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No, cancel Yes, report it Thanks! You've successfully reported this review. We appreciate your feedback. OK, close. Write your review. The first article demonstrates the applicability of the progressive hedging algorithm PHA , a scenario decomposition method, for managing hydroelectric reservoirs with multiannual storage capacity under highly variable operating conditions in Canada.

The PHA is a classical stochastic optimization method designed to solve general multistage stochastic programs defined on a scenario tree. This method works by applying an augmented Lagrangian relaxation on non-anticipativity constraints NACs of the stochastic program. At each iteration of the PHA, a sequence of subproblems must be solved. Each subproblem corresponds to a deterministic version of the original stochastic program for a particular scenario in the scenario tree.

Linear and a quadratic terms must be included in subproblem's objective functions to penalize any violation of NACs. An important limitation of the PHA is due to the fact that the number of subproblems to be solved and the number of penalty terms increase exponentially with the branching level in the tree. This phenomenon can make the application of the PHA particularly difficult when the scenario tree covers several tens of time periods. Another important limitation of the PHA is caused by the fact that the difficulty level of NACs generally increases as the variability of scenarios increases.

Consequently, applying the PHA becomes particularly challenging in hydroclimatic regions that are characterized by a high level of seasonal and interannual variability. These two types of limitations can slow down the algorithm's convergence rate and increase the running time per iteration. Hydrologic uncertainty is represented by a scenario tree containing 6 branching stages and 1, nodes. The PHA is especially well-suited for this particular application given that the company already possess a deterministic optimization model to solve the MTPP.

The second article presents a new approach which enhances the performance of the PHA for solving general Mstochastic programs. The proposed method works by applying a multiscenario decomposition scheme on the stochastic program. Our heuristic method aims at constructing an optimal partition of the scenario set by minimizing the number of NACs on which an augmented Lagrangean relaxation must be applied.

Each subproblem is a stochastic program defined on a group of scenarios.

NACs linking scenarios sharing a common group are represented implicitly in subproblems by using a group-node system index instead of the traditional scenario-time index system. Only the NACs that link the different scenario groups are represented explicitly and relaxed. The proposed method is evaluated numerically on an hydroelectric reservoir management problem in Quebec. The results of this experiment show that our method has several advantages. Firstly, it allows to reduce the running time per iteration of the PHA by reducing the number of penalty terms that are included in the objective function and by reducing the amount of duplicated constraints and variables.

In turn, this allows to reduce the running time per iteration of the algorithm. Secondly, it allows to increase the algorithm's convergence rate by reducing the variability of intermediary solutions at duplicated tree nodes. Thirdly, our approach reduces the amount of random-access memory RAM required for storing Lagrange multipliers associated with relaxed NACs. The third article presents an extension of the L-Shaped method designed specifically for managing hydroelectric reservoir systems with a high storage capacity.

The method proposed in this paper enables to consider a higher branching level than conventional decomposition method enables. We exploit this feature using a two-stage Benders decomposition method. Each decomposition stage covers several consecutive time periods. The proposed method works by constructing a convex and piecewise linear recourse function that represents the expected cost at the second stage in the master problem. The subproblem and the master problem are stochastic program defined on scenario subtrees and can be solved using a conventional decomposition method or directly.

We test the proposed method on an hydroelectric power system in Quebec over a week planning horizon. Abstract shortened by UMI. Best regards. Best regards,Anne-Sylvie Catherin. Incertitude in disaster sciences and scientists' responsibilities: A case study of the L'Aquila earthquake trial. What disaster sciences are expected by the society is to prevent or mitigate future natural disasters, and therefore it is necessary to foresee natural disasters.

However, various constraints often make the foreseeing difficult so that there is a high incertitude in the social contribution of disaster sciences. If scientists overstep this limitation, they will be held even criminally responsible. The L'Aquila trial in Italy is such a recent example and so we have performed data collections, hearing investigations, analyses of the reasons for the initial court's judgment, etc.

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As a result, we concluded that the casualties during the L'Aquila earthquake were mainly due to a careless "safety declaration" by the vice-director of the Civil Protection Agency, where the incertitude of disaster sciences had never been considered. In addition, news media which reported only this "safety declaration" were also seriously responsible for the casualties. The accused other than the vice-director were only morally responsible, because their meeting remarks included poor risk communication in disaster sciences but those were not reported to the citizens in advance to the L'Aquila earthquake.

In the presentation, we will also discuss the similarities and differences between our conclusions above and the reasons for the appeals court's judgement, which will be published in February. Palatability of sous vide processed chicken breast. The influences of brine composition, internal temperature, heating rate, and storage periods up to 28 d on flavor, texture, and color of sous vide processed chicken breast were evaluated. Pectoralis major muscles containing water and sodium chloride, with or without sodium lactate, were browned and vacuum packaged.

Sous vide processing was by fast or slow heating to an internal temperature of 77 or 94 C. Product was evaluated after 0, 14, and 28 d storage at 4 C. Quality was evaluated by gas chromatographic analyses of flavor volatiles, shear, color, and sensory panels. Incorporation of sodium lactate into brine did not influence oxidative stability as measured by headspace gas chromatography or sensory warmed-over flavor.

Presence of sodium lactate did result in enhanced fresh roasted or meaty and saltiness sensory scores as well as a more yellow color. The more rapid heating rate decreased sulfur-containing compounds and did not influence other volatile concentrations. Products processed to 94 C were less juicy, less tender, and contained higher quantities of alcohols and hydrocarbons than those processed to 77 C. Storage resulted in a decline in fresh roasted or meaty flavor note and an increase in warmed-over flavor note and quantities of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, hydrocarbons, and total headspace volatiles.

Lipoblastome de la fosse sous temporale. PubMed Central. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly p sous -vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TBARS was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous -vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen VBN value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous -vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous -vide cooking was increased gradually in this study.

Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous -vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers. Development of Pangasius steaks by improved sous -vide technology and its process optimization.

The present study embarked on the objective of optimizing improved sous - vide processing condition for development of ready-to-cook Pangasius steaks with extended shelf-life using response surface methodology. For the development of improved sous - vide cooked product, Pangasius steaks were treated with additional hurdles in various combinations for optimization. Based on the study, suitable combination of chitosan and spices was selected which enhanced antimicrobial and oxidative stability of the product.

The Box-Behnken experimental design with 15 trials per model was adopted for designing the experiment to know the effect of independent variables, namely chitosan concentration X 1 , cooking time X 2 and cooking temperature X 3 on dependent variable i. From RSM generated model, the optimum condition for sous - vide processing of Pangasius steaks were 1. This research may help the processing industries and Pangasius fish farmer as it provides an alternative low cost technology for the proper utilization of Pangasius.

Le mal de Pott est la forme la plus commune de la tuberculose osseuse touchant essentiellement le rachis dorso-lombaire. La localisation sous -occipitale reste exceptionnelle. Nous rapportons un nouveau cas de tuberculose sous -occipitale. Volatile compound profile of sous -vide cooked lamb loins at different temperature-time combinations.

Major chemical families in cooked samples were aliphatic hydrocarbons and aldehydes. The volatile compound profile in sous -vide cooked lamb loin was affected by the cooking temperature and time. Therefore, sous -vide cooking at moderately high temperatures for long times would result in the formation of a stronger meaty flavor and roast notes in lamb meat. All rights reserved. Tous les utilisateurs In this paper, physico-chemical and structural properties of cut and cooked purple-flesh potato, green bean pods, and carrots have been studied.

Losses in anthocyanins for purple-flesh potatoes and ascorbic acid for green beans were higher applying traditional cooking. Sous -vide cooking of purple-flesh potato is recommended to maintain its high anthocyanin content. For green beans, cook-vide, and sous -vide provided products with higher ascorbic acid content.

Thermograms of the combined High Hydrostatic Pressure and Sous -vide treated Longissimus dorsi of pork. In this work, slices of Longissimus dorsi of pork was used as raw material to establish the effects of the sous -vide technology and the high hydrostatic pressure treatments and their combinations on meat. The state of the proteins in meat has a very important effect on several quality parameters of the product, such as weight loss, water holding capacity, organoleptic properties. Therefore it is important to follow and analyse the denaturation of the protein content during food processing.

The changes in the condition of meat proteins were followed by a differential scanning calorimeter. As a new experiment the applied PQS data reduction method compared to the traditional thermal analysis data processing gave us less information on the differences of our samples although the results are promising as we were able to detect the same trends and characteristics. Changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous -vide cooking in the lipid and volatile profile of European sea bass. This study aims to shed light on the changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous -vide cooking on the lipids and volatile profile of farmed and wild European sea bass meat.

None of the cooking techniques provoked changes due to hydrolytic or oxidation processes detectable by 1 H NMR on sea bass lipids. The lipid profile of main and minor lipidic components was maintained after cooking. The compounds generated came from the occurrence, to a very small extent, of lipid and protein degradation. By contrast, boiling scarcely modified the initial characteristics of raw sea bass. Thus, from a sensory point of view and considering the odour-active compounds generated, steaming and sous -vide cooking provoked more noticeable changes than boiling, especially in farmed sea bass meat.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid EPA retained The major fatty acids in fish curry were C, C, C and C Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively.

Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems. Effect of sous vide processing on physicochemical, ultrastructural, microbial and sensory changes in vacuum packaged chicken sausages.

Lipid oxidation and microbial growth remained below the spoilage levels for all the SV-processed sausages throughout the storage and addition of rosemary diterpene mixture at 0. Quality evaluation of cook-chilled chicory stems Cichorium intybus L.

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Chicory stems, appreciated both raw and cooked, represent a nutritious and refined food. In this study the effects on the quality of stems cooked by conventional boiling, steaming and microwaving and innovative sous vide methods were analysed. Several physical, chemical and sensory traits were compared using two local varieties Galatina and Molfettese of southern Italy Puglia region.

Independently of the variety, the sous vide method did not significantly affect redness, yellowness and hue angle or had the least impact on lightness and total colour difference quality parameters among the four methods as compared with the raw product. Following sensory analysis, the sous vide product always showed the highest score among the cooking methods.

Moreover, this innovative method did not affect total phenol TP content and antioxidant activity AA compared with uncooked stems of both varieties. Microwaving increased TP content and AA though associated with higher weight loss , while different responses depending on the chicory variety were observed after boiling and steaming.

The results indicate the sous vide technique as optimal to preserve several traits, including organoleptic ones, for the quality of cook-chilled chicory stems. They also provide product-specific information usually required for cooking process strategies in the industrial sector of ready-to-eat vegetables. The science about deep Enhanced Geothermal Systems EGS is still an emerging process and for further spreading economics is the key of the technology. To understand the financial situation, a program for economic evaluation was developed.

This software Euronaut is completely modularized and considers all cash flows. Projects like an EGS are wrapped into tree-like structures. The first EGS configuration consists of a simplified two well doublet system where the dependencies of all components mainly the reservoir, wells, pumps and the heat-to-power conversion unit are physically and economically linked together. The realization of these dependencies and their complex interactions enable a sensitivity analysis of the borehole depth and reservoir depth, respectively. Then, this model can be used for all kinds of sensitivity analyses to clarify the impact of certain components or to optimize the operation scheme; e.

Development of a convenience and safety chilled sous vide fish dish: Diversification of aquacultural products. The dynamic expansion of the ready-to-eat seabream sector in its adaptation to new lifestyles has led to the search for new presentation formats in seabream Sparus aurata. Microbiological total viable counts,Enterobacteriaceae,lactic acid bacteria, anaerobic psychrotrophic, moulds and yeasts, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes , chemical pH and TBARs and sensory parameters were determined at 0, 7, 17, 34, 48 and 62 days. In the conditions used, the microbiological counts remained stable, and Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were absent.

The acidic sauce had a positive effect on the pH of the product, and low TBARs were obtained throughout storage. The processing conditions used in the present study allowed a chilled ready-to-eat seabream product of consistently high quality up to 62 days of storage to be obtained, representing an expansion of the products offered by the aquacultural industry. Spoilage of sous vide cooked salmon Salmo salar stored under refrigeration.

The spoilage of Sous Vide 'SV' cooked salmon stored under refrigeration was studied. SV processing prevented the growth of aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae. Instrumental texture data were contradictory. Slight decrease in lactic acid levels was found. In contrast, the SV cooked salmon suffered considerable sensory deterioration during its refrigerated storage, consisting of severe losses of cooked salmon odor and flavor, slight rancidity, discoloration associated with white precipitation, and moderates softness, and loss of chewiness and juiciness.

No acidification, putrefaction or relevant rancidity was detected. The sensory spoilage preceded microbiological and physical-chemical spoilage, suggesting that microbiological quality alone may overestimate the shelf life of SV cooked salmon. Improvement of microbiological safety of sous -vide meals by gamma radiation. Experimental batches of smoked-cured pork in stewed beans sauce were inoculated with spores of psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus, more heat and radiation resistant than spores of non-proteolytic C. After vacuum packaging, the meals were treated with combinations of pasteurizing heat treatments and gamma irradiation of 5 kGy.

The effects of the treatment order as well as addition of nisin to enhance the preservative efficiency of the physical treatments were also studied. Heat-sensitization of bacterial spores surviving irradiation occurred. However, approx. During the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs, abundant seismicity is generally observed, especially during phases of hydraulic stimulations. The mechanism at its origin has been related to both fluid pressure increases during stimulation and aseismic creeping movements. The fluid-induced seismic events often exhibit a high degree of similarity and the mechanism at the origin of these repeated events is thought to be associated with slow slip process where asperities on the rupture zone act several times.

To have a better understanding of the mechanisms associated with such events and on the damaged zones involved during the hydraulic stimulations, we investigate the behavior of the multiplets and their persistent nature over several water injection intervals. For this purpose, we analyzed large datasets recorded from a borehole seismic network for several water injection periods , For each stimulation interval, thousands of events are recorded at depth.

Classification of the seismic events is then improved depending on their location within the multiplets. For this purpose, inter-event distances within multiplets are examined and determined from cross-correlation analysis between pairs of events. These distances are then compared to the source dimensions derived from the estimation of the corner frequencies estimation. The multiplets properties location, events size are then investigated within and over several hydraulic tests. Hopefully these steps will lead to increase the knowledge on the repetitive nature of these events and the investigation of their persistence will outline the heterogeneities of the structures regional stress.

Abundant seismicity is generally observed during the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs, especially during phases of hydraulic stimulations. In order to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms associated with such events and on the damaged zones involved during the hydraulic stimulations, we investigate the behaviour of the multiplets and their persistent nature, if it prevails, over several water injection intervals. For this purpose, we analysed large datasets recorded from a downhole seismic network for several water injection periods , , ….

We detected the events using the continuous kurtosis-based migration method and classified them into families of comparable waveforms using an approach based on cross-correlation analysis. We obtain precise relative locations of the multiplets using differential arrival times obtained through cross-correlation of similar waveforms. Finally, the properties of the similar fluid-induced seismic events are derived magnitude, spectral content and examined over the several hydraulic tests. Hopefully these steps will lead to a better understanding of the repetitive nature of these events and the investigation of their persistence will outline the heterogeneities of the structures temperatures anomalies, regional stress perturbations, fluid flow channelling regularly involved during the different stimulations.

Les autres risques sont les accidents de travail, les maladies professionnelles, les troubles psychologiques. We analyzed purification mechanisms of silicon by inductive plasma with a fluoride slag. The aim is to study boron elimination from doped electronic grade silicon in function of the nature of the slag to obtain a photovoltaic grade silicon. The steady began with the calculation and the comparison of the stability diagram of boron compounds in presence of CaF2, BaF2 and MgF2. This study led us to conclude that BaF2 is the better slag for silicon purification.

This has been confirmed by experience. In a second time, we made purifications under electric bias to enhance slag efficiency. We noticed that BaF2 is more sensitive to electric bias than other slags. Influence of Sous Vide and water immersion processing on polyacetylene content and instrumental color of parsnip Pastinaca sativa disks. Blanching had the greatest influence on the retention of polyacetylenes in sous vide processed parsnip disks resulting in significant decreases of Chicken breast dipped with citric acid CA was treated by sous vide processing and stored in a refrigerated state for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 14 d.

A non-dipped control group CON and three groups dipped in different concentrations of citric acid concentration were analyzed 0. Cooking yield and moisture content increased due to the citric acid. Le potentiel de l'asteroseismologie pour les etoiles sous -naines de type B. While home-based chemotherapy improves comfort and quality of life of patients, quality and safety conditions must be equivalent to hospital settings. In addition, organization is much more complex. The administration of chemotherapy is performed by about nurses at the patient's home in Paris and its suburbs.

Centralized preparations of chemotherapy began in September by the pharmacy department of Georges-Pompidou European hospital, with a progressive increase of the activity. This article describes the quality insurance system established with this new organization to meet the specific challenges of home therapy: choice of eligible anticancer drugs, computerized information systems and networking with other heath facilities, secure transport conditions, traceability from the prescription to the administration, security of administration.

Effect of different temperature-time combinations on lipid and protein oxidation of sous -vide cooked lamb loins. Heating induced both lipid and protein oxidation in lamb loins. Higher cooking temperature-time combinations increased conjugated dienes and decreased thiobarbituric reactive substances TBARS values and hexanal. Links between the decrease in secondary compounds from lipid oxidation due to cooking at higher temperatures and for longer times with the increased levels of 3-methylbutanal and greater differences between total protein carbonyls and AAS plus GGS were hypothesised.

Harrabi et al. There is a variety of different food processing methods, which can be used to prepare ready-to-eat foods. However, the need to preserve the freshness and nutritional qualities leads to the application of mild technologies which may be insufficient to inactivate microbial pathogens. In this work, fresh chicory stems were packed under a vacuum in films, which were transparent to microwaves. These were then exposed to microwaves for different periods of time.

In addition, the process lethality of the SV-MW 90 s cooking was experimentally validated. This treatment led to 6.

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This average attitude is closely related to the past tectonic rifting activity of the graben during the Tertiary, and is consistent with data obtained from nearby boreholes and from neighbouring crystalline outcrops. Fractures are distributed in clusters of hydrothermally altered and fractured zones. They constitute a complex network of fault strands dominated by N-S trends, except within some of the most fractured depth intervals m, m , where an E-W-striking fracture set occurs.

The geometry of the pre-existing fracture system strikes in a direction nearly parallel to the maximum horizontal stress. In this favorable situation, hydraulic injections will tend both to reactivate natural fractures at low pressures, and to create a geothermal reservoir. All the publications imported from Pubmed between and were included. The following data were taken into account and analysed: the hospital department of origin, the number of articles published, the number of full-time physicians, the SIGAPS score.

Thirty-eight thousand, seven hundred and nine publications were included. The departments were consisted of full-time practitioners Professors [ The average number of full-time practitioner by department was 7. The average total number of articles published in a department was The mean number of publication by full-time practitioner was 7. Academic hospitals in Paris have a reasonably scientific output but with a mean of 2.

No major differences between medical and surgical disciplines were observed. Published by Elsevier SAS. Effets Seebeck et Nernst dans les cuprates: Etude de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi sous champ magnetique intense. Ce memoire presente des mesures de transport thermoelectrique, les effets Seebeck et Nernst, dans une serie d'echantillons de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Une attention particuliere est accordee aux equations de la theorie semi-classique du transport et leur validite est verifiee.

La procedure experimentale et les materiaux utilises pour concevoir les montages de mesures sont expliques en detail. Les donnees d'effet Seebeck dans les echantillons de La 1. Les donnees d'effet Nernst recueillies indiquent que la contribution des fluctuations supraconductrices est limitee a un modeste intervalle de temperature au-dessus de la temperature critique. Effect of the cooking method grilling, roasting, frying and sous -vide on the oxidation of thiols, tryptophan, alkaline amino acids and protein cross-linking in jerky chicken. The final product raw broiler charqui was desalted and then cooked using grilled, roasted, fried and sous -vide techniques.

Sous -vide cooked samples showed lowest results of moisture loss compared to roasted and fried ones. Fatty acid profile suffered minor changes after cooking of broiler charqui. Regarding to protein oxidation, tryptophan fluorescence, protein carbonylation and disulphide bonds formation of chicken charqui were affected by cooking temperature while free thiol groups, Schiff base formation and hardness were mostly impacted by the length of cooking.

Instrumental color of broiler charqui was affected by the type of cooking, being closely related with Maillard products formation. In conclusion, sous -vide technique seems to be the most advantageous cooking method to obtain high-quality ready-to-eat chicken charqui. Cooking loss values ranged between It was determined that total HCA amounts ranged between 1.

In addition, the migration level of BPA in sous -vide-cooked samples ranged between 4. Physicochemical and microbiological changes during the refrigerated storage of lamb loins sous -vide cooked at different combinations of time and temperature. Neither instrumental texture nor color showed noticeable variations during the storage. Microbial population remained quite low during the whole refrigerated storage. Overall, most of the studied parameters showed only scarce changes throughout 30 days of refrigerated storage that most likely would not influence the quality of sous -vide cooked loin lambs.

Effect of different temperature-time combinations on physicochemical, microbiological, textural and structural features of sous -vide cooked lamb loins. Different physicochemical, histological and structural parameters were studied. Increasing cooking temperatures led to higher weight losses and lower moisture contents, whereas the effect of cooking time on these variables was limited. Most textural variables in a texture profile analysis showed a marked interaction between cooking temperature and time.

Samples cooked for 24h showed significantly lower values for most of the studied textural parameters for all the temperatures considered. In Part I we present a multidisciplinary analysis model for the prediction of functional connections between the design variables and the electromagnetical, electrical and thermal performances of a brushless permanent magnet motor. In this paper we have elaborated a design methodology for electrical motors supplied from a variable-frequency low-voltage source. The objective is to take into account the influence of the inverter's dynamics from the beginning of the design, for the same reasons as we do for electromechanical and thermal constraints.

The procedure is based on a Sequential Quadratic Programming optimization method. Two techniques are used to take into account the influence of the inverter: the first one develops the performance analysis with the multidisciplinary model; the second one considers the inverter's current reference as a supplementary optimization variable for the control of the design.

Optimization difficulties linked to the chopping of the converter are discuted in connection with a sensitivity analysis of the torque, with respect to the inverter's current reference; a method is proposed to enhance the performances of the algorithm. The method has been applied to the design of a permanent magnet brushless DC motor used in the propulsion system of an electrical scooter; evolution of the design with the complexity level of analysis model is evidenced.