Speed of Sound Waves. Periodic Sound Waves. Intensity of Periodic Sound Waves. Spherical and Plane Waves. The Doppler Effect. Superposition and Standing Waves. Superposition and Interference of Sinusoidal Waves. Resonance standing waves. Standing Waves in Air Columns.
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Standing Waves in Rods and Plates. Beating : Interference in Time. Non-Sinusoidal Wave Patterns. Thermal Physics. Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. Thermometers and the Celsius Temperature Scale. Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids. Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas. Heat and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Heat and Internal Energy. Heat capacity and Specific Heat. Work done in Thermodynamic Processes.
The First Law of Thermodynamics. Some Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics. Thermal Conduction - Energy Transfer Mechanisms. Convection and Radiation - Energy Transfer Mechanisms.
Gauss Law - Applications, Gauss Theorem Formula, Solved Examples
The Kinetic Theory of Gases. Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas. Molar Specific Heat of an Ideal Gas. Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas. The Equipartition of energy. Boltzmann Distribution Law. Distribution of molecular speeds. Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Reversible and Irreversible Processes. The Carnot Engine. Gasoline and Diesel Engines. Heat Pumps and Refrigerators.
Entropy change in Irreversible Processes. Entropy on a Microscopic Scale. Electric Fields. Properties of Electric Charges. Insulators and Conductors. Electric Field of a Continuous Charge Distribution. Electric Field Lines. Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium.
Electric Potential. Potential Difference and Electric Potential. Potential Differences in a Uniform Electric Field. Obtaining the value of the Electric Field from the Electric Potential. Electric Potential due to Continuous Charge Distributions. Electric Potential due to a Charged Conductor. The Millikan oil-drop experiment. Applications of Electrostatics. Capacitance and Dielectrics. Definition of Capacitance. For hydrocarbon fluids, this is sometimes approximated by dividing the number 18 by the electrical conductivity of the fluid. The excess charge within a fluid will be almost completely dissipated after 4 to 5 times the relaxation time, or 90 seconds for the fluid in the above example.
Static charge generation in these systems is best controlled by limiting fluid velocity. Bonding and earthing are the usual ways by which charge buildup can be prevented. Electrostatic induction was used in the past to build high-voltage generators known as influence machines.
The main component that emerged in these times is the capacitor. Electrostatic induction is also used for electro-mechanic precipitation or projection. In such technologies, charged particles of small sizes are collected or deposited intentionally on surfaces. Applications range from Electrostatic precipitator to Spray painting or Inkjet printing. Recently a new Wireless power Transfer Technology has been based on electrostatic induction between oscillating distant dipoles. Learning materials related to Electrostatics at Wikiversity.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series of articles about Electromagnetism Electricity Magnetism Electrostatics. Electrical network. Covariant formulation. Electromagnetic tensor stress—energy tensor. Main article: Coulomb's law. Main articles: Electric potential energy and Energy density. See also: Maxwell stress tensor. Main article: Triboelectric effect. Main article: Electrostatic generator. Main article: Electrostatic induction.
Main article: Static electricity.
Elements of electromagnetics. Electricity and Magnetism. Cambridge University Press.
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The Feynman Lectures on Physics Vol. II Ch. 5: Application of Gauss’ Law
Except at this point the divergence of the integral is indeed zero. The electric field at a distance r from the centre of the sphere is E a Find the charge density. Example 2 : Calculate the flux through the shaded q area face of a cube of side a when a charge q is located at one of the dis- tant corners from the side. Gaussian surface is a concentric sphere of radius r. Solution : By symmetry the field is radial. Take the gaussian surface to be a sphere of radius R.
Calculate the field at all points. By symmetry, the field has the same magnitude at every point on the curved sur- face and is directed outwards. By symmetry, the field is directed perpendicular to the sheet, upward at points above the sheet and downward for points below.
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There is no contribution to the flux from the curved surface. Show that the field in the overlapping region is constant. Example 5 : A sphere of radius R has a cavity of radius a inside it. Show that the field inside the cavity is constant. Solution : One can use superposition princi- a ple to solve this problem.
Related Papers. By Aravindh M. By Shaaban Zidane. Companion to J. Jackson's Classical Electrodynamics 3rd ed. By Hyunsoo Min.