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Masks have served an important role as a means of discipline and have been used to admonish. Common in China, Africa, Oceania, and North America , admonitory masks usually completely cover the features of the wearer. Some African peoples hold that the first mask to be used was an admonitory one.

In one version of the mask origin, a child, repeatedly told not to, persisted in following its mother to fetch water. To frighten and discipline the child, the mother painted a hideous face on the bottom of her water gourd.


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Another version is that the mask was invented by a secret society to escape recognition while punishing marauders. In New Britain , an island of Papua New Guinea , members of a secret terrorist society called the Dukduk appear in monstrous five-foot masks to police, to judge, and to execute offenders. Aggressive supernatural spirits of an almost demonic nature are represented by these masks, which are constructed from a variety of materials, usually including tapa, or bark cloth , and the pith of certain reeds.

These materials are painted in brilliant colours, with brick red and acid green predominating. In many cultures throughout the world, a judge wore a mask to protect him from future recriminations. In this instance, the mask represents a traditionally sanctioned spirit from the past who assumes responsibility for the decision levied on the culprit. Rituals, often nocturnal, by members of secret societies wearing ancestor masks are reminders of the ancient sanction of their conduct. In many cultures, these masked ceremonies are intended to prevent miscreant acts and to maintain the circumscribed activities of the group.

Along the Guinea coast of West Africa , for instance, many highly realistic masks represent ancestors who enjoyed specific cultural roles; the masks symbolize sanction and control when donned by the wearer. These traditional ancestral emissaries exert by their spirit power a social control for the community.

Particularly among Oceanic peoples, American Indians, and African peoples, certain times of the year are set aside to honour spirits or ancestors. Among nonliterate peoples who cannot record their own histories, masked rituals act as an important link between past and present, giving a sense of historic continuity that strengthens their social bond.

On these occasions, masks usually recognizable as dead chieftains, relatives, friends, or even foes are worn or exhibited. Gifts are made to the spirits incarnated in the masks, while in other instances dancers wearing stylized mourning masks perform the prescribed ceremony. In western Melanesia , the ancestral ceremonial mask occurs in a great variety of forms and materials.

Michael Myers' mask

The Sepik River area in north-central New Guinea is the source of an extremely rich array of these mask forms mostly carved in wood, ranging from small faces to large fantastic forms with a variety of appendages affixed to the wood, including shell, fibre, animal skins, seed, flowers, and feathers. These masks are highly polychromed with earth colours of red and yellow, lime white, and charcoal black. They often represent supernatural spirits as well as ancestors and therefore have both a religious and a social significance.

Members of secret societies usually conduct the rituals of initiation , a time during which young people are instructed in their future roles as adults and are acquainted with the rules controlling the social stability of the group. Totem and spiritualistic masks are donned by the elders at these ceremonies. Sometimes the masks used are reserved only for initiations. Among the most impressive of the initiation masks are the exquisitely carved human faces of west-coast African peoples.

About masks

In western and central Democratic Republic of the Congo , large colourful helmetlike masks are used as a masquerading device when the youth emerges from the initiation area and is introduced to the villagers as an adult of the tribe. After a lengthy ordeal of teaching and initiation rites, for instance, a Pende youth appears in a distinctive colourful mask indicative of his new role as an adult.

The mask is later cast aside and replaced by a small ivory duplicate, worn as a charm against misfortune and as a symbol of manhood. Believing everything in nature to possess a spirit, humans found authority for themselves and their families by identifying with a specific nonhuman spirit. An N95 respirator is a respiratory protective device designed to achieve a very close facial fit and very efficient filtration of airborne particles.

If properly fitted, the filtration capabilities of N95 respirators exceed those of face masks. However, even a properly fitted N95 respirator does not completely eliminate the risk of illness or death. N95 respirators are not designed for children or people with facial hair. Because a proper fit cannot be achieved on children and people with facial hair, the N95 respirator may not provide full protection.

FDA has cleared certain filtering facepiece respirators N95 for use by the general public. To work as expected, an N95 respirator requires a proper fit to your face. Generally, to check for proper fit, you should put on your respirator and adjust the straps so that the respirator fits tightly but comfortably to your face. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC does not generally recommend facemasks and respirators for use in home or community settings. However, they may be appropriate for persons at increased risk of severe illness from influenza or other respiratory diseases.

Mask - The functions and forms of masks | ziwopycaxa.tk

Please consult with your health care provider for more information about when to use N95 Respirators at home or in the community. FDA has cleared the following N95 respirators for use by the general public in public health medical emergencies:. These products are labeled "For occupational use.

However, some N95 respirators are intended for use in a healthcare setting. Specifically, single-use, disposable respiratory protective devices used and worn by healthcare personnel during procedures to protect both the patient and healthcare personnel from the transfer of microorganisms, body fluids, and particulate material.

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Subject to certain conditions and limitations, N95s regulated under product code MSH are exempt from k premarket notification. People with chronic respiratory, cardiac, or other medical conditions that make breathing difficult should check with their healthcare provider before using an N95 respirator because the N95 respirator can make it more difficult for the wearer to breathe. Note that N95 respirators with exhalation valves should not be used when sterile conditions must be maintained. All FDA-cleared N95 respirators are labeled as "single use", disposable devices. If your respirator is damaged or soiled, or if breathing becomes difficult, you should remove the respirator, discard it properly, and replace it with a new one.