In addition, this story facilitates the work of the translator since the syntax is made up of short sen- tences which render the work of the translator almost transparent. Yet in this story, the colons remain unaltered. From the comments released by Weaver, it becomes clear that his main preoccupation was to preserve the original structure of the Italian text.
We will see how in the short story On the Carpet A clear example is this short paragraph with the original Italian and the English version translated by Weaver: Le foglie del ginkgo cadevano come una pioggia minuta dai rami e punteggiavano di giallo il prato. Io passeggiavo col signor Okeda sul sentiero di pietre lisce. Il signor Okeda disse che era possibile. Le premesse da cui partivo, e che il signor Okeda trovava ben fondate, erano le seguenti.
Se una notte Here is the English version: The ginkgo leaves fell like fine rain from the boughs and dotted the lawn with yellow. I was walking with Mr. Okeda on the path of smooth stones. I said I would like to distinguish the sensation of each single ginkgo leaf from the sensation of all the others, but I was wondering if it would be possible. Okeda said it was possible. The premises from which I set out, and which Mr.
Okeda considered well founded, were the following. It is important to underline that in Italian, these verbs in the past manifest actions that are limited in time. The imperfect is used to describe a habitual action like the falling of the leaves each year in the fall. The verbs As I was walking camminavo and I was wondering mi domandavo demonstrate undefined lengths of time in English present perfect , while in Italian the imperfect provides an entirely different meaning. The Japanese-themed short story offers different reflexive forms.
One of the difficulties in the translation of these verbs is understanding which type of reflexive it is, sometimes one must distinguish between the impersonal form and the passive structure. In addition, there can be ambiguity in certain verb functions: for example, the verb cambiarsi means two different things: changing clothes but also transforming Nermin Abd El-Hamid Hamdy 1.
These examples determine that there is no precise correspon- dence with Italian; if we think of the present indicative in English, it has different connotations. Therefore, it is best to translate them using their actual use in English without trying to find an equivalency Guarnieri. Another translation that can create problems is the word terreno which can be translated with land, country, field, plot or site, and that Weaver, in this case, translated with ground.
Weaver in translating this short story, documents how he approached the final version of his translation and shows all of the challenges, big or small that he encountered. Translating Seduction The strong visual-erotic footprint of this story, is marked by an important verb, guardare, which in the narration acquires different visual nuances and is translated in many different forms, from look to gaze to seeing. The variety of these verbs is also found in the English language: to follow, to see, gaze, to look, to examine, to stare, to contemplate, to spy, to watch, to appear, to observe, to describe.
There are other examples of the translation of the verb guardare in this story which are significant to discuss. However, if one choses to use the verb to watch this corresponds to the verb guardare, osservare, while if one selects the verb to gaze, this would mean to remain in contemplation and to stare at someone. In the English translation one loses the visual aspect that characterizes instead the Italian sentence. In another passage of the story, the visual aspect is however preserved in the English translation: screditare agli occhi dei docenti; rendered with discrediting in the eyes of the University professors.
This shows, once again, that translations do not always follow rigid rules and that every word has to be weighted and translated on a case by case basis. Miyagi appear to be more precise in the English version. Guardava fissamente, ma non sua moglie e me, ma sua figlia che ci guardava. Okeda had been there. He was staring hard, not at his wife and me but at his daughter watching us.
The peculiarity of the English translation resides in the fact that Weaver interpreted the word spasimo like a precise act, without leaving the Anglophone reader any other possibility; while in Italian the meaning of this word offers several other implications. One must also notice that in English, Mrs. Miyagi gains the title of Madame, since, as Weaver explained, it is a term usually attributed to foreign people. If he used Mrs. Miyagi, her sensual appeal would weaken. Other verbs that more or less pertain to the sight in the story On the Carpet… convey erotic tones.
Although the character of Mrs. Miyagi ap- pears in a captivating role, in reality, according to Frasson-Marin, this is no other than a hoax used to diminish her role. The description of the narrating voice of the story seems to be the sacrificial victim, forced to engage in involuntary sexual acts. In addition, the woman always attracts the man with the art of seduction rather than her intelligence, culture or dialogue. Moreover, according to the French critic, when the women exercise these qualities, these are strongly criticized and diminished by Calvino.
A related approach proposed by Frasson-Marin, is the topic of gender in translation which deserves attention. The determination of gender in Weaver is a recurrent problem in his translations, however, he opted for solutions that obscured female characters. In this case, the American translator makes a particular ideological choice and he is now at the same level of the author, and becomes a co-writer of the original text.
During the s, a new approach for translation studies surfaced, mostly in North America and in France, which focused on analyzing gender in translation. Several sociologists explored this innovative field, commonly known as Sex and Language since it is known that in constructing gender identity, language has a defining role. Thus, it becomes important to recognize the different approach that a writer and the translator has in relation to gender difference since it can create problems in the translation of the text.
In Italian there is no gender neutral and all words have a spe- cific gender attribution; in English this distinction does not exist; and there are no few words that point to the gender of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and articles. In another instance, Weaver managed with difficulties the challenge posed by the feminine gender in the story of Marcovaldo. For example, to translate the word for female rabbit coniglia he chooses to eliminate the word and only use the generic terms of male e female. This can also be seen in the collection of short stories entitled Gli idilli difficili, where un impiegato and una impiegata clerk become a man and a woman in the translation.
Features of the Technical Translation To understand the process of translation, it is important to showcase a few examples that indicate the challenges faced by translators, but also to disclose the ones tackled by William Weaver. Among the selected ones, there is the issue of the morphosyntactic Guarnieri. In the following paragraph taken from On the Carpet, we notice how the Italian syntax follows a predictable pattern: a subject, a verb and object.
However, the order can change if one wishes to emphasize a certain word or element. In fact, the whole first page of the short story written by Calvino creates an atmosphere of delayed sensuality, one that recalls the movements of classical ballet. We find the same verb at the end of the story, but this time Weaver, translates it with twirling, a verb that in English has differ- ent meanings such as twisting, curling, bending, winding. In English, Weaver was able to recreate the same effect with the use of the following words: losing, pleasant, sensations, distinct, others, confusing, comes, blades, grass, perse- vere, purpose, perhaps, edges, times, silence, served, as, conjectures, series, stages, lesson, tiniest, sheaf, diffused, impressions.
All of these words appear in the English text according to a clear strategy on the part of the translator to convey the sensuality and eroticism chosen by Calvino for this story. Weaver shows his mastership in being able Guarnieri. This is, in part, due to the verbal richness of the English language. Another relevant aspect to underline in the translation of the vocabulary is the so-called lexical equivalence according to Bruno Osimo 83 ; something very important to preserve in order to achieve textual accuracy. In this story, there are words that are translated in a rather generic way, something that goes under the name of under- translation.
For example, the word scrutare, which in Italian means to look at intently is translated with to examine. To translate it with the verb scrutinize would have seemed more appropriate since to inves- tigate as a synonym is closer to the original meaning. We also have an example of an over-translation with turbare translated with upset which indicates a type of disruption that conveys sadness. In Italian, the verb instead offers more interpretative solutions: it does not only imply sadness but it can be a synonym of confusion, trouble, disorder, agitation and anxiety.
One can be worried but not necessarily sad. Obviously an error that Weaver does not commit is to confuse the so called false-friends; words that formally appear similar to Ital- ian, but instead mean something different.
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Another word is biblioteca, which is translated with library, since libreria in Italian is the bookstore. Pavimento should not be translated with pavement but with floor since pavement means sidewalk and concrete. Furthermore, the word gentile could be translated with genteel, but kind is its correct equivalent.
The American translator instead chooses its Latin equivalent which creates an awkward outcome — an erudite word which generates a different atmosphere. What is needed in a good translation is not just the equiva- lence, but finding words can be associated with a word in a particular context.
Both times when Guarnieri. The first one refers to hard labor unskilled , always remunerated, while the second term usually refers more to a profession, an activity where personal ability is at stake. The phrase tavolo da lavoro is translated with you are at your desk, omitting completely the verb linked to work. The word lavoro can be found in Palomar and Marcovaldo. In the first one, the expression per un lavoro delicato is translated with a delicate job; while in the Marcovaldo this word is often translated with work.
In many dictionaries the word is translated with flower-bed. A close reading of the story in Marcovaldo, we notice how the translation differs, given the fact that aiuola usually refers to a piece of land in which one can grow flowers, vegetables, or seeds. It appears an exaggeration to choose bed of dirt, while path seems a clear example of an under-translation.
These numerous translation examples are presented to dem- onstrate in concrete terms what it means to be a skillful translator. Nonetheless this also shows how Weaver used his creativity and artistic talent for his translations. Weaver demonstrates that his practice is a combination of creativity, training and inspiration. A translation cannot be considered only like a second-hand copy of the original, born out of a mechanical process, but instead it should be considered as a creative act and as a work of re-interpretation.
From dialect, ways of sayings which in Italian are plenty, every novel has had its own main dif- ficulties. Palomar, The Cosmicomics, and in The Castle, it was the syntactical aspect. Every word is intentional and calibrated. The translator has to grasp his whole essence in order to return it to the public in its full integrity. Many translators of Calvino chose to make the integrity and essence of his poetics a priority respecting both form and content.
Colquhoun Boston: Beacon Press, Of the Fiabe italiane we have three different translations, the one by Louis Brigante Italian Fables. The book, Ultimo viene il corvo was translated by Archibald Colquhoun and Peggy Wright, with the title, One afternoon and other stories London: Collins, The story, La speculazione edilizia, was translated with the title, Plunge into real estate by S.
Carne-Ross in by Pocket Books. New York: Vintage International, , and the collection of essays, Prima che tu dica pronto Numbers in the dark and other stories. London: Jonathan Cape, NY: HBJ, Invece temo non sia altro che un bol en plastique, una scodella come esempio di prodotto in serie.
Ho ripiegato su un gioco dassonanze salvando solo il ritmo del verso. Ho capito bene il pistone e il cilindro? Penso che sarai in vacanza e non so quando vedrai questa lettera. Ti ringrazio per tutto quello che potrai dirmi e ti auguro un buon agosto, tuo Italo Calvino. He then collaborated with Quadri and Solmi in translating Queneau. Works Cited Anselmi, G. M, Fenocchio, G. Tempi e immagini della letteratura, vol. Bruno Mondadori. Milano, Bondi, M.
Fortunati V. La cultura italiana e le letterature straniere Guarnieri. Third Volume. Ravenna: Longo editore, Bowker, L. Computer-Aided Translation Technology. A Practical Introduction. University of Ottawa Press, Ottawa. Calvino, I. Barenghi, M. Milano: Mondadori, I Meridiani, Print Calvino. Milano: Mondadori, II. Torino: Einaudi, New York: Harcourt Brace, Una pietra sopra. The Uses of Literature. Patrick Creagh. Harcourt Brace, Marcovaldo, or The Seasons in the City. Derrida, J. Derek Attridge. London: Routledge, Eco, U. Dire quasi la stessa cosa. Milano: Bompiani, Even-Zohar, I.
Federici, F. Amsterdam: Rodopi: Frasson-Marin, A. Geneva-Paris: Editions Slatkine: Glissant, E. Poetica del diverso. Roma: Meltemi. Guarnieri, G. Summer- Fall Holmes, J. Papers on Literary Translation and Translation Studies. Amsterdam: Rodopi, Monaco, R. Newmark, P. A Textbook of Translation. NY: Prentice Hall, Nida, E. The Theory and Practice of Translation.
Leiden: Brill, Osimo, B. Manuale del traduttore. Milano: Hoepli, May 15, Thorne B.
Il giorno che ci incontrammo
Rowley, Mass: Newbury House, Tymoczko, M. Translation and Power. Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, Weaver, W. Biguenet, J, Schulte, R. Chicago: Chicago University Press, Paola Masino wrote prolifically during the Fascist dictatorship and was a prominent figure in the Italian cultural and intellectual environment of her time. Her first novel Monte Ignoso was awarded the Viareggio Literary Prize and her short stories were published in the most prestigious Italian literary magazines of the time.
Her official narrative production includes three nov- els, Monte Ignoso Bompiani, , Periferia Bompiani, and Nascita e morte della massaia Bompiani, , three collections of short stories Decadenza della morte Casa editrice Alberto Stock, , Racconto grosso e altri Bompiani, and Colloquio di notte published posthumously by La Luna in , as well as a book of poetry, Poesie Bompiani, Un agnellino venne a leccargli il volto; lui mosse appena il capo. Allora venne ad annusarlo il cane Argo. Argo sembrava inquieto e non contento del sonno del pastore.
Tutte le pecore ora gli si venivano raggruppando intorno e gli ag- nelli cercavano ognuno la propria madre. Laio mosse di nuovo il capo come se stesse per svegliarsi. Sulla strada maestra, lontanissima alle loro spalle, passavano carri trainati da bovi. Lo sciacquio cresceva di minuto in minuto, per la foce si spandeva nel flume che tutto ne risonava palpitando. Le vene minime della corrente, i piccoli gorghi a riva sotto i cespugli di crescione, le cascatelle tra i ciottoli, furono cancellati dalle onde sabbiose risalenti il corso delle acque.
E finalmente Rozier. The sheep, scattered along the banks of the river, looked like the white curls of a kind, sleepy river god stretched across the valley. Laio, like the river, stretched out in the grass and stared at the sky going silver. His eyes were bright, a reflection of the luminous sky; he closed his eyes slowly, and he lay asleep. A lamb came to lick his face, but Laio barely moved. His dog Argo came to sniff him. The dog seemed concerned, unhappy his master was asleep. A sheep bleated and ran from the bank; others followed, scattering. Far away, a peasant woman cried out. Sea gulls, escaping from the sea, flew low over the ground, screeching.
The dog chased their shadows, then stopped, faced the river, and howled.
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The sheep gathered around Argo, the lambs searching for their mothers. The sky had turned ashen over the mountains and the pewter-colored sea, the undercurrent like veins of blood. Only over the river had the sky kept its spring-like glow, mirror- ing the tender grass. Laio moved his head slightly, as if about to wake up. The dog was still facing east, howling now and then.
On the main road, far behind them, in the distance, carts went by, pulled by oxen. Somewhere, another dog answered. The air was so thin it carried the sounds. Even the surf breaking on the invisible shore could be heard, and it grew louder and louder as the waters rushed from the plain into the river. The river echoed and throbbed, seemed to swell, its surface tightening, now the same pewter-color as the clouds rising so suddenly from the sea, speeding towards the mountains, with a low rumbling thunder.
The waves carried sand upstream, erasing the small veins in the current, the tiny whirlpools under the watercress, the little cascades between the rocks. The sheep were quiet, muzzles raised. Then, a purple lightning flashed across the sky and the clouds crashed together, echoing in the mountains. Alla nuova curva anche Argo scompare. Pure corre. In un angolo della cucina, seduto sul mucchio delle patate, sta un uomo vecchissimo e sconosciuto, con pochi fili bianchi di barba per il mento. Attizza il fuoco prima che muoia. Si volge al vecchio. Il vecchio sorride con malizia e sussurra: - Oro.
The sun is blazing and the quartz sparkles. The dust dries in a hot cloud behind the meander- ing sheep vanishing around the bend. At the next curve, Argo disappears as well. Still he runs. He almost smells the hay in the pens, hears the murmur of the spring on the rocks behind the hut and sees the rosemary bush next to the door. He calms down and goes inside. In a corner of the kitchen, he sees a stranger, an old man sitting on a mound of potatoes.
He has a few white whiskers on his chin, and he sits with his legs apart, leaning forward a little, trying to blow on the fire in the hearth on the opposite side of the room. Poke the fire before it dies. Laio always obeys his elders, so he goes to the fireplace to set a log on the burning coals. Laio tries again. He takes the fire in his hands, tries to pull it apart. But he realizes the fire is as cold as ice, as hard as metal. Even gold needs fire. Why not set me on fire? Burn me. Io sono un vecchio tronco, subito ardo. Bruciami, bruciami.
Sentirai che buon profumo spando, e che calore. I giovani devono nutrirsi dei vecchi, i figli usare i padri. Gli risponde un gran rombo che fa tremare il monte e una luce lo investe e lo trascina lontano. Gocce pesanti e chicchi di grandine misti piovendo diritti con violenza, gli bucavano gli oc- chi. Fulmini di un colore marcio traversavano il cielo da occidente a oriente, salivano dal mare a ferire i monti che gemevano dalle viscere profonde.
The young must feed on the old; sons must use their fathers. His answer is a sharp thunderclap that shakes the mountain, then a flash of lightning that hits him and hurls him aside. He looks back, and his hut, struck by lightning, has burst into flames, is being consumed, the carbonized pieces floating up, like burning paper, falling on him, all around him, and as they fall, the pieces are turning yellow, round, shiny: large gold coins that hurt as they strike his face like rain. With this pain, Laio awoke. Big heavy rain drops and hail were falling, a violent downpour, stinging his eyes and his hands.
Flashes of lightning, the color of rot, crisscrossed the sky from west to east, rising from the sea to batter the mountains, making them moan from deep within their bowels. Laio jumped up: he ran toward his flock huddled beneath a poplar tree, and he yelled and waved his arms to drive them away from the tree and onto the main road, as he searched for cover. They were barely on their way when the rain began spinning in sudden gusts from the whirling winds that made the clouds crash together with a terrible noise.
The rain fell straight down, a solid wall. It was more like being submerged in a lake, where some new law made breathing possible. They pressed to the ground, trying to hide in the furrows. Argo, too, unable to help, huddled with them, bark- ing pitifully. Now and then, Laio heard the sweet bleating of the lambs, growing ever weaker. Groping around in the dark, he picked up two, tucking one inside his cloak, setting the other on his shoulders.
But now walking was exhaust- ing. The ground was saturated, a muddy mire, and he sank in Rozier. Andava avanti senza pensiero, accompa- gnato dal sibilo della serpe, dal battito pauroso del cuore dei due pecorini. Solo allora si accorse di un fragore mo- notono che accompagnava quello della pioggia, ma come di fianco, irregolare e minaccioso. Il lampo venne. Laio aveva fin qui conosciuto Dio onnipotente e giusto, ma ora stava perplesso davanti a quello sperpero di potenza, a quella indecifrabile giustizia.
Dio, mi senti, o forse sei troppo lontano? Che cosa ne fanno del mio armento, la tempesta e il mare? Hanno un corpo da vestire di lana? The blood from its wings filled his mouth and tasted sweet. A little further, he stepped on a snake that wrapped itself around his ankle, hissing, but Laio did not try to shake it off.
He kept going, not thinking, accompanied by the hissing of the snake and the frightened heartbeats of the two lambs. Only then did he hear the dull crashing alongside the rain, but this was all to the side, something sporadic, menacing. Lightning lit up the landscape. This section of the river bank was manmade, with boulders stacked inside metal wire to hold back the wild waves rushing down the rocky gorge.
He pleaded for another flash of lightning and the lightning came. It broke through the clouds, came down so close, screaming and burning, that Argo yelped and ran from his master. Where was the flock? The shepherd poked him gently with his staff, and he knew the lamb was dead. They were all dead. Until now, the shepherd had believed in a just and omnipotent God, and he stood bewildered before such a misuse of power, such indecipherable justice.
Can you hear me, God, or are you too far away? What good is my flock to the storm and the sea? Do they have a body that needs to be dressed in wool? Lord, how will my sheep find the entrance to your fields without me? Why punish us so? Who can answer? Do you want this lamb as well? But no one answered, and he started walking again. Forse io ora dovrei darti anche questa? Ma nessuno rispose e Laio riprese a camminare. Grondava acqua e barcollava. Poi si volse indietro a chi gli aveva aperto e disse: - Hai una stuoia, una coperta o un sacco, una pelle vecchia, qualche cosa per coprire questa mia bestia?
E guarda come infanghi tutto. Quando riscendo a valle te la riporto. La voce taceva. Laio non si muoveva e non guardava, stava nella propria desolazione come in una nebbia. Stava piegato in avanti ad ascoltare con terrore la voce cattiva e tuttavia con le mani rattrappite continuava a dividere le patate sane dalle germogliate. E fu una buona lana davvero. Fu anche mio padre, quando serviva a qualche cosa. Hai promesso. Laio ora batteva i denti dal ribrezzo e sentiva le ginocchia Rozier. He walked until he hit a wall. He was dripping wet and unsteady on his feet.
He went to the table, took the lamb from inside his cloak and set it down. Get out. For the love of God -- that I can do. But only if you promise never to bring it back. Just give it to me. There, in the corner, on a pile of potatoes, sat a very old man with a few white whiskers on his chin. Terrified, he was leaning forward to listen to the evil voice and meanwhile his stiff old hands divided the good potatoes from the bad. And a real old goat as well. And my father besides, back when he was still worth something. La voce riprese, avvicinandosi: - Su, pastore, che cosa aspetti?
Prendi quanto hai chiesto e vattene. Pareva che fosse meno vecchio, fuori dalla casa del figlio, si moveva con un certo vigore e senza lamenti. Il vecchio certo doveva conoscere i luoghi e sapere dove voleva andare se moveva con tanta certezza. Il vecchio con gesti brevi indicava a Laio il passo e i pericoli. Il vecchio accettava tutto con naturalezza, ma non parlava.
Laio volle seguirlo, invece cadde di schianto in terra chiamandolo. They looked each other in the eye, as if trying to recognize each other. Then the shepherd bowed his head and let the old man leave first. Laio picked up the lamb. Besides, going back to the hut would be useless; better to find some village and ask for work there. If the old man walked so decisively, he had to know where they were going. They walked all night without a word, across washed-out paths, across ditches and landslides.
With brief gestures the old man showed him where to go and what to avoid. Finally, by dawn they reached the main road and rested in a hayloft. The shepherd made a pallet for his companion and lit a small fire between two stones where the old man could dry himself and warm up. And what was there to say? When daylight broke and the rain had slowed, the old man awoke and prepared to leave. Laio stood to follow, but then collapsed to the ground, calling out.
Who knows where it is. But at least I wanted you, a father to love and comfort. Ieri io aspet- tavo te. Mi volevi per figlio? Allora il vecchio rise: - E poi mungermi, Laio? Laio non capiva: - Mungerti, padre? Quanto Dio ha stabilito. Cattivo Dio. I do not understand this word. Do you understand this book? Where are the young ladies? Are they leaving today?
Yes, they are leaving today. They are in the kitchen with Peter. Say: in kitchen. Mary's bedroom is on the upper floor. No, he is in town, 9? Are Peter and Mary in town? Yes, they are buying apples, Why are they ieaving today? I do not understand why. The kitchen is small, but the dining-room is large, We prefer a house in town.
Here is the study, Peter opens the door and we see XJncle. Say: the uncle. Uncle is sleeping. While Uncle is sleeping, Aunt is in town. She is in town with Mary. They are buying ties, socks, hats and an overcoat for Uncle. It cuts words short or runs them together, or sometimes changes their form so as to produce agreeable sounds and a pleasing and harmonious rhythm, Some examples of this we have already met in the different forms of the article, when, to avoid an ugly hiatus, lo and la become V before a following voweh Something of the same kind occurs when the definite article is preceded by certain prepositions, some of which we have met, such as a t di and in.
After which, practise the prepositions and articles by taking some nouns that you already know, such as libro, albero, zio, casa, etc, and place the correct form of the preposition and article before them. That is : find out how to say to the uncle, with the uncle, from the uncle, etc, Then change your expressions from the singular to the plural. Your effort can always be checked by referring to the preceding table.
Practise with every kind of noun — i. Maria i nel giardino ma lo zio i nello studio. La cravatta i sulla tavola nella sala da pranzo. Ha dei calzini gialli, per favore? Another way is the use of alcuno or qualche, both meaning some and any: Hanno alcuni libri nuovi?
Si: hanno alcuni libri nuovi. Hanno qualche libro nuovo? Sf': hanno qualche libro nuovo. Have they any new books? Yes, they have some new books. Alcuno, an adjective in -o, has a feminine forra in -a and the two plurals alcuni and alcune; but qualche pronounced kwahl- kay never changes for gender, nor for number. Ha del pane?
In this last sentence nessuno is an adjective, qualifying libro. Giovanni John dk delle mele agli ospiti e poi parte per la cittk nella macchina dello zio. Che cosa hai nella tasca, Piero? Ho due fazzoletti e una cravatta dello zio. Le sedie della sala da pranzo sono sul balcone. Guardano nello specchio. Che cosa vedono?
Povero zio! Giovanni e Piero comprano un nuovo cappello per lo zio. Non abbiamo del pane? Io non vedo niente. Non scrive mai a nessuno. Exercise 5 b 1. Mary is in the study with Uncle. They are writing letters. Peter is buying socks, handkerchiefs and ties from a boy in the street.
John is buying a hat and gloves from the same boy. He is a very poor boy ; he has no shoes. What have you in the pocket? I have three handkerchiefs and a tie. What do you see in the river, John? I don't see anything. I am looking in the mirror. I see the three children with the cat. Mary is looking for the cat in the garden, 9.
Where is the bread? We have no bread. The man in the drawing-room is John's brother. Where is John's tie? It is on the table in the dining-room with Aunt's gloves of the aunt , I see neither the tie nor the gloves- Haven't you any ink? Yes, it is on the table in the study, This chair is for the guest. The book that you are looking for is in the study. This does not apply to verbs which are irregular in this tense, for in that case the final vowel of the third person is not stressed, 2. The stress is on the syliable next to the last in all the other persons with the exception of the third plural, where it falls on the third from the end.
If we take the three characteristic vowels: a for the first conjugation -are , e for the second -ere and i for the third -ire , we see that — with the exception of the third person singular of the first conjugation — the characteristic vowel appears throughout the tense in each case, othenvise the end- ings are the same for all three conjugations. They are it is a poor family, the father is out of work.
Poor boy, he has neither father nor mother. Three adjectives: bello, buono and grande, undergo certain changes when they precede the noun. Tre settimane fa perdetti un beiranello nel giardino.
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La settimana scorsa il postino porto una bella rosa rossa per la cuoea. Poi incontrammo anche l'avvocato nella sala di scrittura. II postino porto due cartoline dalla zia in America ieri. Exercise 6 b 1. I sold a fine ring yesterday and bought these books. She lost a lovely ring three weeks ago. Where did she lose the ring? In the garden. Aunt received a registered parcel yesterday and she signed a receipt. Mary went with cook with the cook to the post office. They bought stamps and some postcards. Mary's brother is a very handsome man. I received a long letter from Uncle yesterday and also two postcards and a large parceL Didn't you receive anything yesterday, Mr.
No, I didn't receive anything yesterday- The theatres in this town are very fine, Yes, we went to the theatre last week. The lawyer ireceived a postcard from the doctor yesterday. Last year he bought a car, two horses, a cow and a house with a large garden; now he is very poor. It is also a descriptive tense. Read the folIowing extract referring to the translations for help as to its meaning and note the use of the tenses in Italian. The verbs in the imperfect are all in italics. Note how the imperfect describes the scene, while the past definite carries on the narrative, The subject-matter of the piece is briefly: Renzo, a poor young peasant engaged to Lucia, a girl of his village, learns on his vvedding morning that the priest refuses to marry them because of the threate of a rich and povverful lord who has his eye on Lucia.
He is on his way to break the dread- ful news to the bride, who, knovving nothing at all about it, is busy dressing for the wedding. S'immagin5 che sarfibbero amiche e comari venute a f ar cortso a Lucia ; e non si volle mostrare a quel mercato, con quella novslla in corpo e sul volto. Una fanciulletta che si trovava nel cortile, gli corse incontro gridando: lo sposo! Had that little house a small yard in front, which it separated from the road, and it was surrounded with a little wall.
Renzo entered into the yard, and heard a mixed and continuous shouting which was coming from a room upper. Himself he imagined that they would be the girl friends and neighbours come to make procession to Lucia; and not himself did he wish to show to that market, with that news in body and on the face. A little giri who herself was finding in the yard, to him ran against shouting: 'The bridegroom, the bridegroorn!
VVith these thoughts uppermost in his mind, Renzo went right past his ovvn house, which was situated in the centre of the village and going straight on he directed his steps to Lucy's home, which stood at the opposite end. Her little house had a small yard in front, which separated it from the road and which was enclosed by a low walL Renzo entered the yard and heard a continual hubbub and shouting coming from one of the upstairs rooms, He imagined that it must be Lucy s friends and neighbours who had come to attend her to church ; and he didn't want to show himself to that noisy party with sadness in his heart and bad news written all over his face.
But a little girl who was in the yard ran to meet him shouting 'The bridegroom, the bridegroom! The greatest number of Italian nouns end in one or other of these three vowels, but there are a few which end in -t and -u 3 and a few words borrowed from other languages which end in a consonant. None of these nouns change for the plural, and the only indication as to whether we are speaking of one or more than one is given by the article used with them or by the context.
A few other nouns are also invariable in the plural: the complete list is as follows: 1. Those ending in -i nearly all feminine : la crisi crisis , le crisi, 2. Demonstrative Adjectives. When questo comes before a singular word beginning with a vowel, it elides the final vowel and becomes quest 9 : quest'uomo, quesVaria "this air" , but questi alberi. There are two words for "that": codesto, which refers to something near to the person addressed, and quello. Dove andavate voi? Via Tornabuoni era una delle vie eleganti di quella citta. Non era in cucina? Ieri incontrai il fratello di Maria e il postino in citta; parla- vano con quella ragazza della libreria.
Che bello studio aveva il signor Pazzi! Era una stanza grande con un balcone e due finestre. Aveva anche un bel tappeto verde e un grande scaffale con molti librL Exercise 7 b 1. Did she go to church every day when she was in Florence? Yes, she used to go with Aunt every morning. She used to write to John every week. He was in the bookshop and he was talking to the lawyer, 6.
The doctor entered while they were talking- 7. The lawyer was finishing a letter when they entered the study. S, He was looking at the lawyer, who was near the desk, 9. They were looking for that newspaper which those women were reading. Was cook at the market this morning, Mrs. Yes, she was buying meat and vegetables, bread and wine. Have they good wines at the market? Note, too, that the same word is used for my and mine, etc. Using the definite article "the M with the possessive seems strange to us at first, but one quickly becomes used to it. There is one important occasion when it is not used, and that is when one is speaking of a near relative in the singular, such as mother, father, etc.
Because I've no money. These words may be governed by prepositions : to whom? Two other inter- rogative words change their endings: quale? Quale becomes quali in the plural; quanto? M quanti? Study the following interrogative sentences : Chi c'i nella stanza da bagno? Ghi vedo nella cucina? A chi scrive quella lunga Ifittera? Di chi parlate?
Di chi h questo fazzoletto bianco? Da chi i quel libro? Che or quale libro compraste ifiri? Quali porte sono apcrte? Scrivo a una mia amica a Roma. Che buon vino! Bevono vino Loro tutti i giorni? Quanto vino beve quell'uomo al giorno? Who is that man with the beard? He is a friend of my father's. My father and mother went to town yesterday, They met that friend of yours in the bookshop. Whose is this trunk? It is my mother's. We have many good wines, sir; which do you prefer, white or red? One of my friends bought that car yesterday, Which? That car there in the garage.
What is that old woman selling? She is selling handkerchiefs and socks. Where do you buy your hats? That new hat of yours translate either "that your hat new", or: "that your new hat" is very smart 9. Which dress do you prefer? I prefer that blue one. Omit one. That green hat of his is very old, Didn't he buy a new one last week? Many of my books are in my trunk.
How many trunks have you, sir? The same applies to the endings of the conditional : I should buy, etc. It is the tense which in direct speech would be future: "He said he wou! It is also used for the conclusion of a conditional sentence : If I had enough money, I should buy a car. These sentences are dealt with in a later lesson, page Italian also uses the conditional to express what is said on the authority of someone else. There is usually some word or phrase in the sentence to indicate that the person who is report- ing what was said is not sure of the truth of the statement and disclaims responsibility for it.
Nouns ending in -aio only a few should be noted. An Italian asks not "What time is it? A che ora? Avremo il tempo per prendere il th prima di andare translate: "going" alla stazione. Vocabulary stazione f. A che ora arriverk suo figlio, Signora? Arriveri col treno delle otto meno venti.
Quando partiranno? Noi mangiamo all'una generalmente, ma domani mange- remo a mezzogiorno e mezzo e prenderemo il treno alle due. Che cosa comprera al mercato? Secondo mio padre la cuoca sarebbe una donna intelligente, ma non sembra. I viaggi in treno non sono sempre comodi. Exercise 9 b 1. What time is it? It is half-past three, 2. At a quarter to eight. How many hats has that woman? She has nine, I think. She voill have. I am sure that my mother vvould not buy that hat 6.
We generaJly take tea at half-past four, but tomorrow we shall take tea at four o'clock before going to the station. Before to go.
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The lawyer will send the letter to the judge tomorrow. When will he arrive at home? Say: a scarf and some gloves grey; "grey" being masculine pluraL 1 r , It is a quarter to four, and cook is still at the market According to Mrs. Pazzi, r cook is lazy. Present Perfect Present indicative of the auxiliary verb and the past participle , translates: I have spoken.
Second Past Perfect Past definite of the auxiliary and the past participle , also: I had spoken. A participle, as its name implies, participates in two parts of speech, it is partly a verb and partly an adjective, Sometimes it is more of a verb than an adjective — in this case its ending never varies; at other times it is more of an adjective, and then it changes Iike the adjectives ending in Some Italian verbs use avere to form their compound tenses and others essere.
The future perfeet and conditional perfect are used as in English but see the lesson on the conditional sentences, page , The two past perfects denote, as in English, what had happened ; but the second past perfect is used only after certain conjunctions of time in a subordinate clause which is followed by a main sentence which has its verb in the past definite. These conjunc- tions are. Oggi abbiamo ospiti a pran Quando avri aiutato la donna andrk alla stazione per in- contrare gli ospiti. La donna aveva lavato tutti i piatti ma non aveva pulito i coltelli. Appena ebbe rotto una tazza lascio cadere anche una bottiglia.
Ha rotto tutte le cose che erano sul vassoio? Si, tutte. Erano stati alla casa del dottore quando incontrarono Tavvocato. Sark intelligente quella cameriera ma non sembra. Ha gik rotto dodici piatti e due bicchierL Ha lasciato cadere anche tre bottiglie e abbiamo perduto del buon vino.
Avrk incontrato il postino per la via. Exercise 10 b 1. We have invited Mr. Pazzi to dinner today. The maid has already laid the table for twelve. She had already cleaned the knives and forks when cook returned from the market, 4. As soon as she had lost her purse she spoke to the policeman "with the policeman". She also met the postman this morning.
There were many things on the tray : plates, glasses, cups and saucers. Yes, two cups, three saucers and five plates. Will he have seen Mary, do you think? She lost her purse in the train this morning. AU my books were in that trunk that I have sent to Naples say "all the my books". Disjunctive pronouns may also stand alone as objects of a preposition: A chi dd quel denaro? To me, In both sentences the pronoun is the most emphatic word, But in sentences and phrases such as: He sees me; I find them ; seeing us ; to help you ; the object pronouns me, them, us f you are not emphatic; they are very closely connected with the verb, and are almost joined to it, hence the name conjunctive, We shall deal with these pronouns first.
They are always used in close connection with the verb; they cannot stand alone, and they are always direct, indirect or reflexive objects of a verb. A verb is called reflexive when the object and the subject are the same person; in English the reflexive objects are myself, himself, etc. And now the following points should be noted: Some con- junctive pronouns drop their final vowel before a word begin- ning with a vowel or an h ; lo and la nearly always do so, and mi, ti and si quite often.
The reflexive pronouns in the plurai may mean one another and each other as well as ourselves, them- selves, etc. Therefore a pohte form of the imperative is supplied from the third persons singular and plural of the present subjunctive. A first person plural is also supplied from this tense, which translates the English: "Let us. Hai coniprato quelJa macchina? Yes, I have. Ho perduto il mio baule, l'ha veduto Lei? No, io ho perduto la valigia, l'ho cercata dappertutto ma non Tho ancora trovata. II facchino non l'ha portata al treno? No, l'ho cercata nella carrozza, forse Tho lasciata nella sala d'aspetto.
Ha comprato i biglietti, Signora? No, non li ho ancora comprati. La cuoca ha portato il pane e burro e la frutta? Sf, li ha portati; ha portato anche del saiame e un po' di pro- sciutto. Non Thai trovato Giovanni? Ma il treno parte e noi partiremo senza bauli. Ecco arriva il facchino. Dio mio! Ma i bauli! Dove sono? Dove sono i bauli? Eccoli, eccoli finalmente, Ora siamo pronti. Corri, corri Maria, il treno parte. Finalmente partiamo, addio, addio.
Ma per chi erano quelle rose rosse? Erano per la cuoca, Povera cuoca! Abbiamo perduto le sue belle rose rosse. No, madam, I have not seen them. Buy the tickets, please, John. No possessive is necessary in Italian; we know it must be his oum hand. No, I haven't any. Yes, she does, 9, Let us buy some fruit, bread and butter and a little ham, Have you brought the sausages, too?
Yes, here they are. Why has he not brought the trunk? He has left it in the restaurant, Shall we go and look for it? In Italian the indirect pronoun comes before the direct, and both pronouns either precede or follow the verb, according to the rules we have just learnt: Lui me lo dd — He to nre it gives. But it will be said: There is a mistake: me should be mi. Note that loro, as before, always follows the verb. Ci is both a pronoun and an adverb. Present Participle. For instance, the present participle could not be used in this sentence: "As T was walking down Tornabuoni Road a pohceman stopped me"; this would be in Italian: Mentre camminavo per via Tornabuoni an poliziotio mi fermo.
There are no other progressive tenses in Italian; our other continuous tenses are usually rendered in Italian by the simple tense: "I shall be going" — andro. Note the construction with domandare: to ask something to someone, 4, Che belle rose rosse! Datemene una, per favore. Sono stati a Firenze Loro? Sf, Signore, ne arriviamo ora. Si', Signore, ci sono stata, Aspettami, aspettamL Ma non aspettiamo nessuno, II treno parte.
Hai dato la mancia al facchino? Ci hanno dato i biglietti? Si, ce li hanno dati, E ha avuto la mancia il facchino? Si, l'ha avuta. When coming out of the church they met the dentist and the doctor, 2. There was a large box in that drawer. Has she found it? Yes, she has given it to him. Why doesn't she give it to me? She has already given it to them. While walking along Tornabuoni Road, Cook met the postman. She has lost her passport. Have you seen it? No, but the porter has found it; he will give it to her.
Give him some ; but I haven't any more, The polite form of the imperative, i. Wkere is that famous church? At the corner, Don't you see it? Yes, he has given it to me. Yes, I have bought them, and I have given them to Mary. Has he given them to you? I have given them to him, Why didn't you voi give them to them?
Because he hadn't given any to us. And why hadn't he given any to you? Because he hadn't any. In such phrases as the following the emphatic pronoun is required : Felice lui ma povero me! More Plnrals. Non lo date a lui, datelo a leL 2. Sf, ci siamo andati oggL L'acqua era molto calma, e c'erano molte barche. Non sono aperte le farmacie oggi? Si, Signora, sono aperte, 8. Ha gik imparato a scrivere la bambina? II duca ha una lunga barba bianca e i capelli bianchi. La vecchia stava dormendo; aveva ancora quel libro in mano e sulle ginocchia c'era il gatto che dormiva anch'esso.
I membri del club alpino di Torino sono arrivati oggi. Ha perduto ieri due paia di guanti nel treno ; e oggi in cucina ha lasciato cadere sei uova. Give it to me, not to him. Those two men with the oxen will arrive tomorrow, 3. I met them in town this morning, but I did not see her. That book was written by him, 5. This ietter is for me, not for him. Bring me those sheets, please. Together they can have a direct impact on the health and wellbeing of individuals, communities and populations.
Web Science studies the vast information network of people, communities, organizations, applications and policies that shape and are shaped by the Web. ACM WebScience is a conference that integrates computer and information sciences with a multitude of disciplines, including sociology, economics, political science, law, management, language, communication, geography and psychology, bringing all these disciplines together in creative and critical dialogue.
The event will take place at Science is constantly evolving in order to expand human knowledge and foster individual and social wellness. To succeed it draws on its history, plans for its future and celebrates its being. Join us on June 20th. Call for abstracts are open, with the following deadlines:. The Senior Scientific Award will recognize distinguished contributions of CSS members at whatever stage of their careers, whereas the Junior Scientific Award is aimed at recognizing excellent scientific record of CSS young researchers within 7 years of PhD completion.
The third edition of Big Dive took off yesterday in Turin Italy. When considering networks where quantum coherence effects play a non-trivial role, the predictive power of complex network science has been shown to break down. The aim of this workshop is to bring together leading experts in network science and computational topology to share their latest results and problems.
The goal is to challenge theoreticians to understand and meet the key questions raised by domain-specific problems, and for specialists to explore which current theoretical challenges are of greatest and immediate importance for applications. Dopo aver raccontato in tempo reale la situazione del traffico nei giorni dei "Forconi" www. ISI Foundation is on Twitter. These awards will be conferred once a year in two categories: the senior scientific award will recognize distinguished contributions of CSS members at whatever stage of their careers, whereas the junior scientific award is aimed at recognizing excellent scientific record of CSS young researchers within 7 years of PhD completion.
You have few more hours left to join ECCS14! Contributions must be submitted through EasyChair. Poster proposals in the same form can be also sent to abstracts ecss Acceptance will be communicated on May 20, How are social interaction dynamics associated with mental health during early stages of adolescence?
A new study by Mark C. Pachucki, Emily J. Ozer, Alain Barrat ISI Foundation and Ciro Cattuto ISI Foundation objectively measure social interactions and evaluate the roles that multiple aspects of the social environment — such as physical activity and food choice — may jointly play in shaping the structure of children's relationships and their mental health. You have some more days to join workshops at WebSci Indiana University, Bloomington, june Deadline for submissions has been extended to May 2.
In the last years, Big Data has become a new ubiquitous term. Big Data is transforming science, engineering, medicine, healthcare, finance, business, and ultimately society itself. Once again these huge opportunities can be grabbed only thanks to specific competences and skills mastered by dedicated professionals. Network Science has been very successful in providing simplified statistical mechanical descriptions of large complex systems.
Topology, in particular computational and applied topology, has found large use in computer graphics, robotics, biology and chemistry. This is due to its capacity to produce informative summaries of the global properties of a system starting from local information. The school will introduce the concepts and tools of graph theory, statistical physics, statistical analysis,modeling, and visualization used in the field of complex networks.
The lectures will start from the introduction of concepts of graph theory and of how to statistically characterize and model the structure of large-scale networks. His research activity is focused on the study of complex networks and of the attached dynamical processes. Yamir Moreno has been elected as Vice-President Secretary. The Epidemic Planet visualization application displays the evolution of the H1N1 influenza pandemic and enables its users to interactively compare and learn about the effect of various intervention scenarios.
Show filters Hide filters. Year All Type All News Events. Complex Systems Society council elections: applications are open! Thursday, 18 December Candidatures for the new council members can be submitted by CSS registered members via the official CSS website, through the following steps: Read more. Developed by scientists at ISI Foundation and Northeastern University, the platform shows the current influenza activity level below or above baseline in each country and indicates the observed trend based on data reported by the surveillance in the last two weeks increasing, stable or decreasing Read more.
Bilancio Read more. Read more. The conference will connect innovators in health and technology, with three goals: Read more. Online vs. In the last few years we have witnessed increasing interest in Internet-based study design, including in methodological research on how to use the Internet to recruit and follow-up participants in cohort studies Read more. Seminar: Epidemiological studies of infectious disease burden and transmission in Europe and Asia Tuesday, 2 December Riparte Influweb, la rete di monitoraggio online dell'influenza!
Sunday, 16 November Homological scaffolds of brain functional networks: a research paper explains how psilocybin change the way brain behaves Thursday, 30 October Assessing the impact of travel restrictions on international spread of Ebola epidemic Tuesday, 28 October E' morto Tullio Regge. E' stato nostro Presidente per 26 anni Thursday, 23 October EbolaTracking: a new real-time interactive map tracking, filtering and georeferencing Ebola mentions on Twitter Sunday, 19 October The representativeness of a European multi-center network for influenza-like-illness participatory surveillance on BMC Public Health Tuesday, 14 October Seminar: Two years abroad: public health and modelling Monday, 13 October Venue Read more.
Assegnate le Borse di ricerca applicata Lagrange Monday, 13 October Medicine 2. Complex Systems Society new website is online! ECCS'14 is coming! Summer school starts tomorrow, main conference next week 22thth September Wednesday, 17 September Le borse, che hanno come obiettivo la definizione di un ponte tra ricerca accademica e sistema delle imprese sono suddivise su quattro assi: Read more.
Seminar: Extracting latent structures in multiplex networks of public transportation - Sept. Interactive simulation shows risk of Ebola arriving at different airports around the world Monday, 25 August New study explores Wikipedia, Last. Thursday, 24 July Dario Taraborelli? Wikimedia Foundation.