regular cleansing ritual that strengthens your psychic protection.
You may unknowingly take home your client's or patient's thoughts or feelings. Most astral attacks take place at the subconscious level. They originate as thoughts. One of the cliches that describes this process is the ripple-on-the-pond effect. The negative thought is like a rock dropped into water; the vibrations are eventually felt on distant shores. Another commonly used metaphor is the butterfly in a Brazil forest that flaps its wings and then causes an earthquake in Taiwan. Never under- estimate the power of a thought. That is why it is so important to stay away from negative people.
However, before you leap to the conclusion that you are under psychic attack, it is important to realize that there is a fine line between psychic and psycho. Many times people have come to me for a reading, absolutely convinced that someone is somehow calling to them as soulmates.
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Usually this "soulmate" is an ex. They will state the person is coming to them through dreams, coincidences and obsessive thoughts, More than half the time, this is the product of a deep neurosis on the part of the dreamer. The subconscious mind constantly tries to sabotage the conscious mind with drives, both sexual and death- realted. What these dreams or haunting feelings usually reflect is the desire of that person to be with his or her ex. Many will also claim to be under psychic attack from a person that they actually desire. Or they will send bad energy to another individual and claim that person is actually attacking them.
This is called a rationalization, not a psychic attack. There are major differences between obsession, possession, neurosis and psychic attack. Although obsession is considered a symptom of psychic attack, it is not always because the other person is sending you bad energy. In fact. Obsession is part of the denial stage of the grief process and you may simply be courting this delusion to avoid the inevitable acceptance that the matter is over. Formally, possession means that your aura has been entered by another spirit. Individuals who have died yet come to life again on the operating table often are said to be invaded by what is called "a walk-in.
In fact the purpose of many religions that deal with mediumships Tibetan Buddhism and Santeria in particular , is to reach a state of trance, stillness and near death that welcomes the invasion of a spirit into the body. These spirits are often courted and trained to assist in healing and manifestation practices. A psychic or astral invasion is also not necessarily the result of a deliberate attack. Some people, whether they are healers or not, are just more sensi- tive than others.
Like psychic sponges they soak up emotions, energies and impressions from people or places.
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Such individuals often feel depleted by over- interaction with people. Some experience what is called a psychic attach- ment. This is when a thought form attaches to a person or is embodied in an object or a place. It is like we have picked up bad vibes that stay with us. Psychic invasion can also be caused by geopathic stress. Buildings located on massive rock forms that are scientifically proven to hold enormous amounts of electromagnetic radiation, or on known energy vortices or ley lines, or above underground streams are thought to contain vibrations that shatter or weaken the aura.
Some psychics or healers may delib- erately choose to locate themselves at such a site where the veils between the natural and supernatural worlds are thinner. Also such locations are thought to be portals to other realms and hold the memories or psychic energies of events that have taken place there previously. An emotional upheaval or a tragedy can also cause geopathic stress. Such sites weaken the aura of the human visitor and make the person more prone to malfortune. That is why it is important for you to follow your gut instincts.
Most of us are born with healthy auras that nudge us with physical and emotional symptoms if the energies around us are bad. Another form of attack discussed in more esoteric circles can be loosely described as possession by energies that are not of this planet. The idea is that humankind actually began as the starseed of explorers from other planets, and that occasionally our alien forefathers send down relatives to check up on us.
Apparently, the favored method of astral attacks by aliens is to implant objects that resemble black boxes or squiggles in the human's aura. These implants are thought to work like batteries that feed on negative energy and draw malfortune to the individual. If you are reading this book it is possible that you feel yourself to be under astral or psychic attack in the present or feel that you have been damaged by an attack in the past. Or you might simply be looking for ways to strengthen your astral protection to safeguard against the negative energies that you sense are out there.
Since the horror of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in New York City on September II"1, more and more people have come to acknowledge that the last thing the world needs now is more neg- ative energy. Psychics describe that event as a time where a psychic veil, separating good and evil, was ripped apart and torn down.
Like a forest of tuning forks, negative energies or thoughts tend to breed or cluster together, according to the principle of "like attracts like. As a result, those already damaged auras became worse after It is your responsibility, as a human being who is evolving constantly in this Aquarian age, not to let yourself be pervaded or invaded by these prevailing negative psychic trends. In these pre-apocalyptic times, it is more important than ever for humanity to raise the vibrations of the collective unconciousness. This is why it is important to ground yourself, strengthen your aura, conquer your fears and raise your own vibration to a positive level.
Humanity can only be healed as it historically always has—by example and through one person at a time. The Evil Eye has been around since the beginning of time.
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It simply means sending someone a thought that seems intrusive or invasive or has the power to hurt him or her. Bad fortune is thought to be the result of envy. The evil eye is not necessarily inten- tional or associated with witchcraft or sorcery. Oddly enough, this thought form can actually be compli- mentary in nature. Sending someone the evil eye comes from the concept that we all have a Third Eye, located in the center of our forehead. Blinding, fogging or obscuring the Third Eye is often the intent of the energy's sender. Most of us have experienced the weird power of this phenomenon.
All it takes is a gaze that seems to be unfriendly, indifferent or blank that seems to last a couple of seconds too long. Perhaps an image of the person staring at us preoccupies our thoughts occasionally for the rest of the day. The British and Scottish term for the "evil eye" is "overlooking," which implies that a gaze has remained too long upon the coveted object, person or animal.
Often referred to as the envious or invidious eye, the evil eye is also known as mal occhio in Italian, mal ojo in Spanish, ayin boreh in Hebrew, ayin barsha in Arabic, droch shuil in Scottish, mauvais oeil in French, bosen Blick in German and oculus mains among the classical Romans.
The original belief is that any evidence of your prosperity children, livestock, fruit trees will be spoiled just by looking at your goodwill and hard work with envy. Ironically, the curse of the evil eye is thought to be provoked by inappropriate displays of spiritual pride or excessive beauty. There is a theory that celebrities suffer more personal malfortune than others simply because they are subjected to more "overlooking" and envy than others.
This superstition might have some grounding in evolutionary psychology as usually one animal is thought to dominate another simply by staring at it for too long. Apparently, there is a fine line between casting a glance and casting a spell. In these post- Celestine Prophecy times, this kind of stare could be compared to an etheric laser beam or amoebic arm that rips open your aura. Others would describe the infliction of the evil eye as the projection of an image such as the image of the person you have offended or hurt so that you see only that to the exclusion of all other sight.
In other words, you see that person wherever you go or feel that your life's events are always colored by your dealings with that person. Another symptom is the inability to proceed with ordinary, daily events without feeling somehow com- pelled to make things right with the person you have often unknowingly offended with your grandiosity. It is common folklore that the evil eye has a dehy- drating effect on its victim. Vomiting, diarrhea, problems with the blood and eyesight, impotence in men, clumsiness, stomachaches, dry coughs, itching, hair loss and dry skin are all thought to be physical symptoms of an evil eye attack.
On the astral level it is thought to cause the drying up of prana, chi, life force and the easy flow of prosperity in life. Muddy, murky or poisoned vision that is somehow attached to the victim's Third Eye also accounts for the sudden inability to make wise decisions. Almost everywhere that the evil eye belief exists, it is said to be caused accidentally by envy or praise. Thus the phrase "Pride Goeth Before a Fall. A classic situation would be the barren woman who praises a newborn baby. Also, she may speak ill of her child to counteract the malefic effects of the praise.
The belief that individuals have the power to cast the evil eye on purpose is more idiosyncratic to Sicily and Southern Italy, although the belief has certainly spread elsewhere—to the southern United States and the Latin Americas. Such people are known nsjetta- tore projectors. They are not necessarily considered evil or envious, just born with an embarrassing talent that causes others to avoid them. In ancient cultures, if you were thought to be the possessor of an evil eye, you were often negated by a society that refused to meet your gaze. Perhaps one of the most familiar preventative measures against the evil eye is the hand gesture.
The mano cornuto or "horned hand" involves extending the pinky and index fingers from a fist. The mano fico or "gig hand" involves placing the thumb in between the first and second fingers. Historically there have been many cures for the evil eye: In Italy, the evil eye is diagnosed by dripping olive oil into a vessel filled with water. Prayers are recited until the droplets of oil no longer create an eye shape in the water. In Eastern Europe, charcoal, coal or burned match heads are dropped into a pan of water.
If the items float then the person is considered to be the victim of a curse. In the Ukraine, a form of ceromancy or candle reading is used to diagnose the curse. Melted wax is dripped from a candle into a pan of water. Usually the patient is cleansed with Holy Water. When the dripped wax sinks to the bottom of the bowl in a round ball, the victim is cured. In Greece and Mexico, the official cure is to invite the culprit responsible for the evil eye to spit in a vessel of the Holy Water that is consumed by the victim.
In Mexico, rolling a raw egg over the body of the victim is the antidote. It is cracked open and if the metaphysician or healer scries the shape of an eye in the yolks then the person is considered cursed. In China, the remedy for the evil eye is the Pa Kua mirror, a six-sided mirror that is hung on the front door or placed in the front window to reverse bad energy back to the sender.
Some of these mirrors are convex to reflect back the bad "poison darts" or "arrows" of multiple ill-wishers, and some are concave to reflect energy back to a known enemy such as a nosy neighbor.
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In Feng Shui, mirrors are often used as a cure-all to reflect negative energy back at all kinds of things—people, bad architecture, traffic, neighbors, physical obstructions such as trees or rocks or anything else that might be considered a conductor of Har Shui negative vibrations. In India, the mirroring back of the evil eye takes the form of small mirrors that are sewn, braided or crocheted into clothing.
This mirroring back of bad energy is also familiar to practitioners of Wicca, Yoruba and Santeria. In India, the human eye is also considered the mirror of the soul. In India, cords strung with blue beads are placed on newborn babies. When the cord breaks and the bead is lost the child is considered to have a strong enough aura to protect him or herself from the evil eye. Red cords worn upon the wrist or neck in general is thought to have a powerful effect against ocular malevolence.
A silver charm called Eye of Buddha which references the Gautama Buddha is also worn against astral attack. In Italy, gold, silver or gems carved or cast into the shape of the mano fica or memo cornuta are used to repel evil. The most: coveted ones are made of red coral, but many versions exist today made of gem- stones and plastic. They are worn by men to protect against the withering of the genitals thought to be caused by the evil eye. Also Italian in origin is the corno, horn or devil's horn amulet which is thought to protect against the same dysfunction.
The women's version is made from a twig of red coral. In Arab cultures, superstitious types wear an eye in the form of a stone cast in the center of a hand- shaped bone or metal charm. A common Egyptian charm is the Buckle of Isis which represents the men- strual pad of the Goddess Isis who was the nurturer of all living things. Stuffing a little prayer or spell inside a locket that is hung around the neck is the common European custom for protecting oneself against deadly gazes.
A lightworker such as myself might advise you to protect yourself in the following contemporary ways: Always maintain the belief that nobody has the power to hurt you with a look. This, in itself, is a very powerful thought form. Before you go out, imagine that your Third Eye is actually covered by something that looks like a small pocket mirror. If you are a psychic or a healer then simply close your Third Eye and don't open it unless you want to look.
If you are feeling haunted or upset as the result of a "look," press your thumb hard into the center of your forehead and imagine your Third Eye quickly flipping. Flick the energy away with your thumb and snap your fingers. Always remember that what you resist often per- sists. The phrase "Oh, so what! Witchcraft is one of the most popular and accessible forms used to practice psychic aggression today I define it as any process where a ritual is used to will- fully direct bad energy at an individual. This ritual can be employed by an individual or the result of a group mind.
The basic intent is to control, dominate or bend the will of the intended victim. Not all practitioners use witchcraft in harmful or misguided ways. However, it is the weapon of choice when it conies to astral assault for followers of Minoan, Wiccan, Alexandrian, Gardinarian, Yoraban, Santerian, Tibetan Occultist and even certain prayer circles. There are two basic methodologies that are used in witchcraft to practice psychic aggression: Sympathetic magic where the practitioner uses objects such as poppets, candles or other charged objects to reinvent a simulacrum of the situation.
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A spirit attack. In this instance, the metaphysicist has developed the ability to summon and send spirits to torture the intended victim. This may involve the sacrifice of animals or offerings to a God or Spirit. It is important to note here that a witch does not always look like a witch. Every religion in the world practices some form of ritual—usually with fire or water—that is intended to intrude and affect the destiny of the object of the ritual.
Despite the progress of civilization, such rituals have become manifold and diversified prayers are essentially spells. Anyone involved in any religion is dealing with an intermediary soul priest, seer, medium whose sole purpose is to channel energies, spirits and entities from the supernatural world. Unfortunately, as long as humankind continues to try to manifest a God on Earth, there will always be a Hitler. Almost all black magic originates from the intention to make "things right" or restore justice to a situation for religious reasons.
Most people have an irresistible need to belong to a cult-like following or be part of a group mind that is larger than the individual. The pitfall of this need of human nature is that although there is indeed great power in group mind, absolute power almost inevitably corrupts.
Unfortunately, there does seem to be some scien- tific evidence to back up the idea that the prayers or wishes of a group often outweigh the prayers or wishes of an individual. Thus, the popularity of prayer circles on the Internet. However, when the positive intent is reversed to negative intent the effect is said to some- times have deadly results. Not all psychic aggression originates from an abyss of hate, envy, revenge and a craving to do harm and get away with it. Sometimes the ritual is done as the group or individual is presupposing what is best for you.
The classic example of this is the mother who gets a break-up candle from the local occult shop to try to break up her daughter's marriage to an abuser. Another example is the individual who prays to a saint that her husband stop drinking. Whenever you pray, pray for that person's highest good. Otherwise, you may be preventing them from learning valuable life lessons or experiencing their karma.
Unfortunately, many groups or religions have followers that consider themselves to be the divinely appointed agents of karma. The minute anyone approaches you and offers to take responsibility for your soul or claims to know what is best for your karma, consider it a psychic attack. The problem with white magic is that although it doesn't intend to harm others, the energy that it draws upon for its positive purposes has to come from somewhere.
Crummy, yet well-meaning metaphysi- cians are always drawing it from the wrong places. As in the days just before Noah's ark, the earth is once again polluted with magic. Psychic offenders who practice black magic essentially are extracting malefic energies from the etheric realms and directing them towards a victim. The victim's vital physical and emotional functions are affected until the perpetrator gets his or her way.
The following is a list of the most popular reasons why individuals and groups feel justified in practicing sympathetic or spirit magic. Most are based on what are called "baby fears"—fear of abandonment, smothering and starving. There are millions of rituals and spells out there that can be obtained to accomplish these purposes. There are also as many schools of magic as there are branches on The Tree of Life. However, some of the more common of these rituals or spells have similar formats.
One of the most innocuous forms of astral attack is the presentation of a charged token or item that is meant to be a gift to the victim. This object may have been prayed over, or contain a spirit that is intended to attach the energies of the victim to the group. Beware strangers bearing gifts. Over-familiarity and charm is the first line of attack of the witch or the shaman. Gifts are often given to create a sympathetic link to you. Also prevent anyone who you suspect of astrally attacking you from entering your home, fondling or touching your personal objects.
Especially avoid giving them a photograph and never let them in your bathroom where they may have access to items such as a lock of your hair. Also, do not let them know your full name or birthdate as this information can be used to make a ritual more accurate. Any of your personal body fluids or items may be used in sympathetic magic. Usually these objects are placed around candles or used to create a poppet. A poppet is an image made in your likeness that is intended to represent you. Like a voodoo doll it can be stuck full of pins, thrown into flames, placed in a bottle, bound with ribbons or thrown into the freezer.
The intent of these rituals is to hurt, burn, trap, stop and paralyze you in your tracks. Witches of any sort also recognize the power of the word and its impact on the collective unconscious. Incantations may be used to affect the vibrations around you. For this reason it is important to keep suspected practitioners on a "need to know" only basis with regards to your personal life.
This is done using candle burning or offerings in a place of worship or at a graveyard. Sometimes a medium is used as a conduit for those energies that: will be sent to the victim. If it's any comfort, usually the practitioner is indebted to the god or goddess for life for such favors. The most malevolent and powerful form of attack involves the invocation of spirits. In most schools of magic this is done using a cast circle or talismans from the Book of Solomon. In Yoruba and Santeria the same is accomplished using offerings to ancestors and dead beings.
The idea is to disturb the dead and instruct the spirit to bother, attack or haunt you. By ritually sacrificing living beings they summon inferior entities called "elementals" or demons—the so-called "spirits of Hell. In certain Celtic cults of magic, spirits are sum- moned from nature and are called elementals. Drawing down a spirit that deals with fire, for instance, might cause you to be plagued with toothaches, fevers, flashes in the pan, inflamed passions, bad tempers and relationships that suddenly end. Egyptian, Celtic, Yoruban, Santerian and Buddist occultists are highly experienced in the art of creating a thought form.
For instance, an experienced Tibetan occultist can use shakti or root energy to bring an evil thought into existence. This is one of the creepiest forms of magic and the hardest for the healer to diagnose as a problem. This practice involves the misuse of meditation and manifestation techniques to create an energy or actual life form from out of the ethereal matrix. A well-trained yogi can actually manipulate or shatter objects from a great distance by creating the meta- physical equivalent of a poison arrow. Also, Buddhist shamans and witches are adept at using their powers to invade individuals through their chakras.
One common approach is to visualize a hologram of the desired situation and then open the victim's crown chakra. This is all done with thought forms. Some rituals involve the visualization of hooks, knives, arrows, daggers and darts into the victim's body. In sympathetic magic, this might actually be acted out using a poppet or a voodoo doll. Another common format uses your own energy against you. Usually known as a "binding spell," this kind of magic can involve the winding of cords around a photograph, picture or poppet of the victim.
Highly experienced metaphysicians can do this using malevolent visualizations: a ton of bricks falling or walls with steel spikes closing in on you. They might try to create some form of a "Devil's Snare": the more you try to use your own energy to fight against the prevailing trends, the more the energy will constrict and immobilize you. Binding is used in everything from curses to love spells. You can use binding magic to do something for example, attract good luck or not to do some- thing stop smoking.
You can bind a person to a person, an object to a person, or a person to an abstract concept, or any combination of the three. Not every binding is bound to a person. Sometimes "cursed objects" are bound to prevent them from harming another. This is, by far, one of the most mis- understood techniques of witchcraft.
Thus, they think it's performed rarely—but behind the scenes on the astral plane, I'd say that at least half of modern spells in existence use binding of some sort. Most witches don't get close enough to their victims to practice a direct psychic attack. When they do, drugs, alcohol and either substances are commonly used so that the witch can get close enough to you to develop a sympathetic connection or even do a ritual with you sitting in front of them.
For instance, a coercive love spell might be to light a glass of rum on fire and then get you to drink it. In return, your predator would smoke a cigar. Little would you know that you are taking part in an offering being made to one of the goddesses in the Santeria pantheon. The indirect psychic attack is more common. In most cases, people never find out that during a certain period of their life they were subject to some aggressive and destructive energetic emissions. The worst thing about witchcraft is not only the damage that it does to the victims, but the damage it does to its aggressors.
The issue of protection from the gods is huge in certain cultures, simply because it is acknowledged that there is no gain without some kind of pain. Psychic aggression is like cutting off your nose to spite your face. What is alarming to me is the availability of the oral tradition and the number of dangerous amateur shamans and budding witchlets out there who are constantly creating negative thought forms and practicing black magic, yet constantly failing to achieve their aims.
Many times the aggressor takes action while in a state of emotional panic, which is antithetical to the practice of focused magical protocol. The evil in this world is not due only to human stupidity and weakness. It is the cumulative effect of malevolent entities that have been summoned up by these practitioners. They feed off of negative emotions and energies. These entities tend to urge people to produce bad energy for themselves, and those around them. The typical amateur shaman or witch is highly receptive to negative suggestions and are encouraged by these thought forms to put magic into action without regrets.
Even people who do not believe in witchcraft can be a victim of this astral pollution. Telepathic induction is a hallmark of the witch's aggression. The victim that is not aware often passively bears the malignant energy sent to him. The consequences of this dirty practice may be: death, mutilation, accidents, psychic destruction, ruin of health, or loss of dear persons, assets or relationships. No matter how "realistic" we may be, we have to observe the coincidence of such "appearances" with the beginning of miserable periods in our lives.
The person who suffers attacks by black magic experiences the following: depression, headaches in the cervical region at the back of the head and in the occipital regions at the temples , faintness, nausea, hives, diarrhea, pins and needles, smelling strange odors, a tightness in the solar plexus, anxiety, hallucinations, clumsiness, vision distortion, inability to concentrate and impotence or lack of sex drive. Other symptoms include: phobia of known things, fear of leaving the house, nightmares, lifting your arms or arching your back while asleep, talking angrily to yourself, excessive hand gestures, losing emotions for those dear to you, obsession with coincidences, compulsive thoughts about death, diminution of the ability to perceive between good and evil, inability to make a decision, losing objects, poltergeist activity, problems with electricity or electronics, stopped clocks and watches, drained batteries and sudden accidents.
If you are suffering from five or more of the above symptoms it is possible you are experiencing an astral attack. However, physical symptoms should be checked out by a doctor before you assume the culprit is the occult. If you experience the symptoms above, make a mental effort to detect the source of the evil you feel and identify the aggressors.
You don't always have to fight fire with fire. Sometimes you can put a fire out with water. Ways to redress the situation might be counseling, meditation, use of affirmations and positive thinking. If persons affected by psychic aggressions cannot succeed in annihilating evil by their own effort, they should appeal to people able to help them. Many doctors, psychologists, priests, monks, biotherapists, clairvoyants and parapsychologists can recognize the symptoms of psychic aggression and take measures to counteract it.
However, a word to the wise: there is an impressively large number of impostors who claim to have the "healing gift. The servants of "white magic" pretend to be the opponents of the "devilish, black magic. The purpose of witchcraft seems to be to create a state of anti-grace, which suspends individuals and protects them from being granted grace according to the Divine Laws of the Great Being of Light. Once again, remember, that what you resist, seems to persist.
However, in theory, there is no such thing as negative or positive energy, only energy that is misused, abused or generated to create an imbalance in the universe. The key to handling attacks that are the deliberate result of witchcraft is to find a way to rise above it, so that it has no effect on you. As witchcraft is an artifice, something that is not of itself, it is easily negated by the power of Divine Love.
It is created by humans, somewhat like theater on a stage, and nothing kills a bad play faster than a lack of audience. As the sages say, the opposite of hate is not love, it is indifference. The imagination of the powerless is the most powerful imagination of all. For that reason, those who are desperate seem to be the most adept at creating negative thought forms.
Their desires to bring certain negative events into reality are further charged by subconscious sex, death and primal drives as well as negative emotions such as fear, doubt, anxiety, anger and resentment. Negative emotions are the energy that animates thought forms and causes them to manifest as your reality. Many of the situations that occur in our lives are simply Medusa's mirrors. Mostly what is wanting in our own lives, is reflected in the lack of love or support we receive from others.
Negative situations or people are reflections of a Frankenstein we have created, and whose arrival we have dreaded for quite some time. There is a theory that negative words and language adversely affect the subconscious mind. People inadvertently curse each other all the time by fretting over worst-case scenarios and naming situations in a way that acts almost like the opposite of a positive affirmation.
A good example is a mother saying to a daughter "If you don't lose weight, nobody is going to marry you. For this reason it is important to avoid people who are critical in their speech or masters of verbal abuse. They weaken your aura and make you more vulnerable to psychic invasion and astral attack. A major symptom of astral attack is having thoughts about one person, one guru, one matter or a single situation to the exclusion of all other thoughts.
This is evidence that another person has subtly tampered with the language of your subconscious. Talented channelers, shamans and witches can behave on the astral plane, much the same way a politician or the media does during a crisis. Through the process of naming, labeling and consistent visual- izing, they literally campaign and lobby the gods, angels, devils and karmic wheel to warp reality to their liking.
Whether or not such a consistent appeal works all depends on the strength and health of your aura and your ability to tune out their low-level vibrations. Fortunately, most astral attacks of this type do occur at a mundane place on the spiritual plane. Some refer to this as casting the problem upon "the Christ consciousness," or throwing it into the violet flame a metaphor for the transmutation of negative energy into positive energy. The idea is to use your thoughts as tools to rise above the situation. Negativity has no power over you if you refuse to give it power.
This process is usually reinforced with a variety of positive creative visualizations, prayers and mantras. Our imaging faculties are quite powerful. This is why it is essential to keep our perspectives positive and realize that we have the free will to choose what we think about from moment to moment. Believe it or not, you are not at: the mercy of your emotions or thoughts. You have the ability to clear your internal landscapes of any unwanted scenarios or guests.
This is usually done through the practice of meditation. My own interest in this subject came about as the result of having to deal with a shattered aura. In , I contracted a bad case of encephalitis inflammation of the brain lining caused by an allergic reaction to a spider bite near my ear. Encephalitis is a disease that slowly abnegates and shuts down your senses one by one. During the worst: phase of it I had lost possession of all my five senses and came to know a mind void of thought that could be compared to years of accelerated meditation.
It is during this phase of my life that I believe I rapidly developed a kind of sixth sense to compensate for the other missing senses. Until I learned to manage that condition, I found myself becoming a magnet for sordid events and plain bad luck. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters.
Sort order. Dec 07, Elly Helcl rated it liked it. I was really hoping for a more descriptive book. Instead it skipped over the "sensitive" scenes and left you with mere glimpses of why these women deserved retribution. Over all, this was a good book that I would recommend to people looking for a softer book. For me, when a books entire theme is focused on a bunch of women who have been brutalized, I want to know what happened. The snippets weren't enough for me. Well written, interesting book though. Like I said, I would recommend this to the rea I was really hoping for a more descriptive book.
Like I said, I would recommend this to the readers who want an emotional book without the shock value. Maricela Lopez rated it liked it Dec 11, Jenny Mayotte rated it it was amazing Dec 26, Franklin marked it as to-read May 13, Bev marked it as to-read Jun 11, BookishBelle added it Sep 09, Anastasia Johnson marked it as to-read Feb 01, John Winston marked it as to-read Apr 20, For not understanding the true force of the term, that ungenerate signifies nothing more than not having come into being, and that not coming into being is a common property of all that transcends created nature, they drop their faith in the Father , and substitute for Father the phrase ungenerate: and since, as has been said, the Personal existence of the Only-begotten is not connoted in this name, they determine the existence of the Son to have commenced from some definite beginning in time, affirming what Eunomius here adds to his previous statements that He is called Son not without generation preceding His existence.
What is this vain juggling with words? Is he aware that it is God of Whom he speaks, Who was in the beginning and is in the Father , nor was there any time when He was not? He knows not what he says nor whereof he affirms , but he endeavours, as though he were constructing the pedigree of a mere man, to apply to the Lord of all creation the language which properly belongs to our nature here below. For, to take an example, Ishmael was not before the generation that brought him into being, and before his birth there was of course an interval of time.
But with Him Who is the brightness of glory , before and after have no place: for before the brightness, of course neither was there any glory , for concurrently with the existence of the glory there assuredly beams forth its brightness; and it is impossible in the nature of things that one should be severed from the other, nor is it possible to see the glory by itself before its brightness.
For he who says thus will make out the glory in itself to be dark and dim, if the brightness from it does not shine out at the same time. But this is the unfair method of the heresy , to endeavour, by the notions and terms employed concerning the Only-begotten God , to displace Him from His oneness with the Father. It is to this end they say, Before the generation that brought Him into being He was not Son: but the sons of rams , of whom the prophet speaks — are not they too called sons after coming into being?
That quality, then, which reason notices in the sons of rams, that they are not sons of rams before the generation which brings them into being — this our reverend divine now ascribes to the Maker of the worlds and of all creation, Who has the Eternal Father in Himself, and is contemplated in the eternity of the Father , as He Himself says, I am in the Father , and the Father in Me.
Those, however, who are not able to detect the sophistry that lurks in his statement, and are not trained to any sort of logical perception, follow these inconsequent statements and receive what comes next as a logical consequence of what preceded. For he says, coming into being before all creation, and as though this were not enough to prove his impiety, he has a piece of profanity in reserve in the phrase that follows, when he terms the Son not uncreate. In what sense then does he call Him Who is not uncreate very Son? For if it is meet to call Him Who is not uncreate very Son, then of course the heaven is very Son; for it too is not uncreate.
So the sun too is very Son, and all that the creation contains, both small and great, are of course entitled to the appellation of very Son. And in what sense does He call Him Who has come into being Only-begotten? For all things that come into being are unquestionably in brotherhood with each other, so far, I mean, as their coming into being is concerned.
And from whom did He come into being? For assuredly all things that have ever come into being did so from the Son. For thus did John testify, saying, All things were made by Him. If then the Son also came into being, according to Eunomius' creed, He is certainly ranked in the class of things which have come into being. If then all things that came into being were made by Him, and the Word is one of the things that came into being, who is so dull as not to draw from these premises the absurd conclusion that our new creed-monger makes out the Lord of creation to have been His own work, in saying in so many words that the Lord and Maker of all creation is not uncreate?
Let him tell us whence he has this boldness of assertion. From what inspired utterance? What evangelist , what apostle ever uttered such words as these? What prophet , what lawgiver, what patriarch, what other person of all who were divinely moved by the Holy Ghost , whose voices are preserved in writing, ever originated such a statement as this?
In the tradition of the faith delivered by the Truth we are taught to believe in Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. If it were right to believe that the Son was created, how was it that the Truth in delivering to us this mystery bade us believe in the Son , and not in the creature? And how is it that the inspired Apostle, himself adoring Christ, lays it down that they who worship the creature besides the Creator are guilty of idolatry? For, were the Son created, either he would not have worshipped Him, or he would have refrained from classing those who worship the creature along with idolaters, lest he himself should appear to be an idolater, in offering adoration to the created.
Why then do those who divorce the Son from the essence of the Father , and call Him creature, bestow on Him in mockery the fictitious title of Deity, idly conferring on one alien from true Divinity the name of God , as they might confer it on Bel or Dagon or the Dragon? Let those, therefore, who affirm that He is created, acknowledge that He is not God at all, that they may be seen to be nothing but Jews in disguise, or, if they confess one who is created to be God , let them not deny that they are idolaters.
But of course they bring forward the passage in the book of Proverbs which says, The Lord created Me as the beginning of His ways, for His works. Now it would require a lengthy discussion to explain fully the real meaning of the passage: still it would be possible even in a few words to convey to well-disposed readers the thought intended. Some of those who are accurately versed in theology do say this, that the Hebrew text does not read created, and we have ourselves read in more ancient copies possessed instead of created. But if any one should allege in this passage the reading which prevails in the Churches , we do not reject even the expression created.
Thus we say that this expression, as well as the other, admits of an orthodox interpretation. For He Who for our sakes became like as we are, was in the last days truly created — He Who in the beginning being Word and God afterwards became Flesh and Man. For thus it is that He, Who said I am the Way , becomes to us who have put Him on the beginning of the ways of salvation , that He may make us the work of His own hands, new modelling us from the evil mould of sin once more to His own image.
For it is possible, according to the usage of the Book of Proverbs, for each of these phrases, taken in a tropical sense, to be applied to the Word. For the great David calls righteousness the mountains of God , His judgments deeps , and the teachers in the Churches fountains, saying Bless God the Lord from the fountains of Israel ; and guilelessness he calls hills, as he shows when he speaks of their skipping like lambs. Before these therefore is born in us He Who for our sakes was created as man, that of these things also the creation may find place in us.
But we may, I think, pass from the discussion of these points, inasmuch as the truth has been sufficiently pointed out in a few words to well-disposed readers; let us proceed to what Eunomius says next. Existing in the Beginning, he says, not without beginning. In what fashion does he who plumes himself on his superior discernment understand the oracles of God?
He declares Him Who was in the beginning Himself to have a beginning: and is not aware that if He Who is in the beginning has a beginning, then the Beginning itself must needs have another beginning. Whatever He says of the beginning he must necessarily confess to be true of Him Who was in the beginning: for how can that which is in the beginning be severed from the beginning? And how can any one imagine a was not as preceding the was? For however far one carries back one's thought to apprehend the beginning, one most certainly understands as one does so that the Word which was in the beginning inasmuch as It cannot be separated from the beginning in which It is does not at any point of time either begin or cease its existence therein.
Yet let no one be induced by these words of mine to separate into two the one beginning we acknowledge. For the beginning is most assuredly one, wherein is discerned, indivisibly, that Word Who is completely united to the Father. He who thus thinks will never leave heresy a loophole to impair his piety by the novelty of the term ungenerate. But in Eunomius' next propositions his statements are like bread with a large admixture of sand. For by mixing his heretical opinions with sound doctrines, he makes uneatable even that which is in itself nutritious, by the gravel which he has mingled with it.
For he calls the Lord living wisdom, operative truth , subsistent power, and life :— so far is the nutritious portion. But into these assertions he instils the poison of heresy. For when he speaks of the life as generate he makes a reservation by the implied opposition to the ungenerate life, and does not affirm the Son to be the very Life. Next he says:— As Son of God , quickening the dead, the true light, the light that lightens every man coming into the world , good, and the bestower of good things. All these things he offers for honey to the simple-minded, concealing his deadly drug under the sweetness of terms like these.
For he immediately introduces, on the heels of these statements, his pernicious principle, in the words Not partitioning with Him that begot Him His high estate, not dividing with another the essence of the Father , but becoming by generation glorious , yea, the Lord of glory , and receiving glory from the Father , not sharing His glory with the Father , for the glory of the Almighty is incommunicable, as He has said, 'My glory will I not give to another. The prophet speaks of the adversary of God , and Eunomius refers the prophecy to the only begotten God Himself!
For when the prophet , speaking in the person of God , had said, My glory will I not give to another, he added, neither My praise to graven images. For when men were beguiled to offer to the adversary of God the worship and adoration due to God alone, paying homage in the representations of graven images to the enemy of God , who appeared in many shapes among men in the forms furnished by idols , He Who heals them that are sick, in pity for men's ruin, foretold by the prophet the loving-kindness which in the latter days He would show in the abolishing of idols , saying, When My truth shall have been manifested, My glory shall no more be given to another, nor My praise bestowed upon graven images: for men, when they come to know My glory , shall no more be in bondage to them that by nature are no gods.
All therefore that the prophet says in the person of the Lord concerning the power of the adversary, this fighter against God , refers to the Lord Himself, Who spoke these words by the prophet! Who among the tyrants is recorded to have been such a persecutor of the faith as this? Who maintained such blasphemy as this, that He Who, as we believe , was manifested in the flesh for the salvation of our souls , is not very God , but the adversary of God , who puts his guile into effect against men by the instrumentality of idols and graven images? For it is what was said of that adversary by the prophet that Eunomius transfers to the only-begotten God , without so much as reflecting that it is the Only-begotten Himself Who spoke these words by the prophet , as Eunomius himself subsequently confesses when he says, this is He Who spoke by the prophets.
Why should I pursue this part of the subject in more detail? For the words preceding also are tainted with the same profanity — receiving glory from the Father , not sharing glory with the Father , for the glory of the Almighty God is incommunicable. For my own part, even had his words referred to Moses who was glorified in the ministration of the Law, — not even then should I have tolerated such a statement, even if it be conceded that Moses , having no glory from within, appeared completely glorious to the Israelites by the favour bestowed on him from God.
For the very glory that was bestowed on the lawgiver was the glory of none other but of God Himself, which glory the Lord in the Gospel bids all to seek, when He blames those who value human glory highly and seek not the glory that comes from God only. For by the fact that He commanded them to seek the glory that comes from the only God , He declared the possibility of their obtaining what they sought. How then is the glory of the Almighty incommunicable, if it is even our duty to ask for the glory that comes from the only God , and if, according to our Lord's word, every one that asks receives?
But one who says concerning the Brightness of the Father's glory , that He has the glory by having received it, says in effect that the Brightness of the glory is in Itself devoid of glory , and needs, in order to become Himself at last the Lord of some glory , to receive glory from another. To whom ought the hearer to give ear? Now among the all things, glory surely is included. Yet Eunomius says that the glory of the Almighty is incommunicable. This view Joel does not attest, nor yet the mighty Peter, who adopted, in his speech to the Jews , the language of the prophet. He then Who did not grudge the partaking in His own Spirit to all flesh — how can it be that He does not impart His own glory to the only-begotten Son, Who is in the bosom of the Father , Who has all things that the Father has?
Perhaps one should say that Eunomius is here speaking the truth , though not intending it. For the term impart is strictly used in the case of one who has not his glory from within, whose possession of it is an accession from without, and not part of his own nature: but where one and the same nature is observed in both Persons, He Who is as regards nature all that the Father is believed to be stands in no need of one to impart to Him each several attribute.
This it will be well to explain more clearly and precisely. He Who has the Father dwelling in Him in His entirety — what need has He of the Father's glory , when none of the attributes contemplated in the Father is withdrawn from Him? What, moreover, is the high estate of the Almighty in which Eunomius affirms that the Son has no share? But let us who reverence the Word and are disciples of the Truth, or rather who profess to be so, not leave even this assertion unsifted. We know that of all the names by which Deity is indicated some are expressive of the Divine majesty, employed and understood absolutely, and some are assigned with reference to the operations over us and all creation.
For when the Apostle says Now to the immortal , invisible, only wise God , and the like, by these titles he suggests conceptions which represent to us the transcendent power, but when God is spoken of in the Scriptures as gracious, merciful, full of pity, true , good, Lord, Physician, Shepherd, Way, Bread, Fountain, King, Creator, Artificer, Protector, Who is over all and through all, Who is all in all, these and similar titles contain the declaration of the operations of the Divine loving-kindness in the creation.
Those then who enquire precisely into the meaning of the term Almighty will find that it declares nothing else concerning the Divine power than that operation which controls created things and is indicated by the word Almighty, stands in a certain relation to something. For as He would not be called a Physician, save on account of the sick, nor merciful and gracious, and the like, save by reason of one who stood in need of grace and mercy, so neither would He be styled Almighty, did not all creation stand in need of one to regulate it and keep it in being.
As, then, He presents Himself as a Physician to those who are in need of healing, so He is Almighty over one who has need of being ruled: and just as they that are whole have no need of a physician , so it follows that we may well say that He Whose nature contains in it the principle of unerring and unwavering rectitude does not, like others, need a ruler over Him. Accordingly, when we hear the name Almighty, our conception is this, that God sustains in being all intelligible things as well as all things of a material nature. For this cause He sits upon the circle of the earth, for this cause He holds the ends of the earth in His hand, for this cause He metes out leaven with the span, and measures the waters in the hollow of His hand ; for this cause He comprehends in Himself all the intelligible creation, that all things may remain in existence controlled by His encompassing power.
Let us enquire, then, Who it is that works all in all. Who is He Who made all things, and without Whom no existing thing does exist? Who is He in Whom all things were created, and in Whom all things that are have their continuance? In Whom do we live and move and have our being? Who is He Who has in Himself all that the Father has?
Paul — our Lord Jesus Christ , Who, as He Himself says, holding in His hand all things that the Father has , assuredly grasps all things in the all-containing hollow of His hand and is sovereign over what He has grasped, and no man takes from the hand of Him Who in His hand holds all things? If, then, He has all things, and is sovereign over that which He has, why is He Who is thus sovereign over all things something else and not Almighty?
If heresy replies that the Father is sovereign over both the Son and the Holy Spirit , let them first show that the Son and the Holy Spirit are of mutable nature, and then over this mutability let them set its ruler, that by the help implanted from above, that which is so overruled may continue incapable of turning to evil. If, on the other hand, the Divine nature is incapable of evil , unchangeable, unalterable, eternally permanent, to what end does it stand in need of a ruler, controlling as it does all creation, and itself by reason of its immutability needing no ruler to control it?
For this cause it is that at the name of Christ every knee bows, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth. For assuredly every knee would not thus bow, did it not recognize in Christ Him Who rules it for its own salvation. But to say that the Son came into being by the goodness of the Father is nothing else than to put Him on a level with the meanest objects of creation.
For what is there that did not arrive at its birth by the goodness of Him Who made it? To what is the formation of mankind ascribed? To the badness of its Maker, or to His goodness? To what do we ascribe the generation of animals, the production of plants and herbs? There is nothing that did not take its rise from the goodness of Him Who made it. A property, then, which reason discerns to be common to all things, Eunomius is so kind as to allow to the Eternal Son!
But that He did not share His essence or His estate with the Father — these assertions and the rest of his verbiage I have refuted in anticipation, when dealing with his statements concerning the Father , and shown that he has hazarded them at random and without any intelligible meaning.
For not even in the case of us who are born one of another is there any division of essence. The definition expressive of essence remains in its entirety in each, in him that begets and in him who is begotten, without admitting diminution in him who begets, or augmentation in him who is begotten. But to speak of division of estate or sovereignty in the case of Him Who has all things whatsoever that the Father has, carries with it no meaning, unless it be a demonstration of the propounder's impiety.
It would therefore be superfluous to entangle oneself in such discussions, and so to prolong our treatise to an unreasonable length. Let us pass on to what follows. Glorified, he says, by the Father before the worlds. The word of truth has been demonstrated, confirmed by the testimony of its adversaries. For this is the sum of our faith , that the Son is from all eternity , being glorified by the Father: for before the worlds is the same in sense as from all eternity , seeing that prophecy uses this phrase to set forth to us God's eternity , when it speaks of Him as He that is from before the worlds.
If then to exist before the worlds is beyond all beginning, he who confers glory on the Son before the worlds, does thereby assert His existence from eternity before that glory : for surely it is not the non-existent, but the existent which is glorified. Then he proceeds to plant for himself the seeds of blasphemy against the Holy Spirit ; not with a view to glorify the Son , but that he may wantonly outrage the Holy Ghost. For with the intention of making out the Holy Spirit to be part of the angelic host, he throws in the phrase glorified eternally by the Spirit , and by every rational and generated being, so that there is no distinction between the Holy Spirit and all that comes into being; if, that is, the Holy Spirit glorifies the Lord in the same sense as all the other existences enumerated by the prophet , angels and powers, and the heaven of heavens, and the water above the heavens, and all the things of earth, dragons, deeps, fire and hail, snow and vapour, wind of the storm, mountains and all hills, fruitful trees and all cedars, beasts and all cattle, worms and feathered fowls.
If, then, he says, that along with these the Holy Spirit also glorifies the Lord, surely his God-opposing tongue makes out the Holy Spirit Himself also to be one of them. The disjointed incoherencies which follow next, I think it well to pass over, not because they give no handle at all to censure, but because their language is such as might be used by the devout, if detached from its malignant context. If he does here and there use some expressions favourable to devotion it is just held out as a bait to simple souls , to the end that the hook of impiety may be swallowed along with it.
For after employing such language as a member of the Church might use, he subjoins, Obedient with regard to the creation and production of all things that are, obedient with regard to every ministration, not having by His obedience attained Sonship or Godhead, but, as a consequence of being Son and being generated as the Only-begotten God , showing Himself obedient in words, obedient in acts. But by what sacred utterance was He ever taught His list of so many obediences? Whence, then, was Eunomius moved to ascribe in such manifold wise to the King of the universe the attribute of obedience , speaking of Him as obedient with regard to all the work of creation, obedient with regard to every ministration, obedient in words and in acts?
Yet it is plain to every one, that he alone is obedient to another in acts and words, who has not yet perfectly achieved in himself the condition of accurate working or unexceptionable speech, but keeping his eye ever on his teacher and guide, is trained by his suggestions to exact propriety in deed and word. But to think that Wisdom needs a master and teacher to guide aright Its attempts at imitation, is the dream of Eunomius' fancy, and of his alone.
And concerning the Father he says, that He is faithful in words and faithful in works, while of the Son he does not assert faithfulness in word and deed, but only obedience and not faithfulness, so that his profanity extends impartially through all his statements. But it is perhaps right to pass in silence over the inconsiderate folly of the assertion interposed between those last mentioned, lest some unreflecting persons should laugh at its absurdity when they ought rather to weep over the perdition of their souls , than laugh at the folly of their words.
For this wise and wary theologian says that He did not attain to being a Son as the result of His obedience! Mark his penetration! With what cogent force does he lay it down for us that He was not first obedient and afterwards a Son, and that we ought not to think that His obedience was prior to His generation! Now if he had not added this defining clause, who without it would have been sufficiently silly and idiotic to fancy that His generation was bestowed on Him by His Father, as a reward of the obedience of Him Who before His generation had showed due subjection and obedience?
But that no one may too readily extract matter for laughter from these remarks, let each consider that even the folly of the words has in it something worthy of tears. For what he intends to establish by these observations is something of this kind, that His obedience is part of His nature, so that not even if He willed it would it be possible for Him not to be obedient. For he says that He was so constituted that His nature was adapted to obedience alone , just as among instruments that which is fashioned with regard to a certain figure necessarily produces in that which is subjected to its operation the form which the artificer implanted in the construction of the instrument, and cannot possibly trace a straight line upon that which receives its mark, if its own working is in a curve; nor can the instrument, if fashioned to draw a straight line, produce a circle by its impress.
What need is there of any words of ours to reveal how great is the profanity of such a notion, when the heretical utterance of itself proclaims aloud its monstrosity? For if He was obedient for this reason only that He was so made, then of course He is not on an equal footing even with humanity, since on this theory, while our soul is self-determining and independent, choosing as it will with sovereignty over itself that which is pleasing to it, He on the contrary exercises, or rather experiences, obedience under the constraint of a compulsory law of His nature, while His nature suffers Him not to disobey, even if He would.
For it was as the result of being Son, and being begotten, that He has thus shown Himself obedient in words and obedient in acts. Alas, for the brutish stupidity of this doctrine! You make the Word obedient to words, and suppose other words prior to Him Who is truly the Word, and another Word of the Beginning is mediator between the Beginning and the Word that was in the Beginning, conveying to Him the decision.
And this is not one only: there are several words, which Eunomius makes so many links of the chain between the Beginning and the Word, and which abuse His obedience as they think good. But what need is there to linger over this idle talk? Any one can see that even at that time with reference to which S. If then not even in the time of His Passion He is separated from His authority, where can heresy possibly discern the subordination to authority of the King of glory?
Again, what is the manifold mediation which with wearying iteration he assigns to God , calling Him Mediator in doctrines, Mediator in the Law? It is not thus that we are taught by the lofty utterance of the Apostle, who says that having made void the law of commandments by His own doctrines, He is the mediator between God and man , declaring it by this saying, There is one God , and one mediator between God and man , the man Christ Jesus ; where by the distinction implied in the word mediator he reveals to us the whole aim of the mystery of godliness.
Now the aim is this. Humanity once revolted through the malice of the enemy, and, brought into bondage to sin , was also alienated from the true Life. After this the Lord of the creature calls back to Him His own creature, and becomes Man while still remaining God , being both God and Man in the entirety of the two several natures, and thus humanity was indissolubly united to God , the Man that is in Christ conducting the work of mediation, to Whom, by the first-fruits assumed for us, all the lump is potentially united. But even by the idea of a mediator we are taught the godly doctrine enshrined in the Creed.
For the Mediator between God and man entered as it were into fellowship with human nature , not by being merely deemed a man , but having truly become so: in like manner also, being very God , He has not, as Eunomius will have us consider, been honoured by the bare title of Godhead. What he adds to the preceding statements is characterized by the same want of meaning, or rather by the same malignity of meaning.
For in calling Him Son Whom, a little before, he had plainly declared to be created, and in calling Him only begotten God Whom he reckoned with the rest of things that have come into being by creation, he affirms that He is like Him that begot Him only by a special likeness, in a peculiar sense.
Accordingly, we must first distinguish the significations of the term like, in how many senses it is employed in ordinary use, and afterwards proceed to discuss Eunomius' positions. In the first place, then, all things that beguile our senses, not being really identical in nature, but producing illusion by some of the accidents of the respective subjects, as form, color, sound, and the impressions conveyed by taste or smell or touch, while really different in nature, but supposed to be other than they truly are, these custom declares to have the relation of likeness, as, for example, when the lifeless material is shaped by art, whether carving, painting, or modelling, into an imitation of a living creature, the imitation is said to be like the original.
For in such a case the nature of the animal is one thing, and that of the material, which cheats the sight by mere color and form, is another.
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To the same class of likeness belongs the image of the original figure in a mirror, which gives appearances of motion, without, however, being in nature identical with its original. In just the same way our hearing may experience the same deception, when, for instance, some one, imitating the song of the nightingale with his own voice, persuades our hearing so that we seem to be listening to the bird. Taste, again, is subject to the same illusion, when the juice of figs mimics the pleasant taste of honey: for there is a certain resemblance to the sweetness of honey in the juice of the fruit.
So, too, the sense of smell may sometimes be imposed upon by resemblance, when the scent of the herb camomile, imitating the fragrant apple itself, deceives our perception: and in the same way with touch also, likeness belies the truth in various modes, since a silver or brass coin, of equal size and similar weight with a gold one, may pass for the gold piece if our sight does not discern the truth. We have thus generally described in a few words the several cases in which objects, because they are deemed to be different from what they really are, produce delusions in our senses.
It is possible, of course, by a more laborious investigation, to extend one's enquiry through all things which are really different in kind one from another, but are nevertheless thought, by virtue of some accidental resemblance, to be like one to the other. Can it possibly be such a form of likeness as this, that he is continually attributing to the Son?