This was a distinctly masculine team, which was a sign of the greater responsibility and status the increased print runs brought to the department. Crucially they had been English language teachers, not literature teachers, and many of the new members had come to work in the department through working as translators. It was Schiray, with her experience in industry, who helped to set up planning systems for coping with the demands of production. The renovated department was a hybrid of the old and the new, but with a clear indicator of the different direction editorial strategy would take.
This modernisation programme was designed by the company director Ithier de Roquemaurel, an engineer. The new machines required at least 30, copies per run in order to achieve their brightly coloured covers and illustrations at the right price. In the s, the average print run for the big authors in the Rose and the Verte had been 44, copies. By the end of the s it was , copies. This pattern was reflected across the sector, with the average print run in calculated to be 23,, compared to 15, for the industry as a whole Hachette was clearly leading the field: as Piquard notes, only Hachette, with its famous messageries newspaper distribution network could manage this level of mass production thanks to its extensive distribution capacity The new books were brightly coloured, filled with colour illustrations, and cheap.
This series enjoyed only moderate sales, which was blamed on its relatively high price. This time investment was focused on the Rose and the Verte The new format dressed the books in bright glossy cardboard covers, onto which their colourful illustrations could be printed directly, identical for both series, but with pink spines for the Rose and green for the Verte.
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Inside, the text was accompanied by new colour illustrations. One volume cost francs, the price of a packet of cigarettes. Their spines were glued, instead of stitched, and volumes in both series were printed in 12x17cm format, either 92 or pages long. Henceforth, the Rose was aimed at boys and girls aged six to eleven years, and the Verte was for boys and girls between ten and fourteen.
To maximise the number of readers each series focused on age, rather than gender. By the early s the number of new titles in the Rose series had dwindled to between two and five per year However, the health of the Verte, a large series that could act as an umbrella for new titles, and could sustain large print runs and economies of scale, pointed the way forward. Books on their own did not sell.
Series generated loyalty, and so a book that appeared within them had a ready-made readership and a much higher chance of selling. Editors at other publishing houses agreed: Alsatia admitted that even a mediocre book could sell within a popular series, while at Gauthier-Langureau the editor explained that once parents began to trust a series, success was guaranteed With their heritage status, the Rose and the Verte were excellent and reassuring brands.
Fleurent was a passionate believer in the transformative power of mass culture. For him the book was a crucial tool in modern society, providing the technology for aspiration and intellectual development The catalogue playfully made the point that these were books intended for mass consumption.
Large colour photographs featured children playing with piles of books, leaning on them, even using them as a windbreak on beaches. Mirman surmised that the new formula seemed to have answered a real consumer need Similarly, Mirman spoke of feeling constrained by the expense of the technology and the drive to keep prices down. However, as Bourdieu reminds us, individual agents still had room for manoeuvre, and they could still shape the space within which they worked It will ask how the staff working on the production line understood the criteria for selecting content, and how their choices within the range of possibilities available to them shaped the new Hachette books.
Hachette acquired the French translation rights to Enid Blyton in The first print run of the Famous Five in France sold all 20, copies in a matter of weeks. Fouret wrote in that her book sales had been the most striking phenomenon of the modern department This success and subsequent reliance on Blyton seems to have further eroded the weak sense of autonomy amongst staff. Instead the percentage of modern, imported titles was greatly increased, with the focus on popular Anglo-American series literature, notably works by Enid Blyton for the Rose and the Nancy Drew series from the Stratemeyer syndicate for the Verte.
By the late s the list was almost fifty per cent modern translations. She notes this imprint was allowed to prioritise literary concerns His tone here was deliberately provocative. Although most of the regular reading team were mothers, many male authors and translators also produced such reports. Hachette administrative staff regularly earned extra money this way using assumed names.
She supplemented her salary with this type of piecework, and she emphasised her suitability for the role by the fact she had two children of reading age. Schiray recalled how she had once debated with one of the other readers whether to recommend the memoirs of a ballet dancer.
Schiray noted pointedly that this particular reader subsequently left to work for the more literary Gallimard. From the early s, Mirman and his team began to conceptualise the content in terms of sub-series, by author or character, within the large and growing lists of the Rose and the Verte. Series literature is distinguished by the repetitive nature of the stories, in which the same characters reappear, and never grow old.
His predilection for the Italian repertory and his constant preoccupation with the expressive characteristics specific to the Italian style of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are the decisive factors that orientate his musical approach and interpretative options, both at the head of Concerto Italiano, of which he is the founder and director, and as a soloist and guest conductor. Stories of Lovers and Warriors" which gathers togethers the finest madrigals ever composed by Monteverdi — of whom we celebrate the th anniversary in Internationally acclaimed Swedish mezzo-soprano Anne Sofie von Otter has long been considered one of the finest singers of her generation.
Accentus is a professional chamber choir committed to the a cappella repertory, the creation of contemporary works, and oratorio and opera. Founded twenty five years ago by Laurence Equilbey, it now appears in the leading concert halls and festivals in France and around the world.
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Accentus was voted "Ensemble of the Year" at the Victoires de la Musique Classique in , , and , and its extensive discography, ranging from early Baroque to Dusapin and Manoury, has received many awards from the musical press. The album "Transcriptions", which has sold more than , copies, was nominated for the Grammy Awards in Thierry "Titi" Robin built since the beginning of his career a very personal musical universe, looking for a harmony between various cultures he meets daily and which directly and profoundly influence him.
Source: Wikiart. License: Public domain. All of these are briefly described below. When the French text of Proust's novel entered the public domain in the late s, French publishers jumped at the opportunity to turn out new paperback editions, and the results predictably vary in quality. The series as a whole is edited by Jean Milly. Click on the image to enlarge. Fair use. An edition of the Grasset Proofs, the printer's proofs for the first three volumes of Proust's novel. An edition of the notebook in which appear the first drafts recognizably belonging to Proust's novel.
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Marcel Proust : Works in French. Overview At the risk of making a gross reduction, it is fair to say that Proust really wrote just one book: A la recherche du temps perdu , a sprawling, gorgeous, baffling, unforgettable novel about childhood and adolescence, travel and high society, sensation and sexuality, sleep and dreams, memory and forgetting, jealousy and art, comprising some 1.
A la Recherche du temps perdu by Marcel Proust, ed. R63 A7 While this edition corrects many of the numerous errors of the original NRF edition, a host of discoveries have been made since its publication with significant bearing on the structure and shape of the text, of which this edition by necessity does not take account.
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It presents the text of the novel in three volumes according to the following scheme: Vol.