Add to Wishlist. USD 0. Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Explore Now. Buy As Gift. Einen Augenblick bleibt er unter dem Fenster stehen. Wohin soll ich sonst? Die sind bald alle. Product Details About the Author. Februar in Berlin war ein deutscher Schriftsteller. Der Welterfolg Kleiner Mann — was nun? Show More. Average Review. Write a Review. At the time of Fallada's death in February , aged 53, from a weakened heart from years of addiction to morphine, alcohol and other drugs, he had recently completed Every Man Dies Alone , an anti-fascist novel based on the true story of a German couple, Otto and Elise Hampel , who were executed for producing and distributing anti-Nazi material in Berlin during the war.
Fallada died just weeks before the publication of this final novel, he was buried in Pankow , a borough of Berlin, but was later moved to Carwitz where he had lived from till After Fallada's death, because of possible neglect and continuing addiction on the part of his second wife and sole heir, many of his unpublished works were lost or sold. Fallada remained a popular writer in Germany after his death.
But, although Little Man, What Now? Other German writers who had quit the country when Hitler rose to power felt disgust for those such as Fallada who had remained, compromising their work under the Nazi regime. Most notable of these critics was Fallada's contemporary Thomas Mann , who had fled Nazi repression early on and lived abroad, he expressed harsh condemnation for writers like Fallada, who though opponents of Nazism made concessions which compromised their work.
A stench of blood and shame attaches to them, they should all be pulped. Note: Translations made by E. Sutton and P. Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from to The name derives from the city of Weimar ; the official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from , because of the German tradition of substates. Although translated as " German Empire ", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself; the Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic.
In English, the country was known as Germany. Germany became a de facto republic on 9 November when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the German and Prussian thrones with no agreement made on a succession by his son Crown Prince Wilhelm , became a de jure republic in February when the position of President of Germany was created.
A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for Germany was written and adopted on 11 August In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation , political extremism as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War. Resentment in Germany towards the Treaty of Versailles was strong on the political right where there was great anger towards those who had signed the Treaty and submitted to fulfill the terms of it.
The Weimar Republic fulfilled most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles although it never met its disarmament requirements and paid only a small portion of the war reparations. Under the Locarno Treaties , Germany accepted the western borders of the country by abandoning irredentist claims on France and Belgium , but continued to dispute the eastern borders and sought to persuade German-speaking Austria to join Germany as one of Germany's states.
The Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Within months, the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of had brought about a state of emergency: it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitler's seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation; these events brought the republic to an end — as democracy collapsed, the founding of a single-party state began the dictatorship of the Nazi era.
The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, from 6 February to 11 August , but this name only became mainstream after Between and there was no single name for the new state that gained widespread acceptance, why the old name Deutsches Reich remained though hardly anyone used it during the Weimar period.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model and cringed to see the honour of the traditional word Reich associated with it. By , Deutsche Republik was used by most Germans, but for the anti-democratic right the word Republik was, along with the relocation of the seat of power to Weimar, a painful reminder of a government structure, imposed by foreign statesmen, along with the expulsion of Kaiser Wilhelm in the wake of massive national humiliation; the first recorded mention of the term Republik von Weimar came during a speech delivered by Adolf Hitler at a National Socialist German Worker's Party rally in Munich on 24 February —it was a few weeks that the term Weimarer Republik was first used in a newspaper article.
Only during the s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany.
According to historian Richard J. After the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were altered to reflect the political changes; the Weimar Republic without the symbols of the former Monarchy. This left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting.
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By reason of a decision of the Reich's Government I hereby announce, that the Imperial coat of arms on a gold-yellow shield shows the one headed black eagle, the head turned to the right, the wings open but with closed feathering, beak and claws in red color. If the Reich's Eagle is shown without a frame, the same charg. Beginning on 20 April , it passed to the administration of Schutzstaffel national leader Heinrich Himmler , who in was appointed Chief of German Police by Hitler; the Gestapo at this time became a national rather than a Prussian state agency as a suboffice of the Sicherheitspolizei.
From 27 September forward, it was administered by the Reichssicherheitshauptamt , it became known as Amt 4 of the RSHA and was considered a sister organisation to the Sicherheitsdienst. Diels was best known as the primary interrogator of Marinus van der Lubbe after the Reichstag fire. In late , the Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick wanted to integrate all the police forces of the German states under his control.
This represented a radical departure from German tradition, which held that law enforcement was a Land and local matter. In this, he ran into conflict with Heinrich Himmler, police chief of the second most powerful German state, Bavaria. With Frick's support, Himmler took over the political police of state after state. Soon only Prussia was left. On that date, Hitler appointed Himmler chief of all German police outside Prussia. Many of the Gestapo employees in the newly established offices were young and educated in a wide-variety of academic fields and moreover, represented a new generation of National Socialist adherents, who were hard-working and prepared to carry the Nazi state forward through the persecution of their political opponents.
Once persuaded, Hitler acted by setting Himmler's SS into action, who proceeded to murder over of Hitler's identified antagonists. The Gestapo supplied the information which implicated the SA and enabled Himmler and Heydrich to emancipate themselves from the organisation. On 17 June , Hitler decreed the unification of all police forces in Germany and named Himmler as Chief of German Police ; this action merged the police into the SS and removed it from Frick's control.
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The Gestapo became a national state agency. Himmler gained authority over all of Germany's uniformed law enforcement agencies, which were amalgama. It described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state", the territory was administered and occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II — the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement , bounded on the east by the Oder—Neisse line ; the Soviet zone did not include it. The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet zone, while the Federal Republic was established in the three western zones.
East Germany was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in , the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October However, Soviet forces remained in the country throughout the Cold War; until , the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party, though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany.
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The economy was centrally planned and state-owned. Prices of housing, basic goods and services were set by central government planners rather than rising and falling through supply and demand. Emigration to the West was a significant problem — as many of the emigrants were well-educated young people, it further weakened the state economically; the government fortified its western borders and, in , built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to flee were killed by border guards or booby traps, such as landmines.
Several others were imprisoned for many years. In , numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the establishment of a government committed to liberalisation; the following year, open elections were held, international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty on the status and borders of Germany.
Several of the GDR's leaders, notably its last communist leader Egon Krenz , were prosecuted in reunified Germany for crimes committed during the Cold War. The three sectors occupied by the Western nations were sealed off from the rest of the GDR by the Berlin Wall from its construction in until it was brought down in ; the official name was Deutsche Demokratische Republik abbreviated to DDR. Both terms were used in East Germany, with increasing usage of the abbreviated form since East Germany considered West Germans and West Berliners to be foreigners following the promulgation of its second constitution in West Germans, the western media and statesmen avoided the official name and its abbreviation, instead using terms like Ostzone, Sowjetische Besatzungszone, sogenannte DDR.
The centre of political power in East Berlin was referred to as Pankow. Over time, the abbreviation DDR was increasingly used colloquially by West Germans and West German media; the term Westdeutschland, when used by West Germans, was always a reference to the geographic region of Western Germany and not to the area within the boundaries of the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this use was not always consistent. Explaining the internal impact of the DDR regime from the perspective of German history in the long term, historian Gerhard A.
Ritter has argued that the East German state was defined by two dominant forces — Soviet Communism on the one hand, German traditions filtered through the interwar experiences of German Communists on the other. It always was constrained by the powerful example of the prosperous West, to which East Germans compared their nation. The changes wrought by the Communists were most apparent in ending capitalism and transforming industry and agriculture, in the militarization of society, in the political thrust of the educational system and the media. On the other hand, there was little change made in the independent domains of the sciences, the engineering professions, the Protestant churches, in many bourgeois lifestyles.
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Social policy, says Ritter, became a critical legitimization tool in the last decades and mixed socialist and traditional elements about equally. Shortly after the end of the war, their Gestapo file was given to German novelist Hans Fallada , their story inspired his novel, translated into English and published in as Every Man Dies Alone ; the story was filmed in as Alone in Berlin. Elise Lemme was born in the Bismark area of Stendal , her education lasted only through elementary school.
She was a member of the National Socialist Women's League ; the couple married in After learning that Elise's brother had been killed in action, the Hampels undertook efforts to encourage resistance against the Third Reich. From September until their arrest in Autumn , they hand-wrote over postcards, dropping them into mailboxes and leaving them in stairwells in Berlin near Wedding, where they lived. The postcards urged people to refuse to cooperate with the Nazis, to refrain from donating money, to refuse military service, to overthrow Hitler. Although nearly all the postcards were brought to the Gestapo, it took two years for the Gestapo to find the couple; the Hampels were arrested.
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Otto declared to the police that he was happy to be able to protest against Hitler and the Third Reich. Their life was fictionalized in the Hans Fallada novel, where they are called Otto and Anna Quangel, it is their son, killed, rather than the wife's brother; the English language version of the book published by Melville House Publishing includes an appendix containing some pages from the actual Gestapo file, including mug shots, signed confessions, police reports, several of the actual postcards used in the protest.
List of Germans who resisted Nazism. Nazi Party The National Socialist German Workers' Party referred to in English as the Nazi Party , was a far-right political party in Germany , active between and , that created and supported the ideology of National Socialism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party , existed from to ; the Nazi Party emerged from the German nationalist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany. Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business, anti-bourgeois , anti-capitalist rhetoric , although this was downplayed to gain the support of business leaders, in the s the party's main focus shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes.
Pseudo-scientific racist theories were central to Nazism, expressed in the idea of a "people's community"; the party aimed to unite "racially desirable" Germans as national comrades, while excluding those deemed either to be political dissidents, physically or intellectually inferior, or of a foreign race.
The Nazis sought to strengthen the Germanic people, the " Aryan master race", through racial purity and eugenics , broad social welfare programs, a collective subordination of individual rights, which could be sacrificed for the good of the state on behalf of the people. To protect the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews, Romani and most other Slavs , along with the physically and mentally handicapped, they disenfranchised and segregated homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses and political opponents.
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The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state set in motion the Final Solution—an industrial system of genocide which achieved the murder of an estimated 5. Hitler established a totalitarian regime known as the Third Reich. Following the defeat of the Third Reich at the conclusion of World War II in Europe , the party was "declared to be illegal" by the Allied powers, who carried out denazification in the years after the war.
Nazi, the informal and derogatory term for a party member, abbreviates the party's name, was coined in analogy with Sozi, an abbreviation of Sozialdemokrat. Members of the party referred to themselves as Nationalsozialisten as Nazis; the term Parteigenosse was used among Nazis, with its corresponding feminine form Parteigenossin. The term was in use before the rise of the party as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backward peasant, an awkward and clumsy person, it derived from Ignaz, a shortened version of Ignatius, a common name in the Nazis' home region of Bavaria.
Opponents seized on this, the long-existing Sozi, to attach a dismissive nickname to the National Socialists. In , when Adolf Hitler assumed power in the German government, the usage of "Nazi" diminished in Germany, although Austrian anti-Nazis continued to use the term, the use of "Nazi Germany" and "Nazi regime" was popularised by anti-Nazis and German exiles abroad.
In English, the term is not considered slang , has such derivatives as Nazism and denazification; the party grew out of smaller political groups with a nationalist orientation that formed in the last years of World War I. On 7 March , Anton Drexler , an avid German nationalist, formed a branch of this league in Munich. Drexler was a local locksmith , a member of the militarist Fatherland Party during World War I and was bitterly opposed to the armistice of November and the revolutionary upheavals that followed. Drexler followed the views of militant nationalists of the day, such as opposing the Treaty of Versailles , having antisemitic, anti-monarchist and anti-Marxist views, as well as believing in the superiority of Germans whom they claimed to be part of the Aryan "master race".
However, he accused international capitalism of being a Jewish-dominated movement and denounced capitalists for war profiteering in World War I. Drexler saw the political violence and instability in Germany as the result of the Weimar Republic being out-of-touch with the masses the lower classes. Drexler's movement received support from some influential figures. Supporter Dietrich Eckart , a well-to-do journalist, brought military figure Felix Graf von Bothmer , a prominent supporter of the concept of "national socialism", to address the movement.
In , Karl Harrer convinced Drexler and several others to form the Politischer Arbeiterzirkel ; the members met perio. It first appeared weekly daily from 8 February For twenty-four years it formed part of the official public face of the Nazi Party until its last edition at the end of April ; the paper was banned and ceased publication between November , after Adolf Hitler's arrest for leading the unsuccessful Beer Hall Putsch in Munich , February , the approximate time of the rally which relaunched the NSDAP.
By December , the paper was in debt; the Thule Society was thus receptive to an offer to sell the paper to the Nazis for 60, Papiermark. What's New - Home - Login. School Donation Program In Memory of How To Swap Books? Some of his better known novels include Little Man, What Now?
His works belong predominantly to the New Objectivity literary style, with precise details and journalistic veneration of the facts. Jenny Williams notes in her biography More Lives than One , that Fallada's father would often read aloud to his children works by authors such as Shakespeare and Schiller. In , at the age of 6, Fallada's father relocated the family to Berlin following the first of several promotions he would receive.
Fallada had a very difficult time upon first entering school in As a result, he immersed himself in books, eschewing literature more in line with his age for authors such as Flaubert, Dostoevsky, and Dickens. In the family again relocated, to Leipzig, following his father's appointment to the Imperial Supreme Court. A severe road accident in age His adolescent years were characterized by increasing isolation and self-doubt, compounded by the lingering effects of these ailments. In addition, his life-long drug problems were born of the pain-killing medications he was taking as the result of his injuries.
These issues manifested themselves in multiple suicide attempts. In he made a pact with his close friend, Hanns Dietrich, to stage a duel to mask their suicides, feeling that the duel would be seen as more honorable. Because of both boys' inexperience with weapons, it was a bungled affair. Dietrich missed Fallada, but Fallada did not miss Dietrich, killing him.
Fallada was so distraught that he picked up Dietrich's gun and shot himself in the chest, but somehow survived. Nonetheless, the death of his friend ensured his status as an outcast from society. Although he was found innocent of murder by way of insanity, from this point on he would serve multiple stints in mental institutions. At one of these institutions, he was assigned to work in a farmyard, thus beginning his lifelong affinity for farm culture. During this period he also struggled with morphine addiction, and the death of his younger brother in the First World War.
In the wake of the war, Fallada worked at several farmhand and other agricultural jobs in order to support himself and finance his growing drug addiction. While before the war Fallada relied on his father for financial support while writing, after the German defeat he was no longer able, or willing, to depend on his father's assistance. Shortly after the publication of Anton und Gerda Fallada reported to prison in Greifswald to serve a 6-month sentence for stealing grain from his employer and selling it to support his drug habit.
Less than 3 years later, in , Fallada again found himself imprisoned as a result of a drug and alcohol-fueled string of thefts from employers. In February he finally emerged free of addiction. Fallada married Suse Issel in and maintained a string of respectable jobs in journalism, working for newspapers and eventually for the publisher of his novels, Rowohlt.
It is around this time that his novels became noticeably political and started to comment on the social and economic woes of Germany. Little Man, What Now? Although none of his work was deemed subversive enough to warrant action by the Nazis, many of his peers were arrested and interned, and his future as an author under the Nazi regime looked bleak. These anxieties were compounded by the loss of a baby only a few hours after childbirth. However he was heartened by the great success of Little Man, What Now? In the U.