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And I honoured my mother and my 6 mother's sister. And it came to pass, when I became a man, that my father blessed me, saying, Thou shalt be a king, prospering in all things. I know that 3 I raced a hind, and caught it, and prepared the meat for my father, and he did eat. And the roes I used to master in the chase, and overtake all that was in the plains.

A wild mare I overtook, and 4 caught it and tamed it. I slew a lion and plucked a kid out of its mouth. I took a bear by its paw 5 and hurled it down the cliff, and it was crushed. I outran the wild boar, and seizing it as I ran, 6 I tore it in sunder. A leopard in Hebron leaped upon my dog, and I caught it by the tail, and 7 hurled it on the rocks, and it was broken in twain. I found a wild ox feeding in the fields, and seizing it by the horns, and whirling it round and stunning it, I cast it from me and slew it.

And the other, the king of Tappuah, as he sat upon his 3 horse, [I slew, and so I scattered all his people. Achor the king] a man of giant stature I found, hurling javelins before and behind as he sat on horseback, and I took up a stone of sixty pounds 4 weight, and hurled it and smote his horse, and killed it. And I fought with this other for two 5 hours; and I clave his shield in twain, and I chopped off his feet, and killed him. And as I was 6 stripping off his breastplate, behold nine men his companions began to fight with me.

And I wound my garment on my hand; and I slung stones at them, and killed four of them, and the rest fled. Therefore my father was free from 10 anxiety in the wars when I was with my brethren. For he saw in a vision concerning me that an angel of might followed me everywhere, that I should not be overcome.

And I went up upon the wall, and I slew four mighty men. And so we captured Hazor, and took all the spoil. But I and Gad approached on the east side of the city, and Reuben and Levi on the 3 west. And they that were upon the wall, thinking that we were alone, were drawn down against 4 us. And so my brothers secretly climbed up the wall on both sides by stakes, and entered the city, 5 while the men knew it not.

And we took it with the edge of the sword. And as for those who had taken refuge in the tower, we set fire to the tower and took both it and them. And we fought with them and routed them; and their allies from Shiloh we slew, and we did not leave 3 them power to come in against us. And the men of Makir came upon us the fifth day, to seize our spoil; and we attacked them and overcame them in fierce battle: for there was a host of mighty 4 men amongst them, and we slew them before they had gone up the ascent.

And when we came to 5 their city their women rolled upon us stones from the brow of the hill on which the city stood, And I and Simeon hid ourselves behind the town, and seized upon the heights, and destroyed this city also.

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I, therefore, and Dan feigned ourselves to be Amorites, and as allies went into their 3 city. And in the depth of night our brethren came and we opened to them the gates; and we destroyed all the men and their substance, and we took for a prey all that was theirs, and their three 4 walls we cast down. And we drew near to Thamna, where was all the substance of the hostile kings. Then being insulted by them, I was therefore wroth, and rushed against them to the summit; and 6 they kept slinging against me stones and darts. And had not Dan my brother aided me, they would 7 have slain me.

We came upon them, therefore, with wrath, and they all fled; and passing by 8 another way, they besought my father, and he made peace with them. And we did to them no hurt, 9 and they became tributary to us, and we restored to them their spoil. And I built Thamna, and my 10 father built Pabael.

I was twenty years old when this war befell. And the Canaanites feared me and my brethren. And when I went to him I saw Parsaba, king of Adullam; and he spake unto us, and he made us a feast; 3 and when I was heated he gave me his daughter Bathshua to wife. She bare me Er, and Onan and Shelah; and two of them the Lord smote: for Shelah lived, and his children are ye.

And when eighteen years were fulfilled, in the fortieth year of my life, Esau, the brother of my father, came upon us with a mighty and strong 3 people. And Jacob smote Esau with an arrow, and he was taken up wounded on Mount Seir, and 4 as he went he died at Anoniram. And we pursued after the sons of Esau. Now they had a city with walls of iron and gates of brass; and we could not enter into it, and we encamped around, and 5 besieged it. And when they opened not to us in twenty days, I set up a ladder in the sight of all and with my shield upon my head I went up, sustaining the assault of stones, upwards of three 6, 7 talents weight; and I slew four of their mighty men.

And Reuben and Gad slew six others. Then they asked from us terms of peace; and having taken counsel with our father, we received them as 8 tributaries. And they gave us five hundred cors of wheat, five hundred baths of oil, five hundred measures of wine, until the famine, when we went down into Egypt.

And on the third night an angel of the Lord smote him. And he had not known her according to the evil craftiness of his mother, for he did not wish to have children by her. In the days of the wedding-feast I gave Onan to her in marriage; and he also in wickedness knew her not, 5 though he spent with her a year. And when I threatened him he went in unto her, but he spilled the seed on the ground, according to the command of his mother, and he also died through wickedness. And when I saw her pouring out wine, owing to the intoxication of wine I was deceived, and 3 took her although my father had not counselled it.

And while I was away she went and took for 4 Shelah a wife from Canaan. And when I knew what she had done, I cursed her in the anguish of 5 my soul. And she also died through her wickedness together with her sons. For it was a law of the Amorites, that she who was about to marry should sit in fornication seven days 3 by the gate.

Therefore being drunk with wine, I did not recognize her; and her beauty deceived 4 me, through the fashion of her adorning. And I turned aside to her, and said: Let me go in unto thee. And she said: What wilt thou give me? And I gave her my staff, and my girdle, and the 5 diadem of my kingdom in pledge. And I went in unto her, and she conceived. And not knowing 6 what I had done, I wished to slay her; but she privily sent my pledges, and put me to shame. And when I called her, I heard also the secret words which I spoke when lying with her in my drunkenness; 7 and I could not slay her, because it was from the Lord.

For I said, Lest haply she did it in 8 subtlety, having received the pledge from another woman. But I came not again near her while 9 I lived, because I had done this abomination in all Israel. Moreover, they who were in the city said there was no harlot in the gate, because she came from another place, and sat for a while in the 10, 11 gate. And I thought that no one knew that I had gone in to her.

And after this we came into 12 Egypt to Joseph, because of the famine. And I was forty and six years old, and seventy and three years lived I in Egypt. And walk not after your lusts, nor in the imaginations of your thoughts in haughtiness of heart; and glory not in the deeds 3 and strength of your youth, for this also is evil in the eyes of the Lord.

Since I also gloried that in wars no comely woman's face ever enticed me, and reproved Reuben my brother concerning Bilhah, the wife of my father, the spirits of jealousy and of fornication arrayed themselves against me, until I lay with Bathshua the Canaanite, and Tamar, who was espoused to my sons. For I said to my father-in-law: I will take counsel with my father, and so will I take thy daughter.

And he was unwilling, but he showed me a boundless store of gold in his daughter's behalf; for he was 5 a king. And he adorned her with gold and pearls, and caused her to pour out wine for us at the 6 feast with the beauty of women. And the wine turned aside my eyes, and pleasure blinded my 7 heart. And I became enamoured of and I lay with her, and transgressed the commandment of the 8 Lord and the commandment of my fathers, and I took her to wife.

And the Lord rewarded me according to the imagination of my heart, inasmuch as I had no joy in her children. For the spirit of fornication hath wine as a minister to give pleasure to the mind; for these two also take away the 3 mind of man. For if a man drink wine to drunkenness, it disturbeth the mind with filthy thoughts leading to fornication, and heateth the body to carnal union; and if the occasion of the lust be 4 present, he worketh the sin, and is not ashamed.

Such is the inebriated man, my children; for he 5 who is drunken reverenceth no man. For, lo, it made me also to err, so that I was not ashamed of the multitude in the city, in that before the eyes of all I turned aside unto Tamar, and I wrought 6 a great sin, and I uncovered the covering of my sons' shame. After I had drunk wine I reverenced 7 not the commandment of God, and I took a woman of Canaan to wife.

For much discretion needeth the man who drinketh wine, my children; and herein is discretion in drinking wine a man 8 may drink so long as he preserveth modesty. But if he go beyond this limit the spirit of deceit attacketh his mind, and it maketh the drunkard to talk filthily, and to transgress and not to be ashamed, but even to glory in his shame, and to account himself honourable. For even though a man be a king and commit fornication, he is stripped of his 3 kingship by becoming the slave of fornication, as I myself also suffered. For I gave my staff, that is, the stay of my tribe; and my girdle, that is, my power; and my diadem, that is, the glory of my 4 kingdom.

And indeed I repented of these things; wine and flesh I eat not until my old age, nor 5 did I behold any joy.

And the angel of God showed me that for ever do women bear rule over 6 king and beggar alike. And from the king they take away his glory, and from the valiant man his might, and from the beggar even that little which is the stay of his poverty. If ye drink wine in gladness, be ye modest in the fear of God.

For if in your gladness the fear of God departeth, then drunkenness ariseth and 3 shamelessness stealeth in. But if ye would live soberly do not touch wine at all, lest ye sin in words of outrage, and in fightings and slanders, and transgressions of the commandments of God, 4 and ye perish before your time.

Moreover, wine revealeth the mysteries of God and men, even as I also revealed the commandments of God and the mysteries of Jacob my father to the Canaanitish 5 woman Bathshua, which God bade me not to reveal. And wine is a cause both of war and confusion. For even wise men among my sons shall they mar, and shall cause the kingdom of Judah to be diminished, which 4 the Lord gave me because of my obedience to my father. For I never caused grief to Jacob, my 5 father: for all things whatsoever he commanded I did. And Isaac, the father of my father, blessed 6 me to be king in Israel, and Jacob further blessed me in like manner.

And I know that from me shall the kingdom be established. But the God of my fathers 4 had mercy on me, because I did it in ignorance. And the prince of deceit blinded me, and I sinned as a man and as flesh, being corrupted through sins; and I learnt my own weakness while thinking myself invincible. And in the midst is the spirit of understanding of the mind, to which it belongeth to turn whithersoever it will. And the spirit of truth testifieth all things, and accuseth all; and the sinner is burnt up by his own heart, and cannot raise his face to the judge.

For to me the Lord gave the kingdom, and to him the 3 priesthood, and He set the kingdom beneath the priesthood. To me He gave the things upon the 4 earth; to him the things in the heavens. As the heaven is higher than the earth, so is the priesthood of God higher than the earthly kingdom, unless it falls away through sin from the Lord and is 5 dominated by the earthly kingdom. For the angel of the Lord said unto me: The Lord chose him rather than thee, to draw near to Him, and to eat of His table and to offer Him the first-fruits of the choice things of the sons of Israel; but thou shalt be king of Jacob.

For as, on the sea, just and unjust are tossed about, some taken into captivity while some are enriched, so also shall every race of men be in thee: some shall be impoverished, being taken captive, and others grow rich by plundering the possessions of others. They shall swallow men like fishes: The sons and daughters of free men shall they enslave; Houses, lands, flocks, money shall they plunder: 8 And with the flesh of many shall they wrongfully feed the ravens and the cranes; And they shall advance in evil, in covetousness uplifted, 9 And there shall be false prophets like tempests, And they shall persecute all righteous men.

And there shall be continual wars in Israel; 2 And among men of another race shall my kingdom be brought to an end, Until the salvation of Israel shall come, Until the appearing of the God of righteousness, That Jacob [and all the Gentiles] may rest in peace. Ye shall make your daughters singing girls and harlots, and ye shall mingle in 3 the abominations of the Gentiles. For which things' sake the Lord shall bring upon you famine and pestilence, death and the sword, beleaguering by enemies, and revilings of friends, the slaughter of children, the rape of wives, the plundering of possessions, the burning of the temple of God,] the 4 laying waste of the land, the enslavement of yourselves among the Gentiles.

And they shall make some of you eunuchs for their wives. And he said to them: Behold, I die before your eyes this day, a hundred and 3 nineteen years old. Let no one bury me in costly apparel, nor tear open my bowels, for this 4 shall they who are kings do; and carry me up to Hebron with you.

And Judah, when he had said these things, fell asleep; and his sons did according to all whatsoever he commanded them, and they buried him in Hebron, with his fathers. For he called his sons and said to them: Hearken, my children, to Issachar your father; Give ear to the words of him who is beloved of the Lord. For Reuben my brother 4 brought in mandrakes from the field, and Rachel met him and took them.

And Reuben wept, and 5 at his voice Leah my mother came forth. Now these mandrakes were sweet-smelling apples 6 which were produced in the land of Haran below a ravine of water. And Rachel said: I will not give them to thee, but they shall be to me instead of children. For the Lord hath despised me, 7 and I have not borne children to Jacob.

Now there were two apples; and Leah said to Rachel: 8 Let it suffice thee that thou hast taken my husband: wilt thou take these also? And Rachel said 9 to her: Thou shalt have Jacob this night for the mandrakes of thy son. And Leah said to her: 10 Jacob is mine, for I am the wife of his youth. But Rachel said: Boast not, and vaunt not thyself; for he espoused me before thee, and for my sake he served our father fourteen years.

And had not Leah my mother paid the two apples for the sake of his company, she would have borne eight sons; for this reason she bare six, and Rachel bare the two: for on account of the mandrakes the Lord 3 visited her. For He knew that for the sake of children she wished to company with Jacob, and not for lust of pleasure. For on the morrow also she again gave up Jacob. Because of the mandrakes; 5 therefore, the Lord hearkened to Rachel. For though she desired them, she eat them not, but offered them in the house of the Lord, presenting them to the priest of the Most High who was at that time.

And my father blessed me, for he saw that I walked in rectitude before him. And 4 I was not a busybody in my doings, nor envious and malicious against my neighbour. I never slandered any one, nor did I censure the life of any man, walking as I did in singleness of eye. And the Lord increased ten thousandfold His benefits in my 8 hands; and also Jacob, my father, knew that God aided my singleness. For on all the poor and oppressed I bestowed the good things of the earth in the singleness of my heart. And walk in guilelessness, Not playing the busybody with the business of your neighbour, 2 But love the Lord and your neighbour, Have compassion on the poor and weak.

For no other portion is given to you than of the fatness of the earth, 6 whose fruits are raised by toil. For our father Jacob blessed me with blessings of the earth and of 7 first-fruits. And Levi and Judah were glorified by the Lord even among the sons of Jacob; for the Lord gave them an inheritance, and to Levi He gave the priesthood, and to Judah the kingdom. And shall serve their enemies. I never committed fornication by the uplifting of my eyes. I wrought godliness, all my days I kept truth 6 I loved the Lord; Likewise also every man with all my heart. And he stretched out his feet and died, at a good old age; with every limb sound, and with strength unabated, he slept the eternal sleep.

And he said to them: 3 Hearken to me, ye sons of Zebulun, attend to the words of your father. I, Zebulun, was born a good gift to my parents. For when I was born my father was increased very exceedingly, both in flocks 4 and herds, when with the straked rods he had his portion. I am not conscious that I have sinned 5 all my days, save in thought. Nor yet do I remember that I have done any iniquity, except the sin of ignorance which I committed against Joseph; for I covenanted with my brethren not to tell 6 my father what had been done.

But I wept in secret many days on account of Joseph, for I feared my brethren, because they had all agreed that if any one should declare the secret, he should be slain. And if indeed I have sinned, with chastening chastise me, my brethren but lay not upon me your hand, for the sake of Jacob our 4 father. And as he spoke these words, wailing as he did so, I was unable to bear his lamentations, and began to weep, and my liver was poured out, and all the substance of my bowels was loosened.

And when Joseph saw me weeping with him, and them coming against him to 7 slay him, he fled behind me, beseeching them. But meanwhile Reuben arose and said: Come, my brethren, let us not slay him, but let us cast him into one of these dry pits, which our fathers digged 8 and found no water. For for this cause the Lord forbade that water should rise up in them, in order that Joseph should be preserved.

And they did so, until they sold him to the Ishmaelites. But Simeon and Gad and six other of our brethren took the price of Joseph, and bought sandals for themselves, and their wives, and their children, 3 saying: We will not eat of it, for it is the price of our brother's blood, but we will assuredly tread it under foot, because he said that he would be king over us, and so let us see what will become of 4 his dreams.

Therefore it is written in the writing of the law of Moses, that whosoever will not raise 5 up seed to his brother, his sandal should be unloosed, and they should spit in his face. And the brethren of Joseph wished not that their brother should live, and the Lord loosed from them the 6 sandal which they wore against Joseph their brother. For when they came into Egypt they were unloosed by the servants of Joseph outside the gate, and so they made obeisance to Joseph after the 7 fashion of King Pharaoh.

And not only did they make obeisance to him, but were spit upon also, 8 falling down before him forthwith, and so they were put to shame before the Egyptians. For after this the Egyptians heard all the evils that they had done to Joseph. But I, through pity for Joseph, did not eat, but watched the pit, since Judah feared lest Simeon, Dan, and Gad should rush 3 off and slay him. But when they saw that I did not eat, they set me to watch him, till he was 5 sold to the Ishmaelites.

And when Reuben came and heard that while he was away Joseph had been sold, he rent his garments, and mourning, said: How shall I look on the face of my father 6 Jacob? And he took the money and ran after the merchants, but as he failed to find them he returned grieving. But the merchants had left the broad road and marched through the Troglodytes by a short cut. Dan therefore came to him and said: 8, 9 Weep not, neither grieve; for we have found what we can say to our father Jacob.

Let us slay 10 a kid of the goats, and dip in it the coat of Joseph; and let us send it to Jacob, saying: Know, is 11 this the coat of thy son? And they did so. For they stripped off from Joseph his coat when they were selling him, and put upon him the garment of a slave. Now Simeon took the coat, and would not give it up, for he wished to rend it with his sword, as he was angry that Joseph lived and that 12 he had not slain him.

Then we all rose up and said unto him: If thou givest not up the coat, we 13 will say to our father that thou alone didst this evil thing in Israel. And so he gave it unto them, and they did even as Dan had said. Have, therefore, compassion in your hearts, my children, because even as a man doeth to his neighbour, even so also will the Lord do to him. And when I was in the land of Canaan, by the sea-coast, I made a catch of fish for Jacob my father; and when many were choked in the sea, I continued unhurt.

And I let down a rudder behind it, and I stretched a sail upon another upright 3 piece of wood in the midst. And I sailed therein along the shores, catching fish for the house of my father until we came to Egypt. And if a man were a stranger, or sick, or aged, I boiled the fish, and dressed them well, and offered them to all men, as every man 6 had need, grieving with and having compassion upon them. Wherefore also the Lord satisfied me with abundance of fish when catching fish; for he that shareth with his neighbour receiveth manifold 7 more from the Lord.

And in the summer I caught fish, and in the winter I kept sheep with my brethren. I saw a man in distress through nakedness in winter time, and had compassion upon him, and stole away a garment secretly from my father's house, and 2 gave it to him who was in distress. Do you, therefore, my children, from that which God bestoweth upon you, show compassion and mercy without hesitation to all men, and give to every man with 3 a good heart. And if ye have not the wherewithal to give to him that needeth, have compassion for 4 him in bowels of mercy.

I know that my hand found not the wherewithal to give to him that needed, and I walked with him weeping for seven furlongs, and my bowels yearned towards him in compassion. Because also in the last days God will send 3 His compassion on the earth, and wheresoever He findeth bowels of mercy He dwelleth in him. For in the degree in which a man hath compassion upon his neighbours, in the same degree hath the 4, 5 Lord also upon him.

To whom taking heed, do ye also, my children, approve yourselves without malice, and love one 6 another; and do not set down in account, each one of you, evil against his brother. For this breaketh unity and divideth all kindred, and troubleth the soul, and weareth away the countenance. But if they are divided into many streams, the earth swalloweth them up, 3, 4 and they vanish away. So shall ye also be if ye be divided. Be not ye, therefore, divided into two heads, for everything which the Lord made hath but one head, and two shoulders, two 5 hands, two feet, and all the remaining members.

For I have learnt in the writing of my fathers, that Ye shall be divided in Israel, And ye shall follow two kings, And shall work every abomination. And He setteth not down in account evil to the sons of men, because they are flesh, And the spirits of deceit deceive them in all their deeds. He shall redeem all the captivity of the sons of men from Beliar; And every spirit of deceit shall be trodden down]; And he shall bring back all the Gentiles into zeal for Him.

And ye shall return unto your land.

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And ye shall see Him in Jerusalem, for His name's sake. For I shall rise again in the midst of you, as a ruler in the midst of his sons; and I shall rejoice in the midst of my tribe, as many as shall keep the law of the Lord, and the commandments 3 of Zebulun their father. But upon the ungodly shall the Lord bring eternal fire, and destroy them 4, 5 throughout all generations.

But I am now hastening away to my rest, as did also my fathers. But 6 do ye fear the Lord our God with all your strength all the days of your life. And when he had 7 said these things he fell asleep, at a good old age. And his sons laid him in a wooden coffin. And afterwards they carried him up and buried him in Hebron, with his fathers.

For he called together his family, and said: Hearken to my words, ye 3 sons of Dan; and give heed to the words of your father. I have proved in my heart, and in my whole life, that truth with just dealing is good and well pleasing to God, and that lying and anger 4 are evil, because they teach man all wickedness. I confess, therefore, this day to you, my children, 5 that in my heart I resolved on the death of Joseph my brother, the true and good man.

And one of the spirits of Beliar stirred me up, saying: Take this sword, and with it slay Joseph: so shall thy father love thee when he is dead. For the spirit of anger encompasseth him with the net of deceit, and blindeth his eyes, and through lying 5 darkeneth his mind, and giveth him its own peculiar vision. And wherewith encompasseth it his eyes?

With hatred of heart, so as to be envious of his brother. And the body of the angry man it maketh its own, and over his soul it getteth the mastery, and 3 it bestoweth upon the body power that it may work all iniquity. And when the body does all 4 these things, the soul justifieth what is done, since it seeth not aright. Therefore he that is wrathful, if he be a mighty man, hath a threefold power in his anger: one by the help of his servants; and a second by his wealth, whereby he persuadeth and overcometh wrongfully; and thirdly, having his 5 own natural power he worketh thereby the evil.

And though the wrathful man be weak, yet hath 6 he a power twofold of that which is by nature; for wrath ever aideth such in lawlessness. This spirit goeth always with lying at the right hand of Satan, that with cruelty and lying his works may be wrought. For it first of all giveth provocation by word; then by deeds it strengtheneth him who is angry, and with sharp losses disturbeth his 3 mind, and so stirreth up with great wrath his soul. Therefore, when any one speaketh against you, be not ye moved to anger, [and if any man praiseth you as holy men, be not uplifted: be not moved 4 either to delight or to disgust].

For first it pleaseth the hearing, and so maketh the mind keen to perceive the grounds for provocation; and then being enraged, he thinketh that he is justly angry 5 If ye fall into any loss or ruin, my children, be not afflicted; for this very spirit maketh a man 6 desire that which is perishable, in order that he may be enraged through the affliction.

And if ye suffer loss voluntarily, or involuntarily, be not vexed; for from vexation ariseth wrath with lying. So shall ye not fall into wrath and confusion; But ye shall be in peace, having the God of peace, So shall no war prevail over you. And sin with them in all things; And the sons of Judah will be covetous, Plundering other men's goods like lions.

And execute an everlasting vengeance on our enemies; 11 And the captivity shall he take from Beliar [the souls of the saints], And turn disobedient hearts unto the Lord, And give to them that call upon him eternal peace. Draw near unto God and unto the angel that intercedeth for you, for he is a mediator between God and man, and for the 3 peace of Israel he shall stand up against the kingdom of the enemy. Therefore is the enemy eager 4 to destroy all that call upon the Lord. For he knoweth that upon the day on which Israel shall 5 repent, the kingdom of the enemy shall be brought to an end.

For the very angel of peace shall 6 strengthen Israel, that it fall not into the extremity of evil. And it shall be in the time of the lawlessness of Israel, that the Lord will not depart from them, but will transform them into a nation 7 that doeth His will, for none of the angels will be equal unto him. And His name shall be in every place in Israel, and among the Gentiles. Depart, therefore, from all unrighteousness, and cleave unto the righteousness of God, and your race will be saved for ever. And bury me near my fathers. And his sons buried him, And after that they carried up his bones, and placed them near Abraham, and 3 Isaac, and Jacob.

When his sons were gathered together in the seventh month, on the 3 first day of the month, while still in good health, he made them a feast of food and wine. And after 4 he was awake in the morning, he said to them, I am dying; and they believed him not. And as he 5 glorified the Lord, he grew strong and said that after yesterday's feast he should die.

And he began 6 then to say: Hear, my children, ye sons of Naphtali, hear the words of your father. I was born from Bilhah, and because Rachel dealt craftily, and gave Bilhah in place of herself to Jacob, and she 7 conceived and bare me upon Rachel's knees, therefore she called my name Naphtali. For Rachel loved me very much because I was born upon her lap; and when I was still young she was wont 8 to kiss me, and say: May I have a brother of thine from mine own womb, like unto thee.

Whence 9 also Joseph was like unto me in all things, according to the prayers of Rachel. Now my mother was Bilhah, daughter of Rotheus the brother of Deborah, Rebecca's nurse, who was born on one and 10 the self-same day with Rachel. And Rotheus was of the family of Abraham, a Chaldean, God 11 fearing, free-born, and noble. And he was taken captive and was bought by Laban; and he gave him Euna his handmaid to wife, and she bore a daughter, and called her name Zilpah, after the name 12 of the village in which he had been taken captive.

And next she bore Bilhah, saying: My daughter hastens after what is new, for immediately that she was born she seized the breast and hastened to suck it. For as the potter knoweth the vessel, how much it is to contain, and bringeth clay accordingly, so also doth the Lord make the body after the likeness of 3 the spirit, and according to the capacity of the body doth He implant the spirit. And the one does not fall short of the other by a third part of a hair; for by weight, and measure, and rule was all the 4 creation made.

And as the potter knoweth the use of each vessel, what it is meet for, so also doth the Lord know the body, how far it will persist in goodness, and when it beginneth in evil. For 5 there is no inclination or thought which the Lord knoweth not, for He created every man after His own image. For God made all things good in their order, the five senses in the head, and He joined on the neck to the head, adding to it the hair also for comeliness and glory, then the heart for understanding, the belly for excrement, and the stomach for grinding , the windpipe for taking in the breath , the liver for wrath, the gall for bitterness, the spleen for laughter, the reins for prudence, the muscles of the loins for power, the lungs for drawing 9 in, the loins for strength, and so forth.

So then, my children, let all your works be done in order 10 with good intent in the fear of God, and do nothing disorderly in scorn or out of its due season. For if thou bid the eye to hear, it cannot; so neither while ye are in darkness can ye do the works of light. Sun and moon and stars change not their 3 order; so do ye also change not the law of God in the disorderliness of your doings.

The Gentiles went astray, and forsook the Lord, and changed their order, and obeyed stocks and stones, spirits of 4 deceit. But ye shall not be so, my children, recognizing in the firmament, in the earth, and in the sea, and in all created things, the Lord who made all things, that ye become not as Sodom, which 5 changed the order of nature. In like manner the Watchers also changed the order of their nature, whom the Lord cursed at the flood, on whose account He made the earth without inhabitants and fruitless.

And the Lord shall bring captivity upon you, and there shall ye serve your enemies, and ye shall be bowed down with every affliction and 3 tribulation, until the Lord have consumed you all. And after ye have become minished and made few, ye shall return and acknowledge the Lord your God; and He shall bring you back into your 4 land, according to His abundant mercy. And it shall be, that after that they come into the land of 5 their fathers, they shall again forget the Lord and become ungodly. And the Lord shall scatter them upon the face of all the earth, until the compassion of the Lord shall come, a man working righteousness and working mercy unto all them that are afar off, and to them that are near.

And behold Isaac, the father of my father, said to us; Run and lay hold of them, each one according to his strength; and to him that seizeth them 3 will the sun and moon belong. And we all of us ran together, and Levi laid hold of the sun, and Judah outstripped the others and seized the moon, and they were both of them lifted up with them. But Joseph came, and 8 seized him, and ascended up with him on high.

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And I saw, for I was there, and behold a holy writing appeared to us, saying: Assyrians, Medes, Persians, [Chaldeans,] Syrians, shall possess in captivity the twelve tribes of Israel. And behold, there came a ship sailing by, without sailors or pilot; and there was written 3 upon the ship, The Ship of Jacob. And our father said to us: Come, let us embark on our ship. And we, being tossed with the tempest, were borne along over the sea; and the ship was filled with water, and was pounded by mighty waves, 6 until it was broken up.

And Joseph fled away upon a little boat, and we were all divided upon nine 7 planks, and Levi and Judah were together. And we were all scattered unto the ends of the earth. And when the storm ceased, the ship reached the land as it were in peace. And, 10, our father came, and we all rejoiced with one accord.

Do ye also, therefore, charge your children that they be united to Levi and to Judah; For through them shall salvation arise unto Israel, And in them shall Jacob be blessed. So also is it with the other commandments. Be ye therefore wise in God, my Children, and prudent, understanding the order of His commandments, and the laws of every word, that the Lord may love you.

And when he had 3 eaten and drunken with a merry heart, he covered his face and died. And his sons did according to all that Naphtali their father had commanded them. Accordingly I guarded at night the flock; and whenever the lion came, or the wolf, or any wild beast against the fold, I pursued it, and overtaking it 4 I seized its foot with my hand and hurled it about a stone's throw, and so killed it. Now Joseph my brother was feeding the flock with us for upwards of thirty days, and being young, he fell sick 5 by reason of the heat. And he returned to Hebron to our father, who made him lie down near him, 6 because he loved him greatly.

And Joseph told our father that the sons of Zilpah and Bilhah were slaying the best of the flock and eating them against the judgement of Reuben and Judah. And 9 regarding this matter I was wroth with Joseph until the day that he was sold, And the spirit of hatred was in me, and I wished not either to hear of Joseph with the ears, or see him with the eyes because he rebuked us to our faces saying that we were eating of the flock without Judah. For whatsoever things he told our father, he believed him. Moreover, I hated him yet more for his dreams; and I wished to lick him out of the land of the living, even as an ox licketh up the grass of the field.

Whatsoever a man doeth the hater abominateth him: and though a man worketh the law of the Lord, he praiseth him not; though a man feareth the Lord, and taketh pleasure in that which is 3 righteous, he loveth him not. He dispraiseth the truth, he envieth him that prospereth, he welcometh evil-speaking, he loveth arrogance, for hatred blindeth his soul; as I also then looked on Joseph.

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For if a brother stumble, it delighteth immediately to proclaim it to all men, and is urgent that he should be judged for it, and be punished and be put to death. These things, therefore, I say to you from experience, my children, that ye may drive forth hatred, which is of the devil, and cleave to 3 the love of God.

Righteousness casteth out hatred, humility destroyeth envy. For he that is just and humble is ashamed to do what is unjust, being reproved not of another, but of his own heart, 4 because the Lord looketh on his inclination. He speaketh not against a holy man, because the fear 5 of God overcometh hatred. For fearing lest he should offend the Lord, he will not do wrong to any 6, 7 man, even in thought. These things I learnt at last, after I had repented concerning Joseph. For true repentance after a godly sort [destroyeth ignorance, and] driveth away the darkness, and 8 enlighteneth the eyes, and giveth knowledge to the soul, and leadeth the mind to salvation.

And 9 those things which it hath not learnt from man, it knoweth through repentance. For God brought upon me a disease of the liver; and had not the prayers of Jacob my father succoured me, it had 10 hardly failed but my spirit had departed, For by what things a man transgresseth, by the same also 11 is he punished. Since, therefore, my liver was set mercilessly against Joseph, in my liver too I suffered mercilessly, and was judged for eleven months, for so long a time as I had been angry against Joseph.

For in the presence of my father I spake peaceably to Joseph; and when I had gone out, the spirit of hatred darkened my mind, and stirred up my soul to slay him. For he who denieth may repent so as not again to wrong thee; yea, he may also honour thee, and [fear 7 and] be at peace with thee And if he be shameless and persist in his wrong-doing, even so forgive him from the heart, and leave to God the avenging.

For so it is expedient for you. And if he be further exalted, be not envious of him, remembering that all flesh shall die; and offer praise to God, who giveth things good and 3 profitable to all men. Seek out the judgements of the Lord, and thy mind will rest and be at peace. For if he taketh away from a man wealth gotten by evil 6 means He forgiveth him if he repent, but the unrepentant is reserved for eternal punishment.

For the poor man, if free from envy he pleaseth the Lord in all things, is blessed beyond all men, because 7 he hath not the travail of vain men. Put away, therefore, jealousy from your souls, and love one another with uprightness of heart. And he drew up his feet, and fell asleep in peace. And after five years they carried him up to Hebron, and laid him with his fathers. For while he was still in health, he said to them: Hearken, ye children of Asher, to your father, and I will declare to you all that is upright in the sight of the Lord.

Therefore all things are by twos, one over against the 5 other. For there are two ways of good and evil, and with these are the two inclinations in our 6 breasts discriminating them. Therefore if the soul take pleasure in the good inclination , all its 7 actions are in righteousness; and if it sin it straightway repenteth.

For, having its thoughts set upon righteousness, and casting away wickedness, it straightway overthroweth the evil, and uprooteth 8 the sin. But if it incline to the evil inclination, all its actions are in wickedness, and it driveth away the good, and cleaveth to the evil, and is ruled by Beliar; even though it work what is good, 9 he perverteth it to evil.

For whenever it beginneth to do good, he forceth the issue of the action into evil for him, seeing that the treasure of the inclination is filled with an evil spirit. There is a man who showeth no compassion upon him who serveth his turn in 3 evil; and this thing hath two aspects, but the whole is evil. And there is a man that loveth him that worketh evil, because he would prefer even to die in evil for his sake; and concerning this it is clear that it hath two aspects, but the whole is an evil work. He who defraudeth his neighbour provoketh God, and sweareth falsely against the Most High, and yet pitieth the poor: the Lord who commandeth the 7 law he setteth at nought and provoketh, and yet he refresheth the poor.

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He defileth the soul, and maketh gay the body; he killeth many, and pitieth a few: this, too, hath a twofold aspect, but the 8 whole is evil. Another committeth adultery and fornication, and abstaineth from meats, and when he fasteth he doeth evil, and by the power of his wealth overwhelmeth many; and notwithstanding his excessive wickedness he doeth the commandments: this, too, hath a twofold aspect, but the 9 whole is evil.

Such men are hares; clean,- like those that divide the hoof, but in very deed are 10 unclean. For God in the tables of the commandments hath thus declared. But from wickedness flee away, destroying the evil inclination by your good works; for they that are double-faced serve not God, but their own lusts, so that they may please Beliar and men like unto themselves.

For many in killing the wicked do two works, of good and evil; 3 but the whole is good, because he hath uprooted and destroyed that which is evil. One man hateth the merciful and unjust man, and the man who committeth adultery and fasteth: this, too, hath a two fold aspect, but the whole work is good, because he followeth the Lord's example, in that he 4 accepteth not the seeming good as the genuine good.

Another desireth not to see a good day with them that riot, lest he defile his body and pollute his soul: this, too, is double-faced, but the whole is 5 good. For such men are like to stags and to hinds, because in the manner of wild animals they seem to be unclean, but they are altogether clean; because they walk in zeal for the Lord and abstain from what God also hateth and forbiddeth by His commandments, warding off the evil from the good.

Death succeedeth to life, dishonour to glory, night to day, and darkness to light; [and all things are under the day, just things under life, unjust things under 3 death;] wherefore also eternal life awaiteth death. Nor may it be said that truth is a lie, nor 4 right wrong; for all truth is under the light, even as all things are under God. All these things, therefore, I proved in my life, and I wandered not from the truth of the Lord, and I searched out the commandments of the Most High, walking according to all my strength with singleness of face unto that which is good.

For they that are double-faced are guilty of a twofold sin; for they both do the evil thing and they have pleasure in them that do it, following the example of the spirits of 3 deceit, and striving against mankind. Do ye, therefore, my children, keep the law of the Lord, and give not heed unto evil as unto good; but look unto the thing that is really good, and keep it in all 4 commandments of the Lord, having your conversation therein, and resting therein.

For the latter ends of men do show their righteousness or unrighteousness , when they meet the angels of the 5 Lord and of Satan. For when the soul departs troubled, it is tormented by the evil spirit which also it served in lusts and evil works. For I know that ye shall sin, and be delivered into the hands of your enemies; and your land shall be made desolate, and your holy places destroyed, and ye shall be scattered unto the four 3 corners of the earth.

And ye shall be set at nought in the dispersion vanishing away as water. Until the Most High shall visit the earth, coming Himself [as man, with men eating and drinking, and breaking the head of the dragon in the water. He shall save Israel and all the Gentiles [God speaking in 4 the person of man].

For I have known that ye shall assuredly be disobedient, and assuredly act ungodly, not giving heed to the law of God, but to the commandments of men, being corrupted 6 through wickedness. And therefore shall ye be scattered as Gad and Dan my brethren, and ye shall 7 know not your lands, tribe, and tongue. Do you eat unclean meats?

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You shall therefore be holy, for I am holy. Notice that God wanted people to be holy, to know the difference between clean and unclean, and to know which animals may and may not be eaten. Are Christians supposed to be a holy people? Now where is that first written in the Bible to be holy because God is holy? The statement Peter quoted about being Holy as God is holy is repeated only three more times in the Hebrew Bible, the first in Leviticus where it then discusses the Sabbath and the second in Leviticus where it teaches about not being involved with witchcraft and then keeping God's statutes.

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Does your church teach that you are to be holy as God? Does it also teach that a sign of being unholy would be eating biblically unclean meats or violating the Sabbath? The final time is in Leviticus where God explains about avoiding unclean animals and being holy. So what could Peter have been talking about? The only subjects from the Old Testament could have unclean meat, the seventh-day Sabbath, or the statutes in the Law, including witchcraft.

However, the context says to avoid lusts. Lust is unlawful desire. Apparently Peter is including desires such as eating that which is unlawful. Paul emphasized that Christians were not to be unclean nor be mislead by those who did not teach that:. Notice that God says that eating unclean animals makes one abominable and that God's people are to be separate:. You shall therefore distinguish between clean animals and unclean, between unclean birds and clean, and you shall not make yourselves abominable by beast or by bird, or by any kind of living thing that creeps on the ground, which I have separated from you as unclean.

Do not touch what is unclean, and I will receive you 2 Corinthians Notice that the holy are distinguished from the filthy the unclean. Notice also that the Bible warns about those who love and believe a lie:. Revelation Consider also that dogs are biblically-unclean animals that eat any type of animal and that they are not to be emulated in the last chapter of the last book of the Bible.

All should realize that Paul did not want Gentile Christians to participate in uncleanness and that is something that they should repent of. Paul also wrote:. For this you know, that no fornicator, unclean person , nor covetous man , who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God. Let no one deceive you with empty words , for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience. Therefore do not be partakers with them Ephesians Is eating biblical prohibited foods or not eating them a sign of disobedience?

Is not consuming what the Bible prohibits covetous? Luke He essentially meant to not interrogate them about how the meat was killed, etc. He never told them to eat unclean meat, and none of them ever did--Peter later confirmed this for himself in Acts. Furthermore, Jesus was not sending them out to Gentiles, at that time. Consider the following related to a similar trip:. Freely you have received, freely give. Matthew The children of Israel would not be serving unclean meats.

And if there were Gentile households they visited, the Gentiles would have realized that the Israelites did not eat unclean animals. Thus, they would not have been served unclean meats. However, no one in the New Testament or Old Testament for that matter called of God ever ate unclean meats. The vision to Peter in Acts 10 is usually cited as proof. Scripture, though, does not say that unclean animals were cleansed nor did Peter believe he was supposed to eat unclean meat.

Let us notice that Peter, years after Jesus' death, still had never eaten any unclean meat:. I have never eaten anything common or unclean " Acts Thus it should be clear that Peter never thought that while Jesus was alive that He somehow made unclean meats food. And there is no evidence that any early Christian ate unclean animals.

In the vision Acts it does not say that all the animals shown were unclean, it says there were all kinds of beast and birds various beasts and most birds were clean--Leviticus 11, Deuteronomy If there were only unclean animals, then Peter probably would not have included the term "koinos" in his response. Peter did not then nor had he ever eaten any unclean meat, nor did he understand that he was to from the vision in Acts Acts What Peter understood from the vision was that God did not want him to call Gentiles common or unclean Acts The category of unclean is not eliminated through various inaccurate interpretations of that dream.

Paul tells the Corinthians in I Cor. Corinth was a Roman province, and pork was sold in their meat markets and butcher's stalls. So why did Paul say this to these Gentile converts? To before answering that, first let me state that no one in the Bible nor any true faithful Christian understood that passage to mean that they could eat unclean animals like pigs.

The "stalls" comment had to do with how it was killed or if offered to idols, or somehow common etc. Who would buy a piece of meat and not ask what animal it came from? The Apostle Paul somewhat referred to eating "common" animals in the following:. Animals offered to idols would have been killed by people who were not practicing the faith of the Old Testament, and in that sense may have been considered to be "common. As mentioned earlier, koinos should be translated as common; if it truly means unclean then so is our faith Titus and salvation Jude 3 since the word koinos describes each of those.

Unclean animals are not food, clean animals are. The only animals ever shown to be eaten in the New Testament were clean ones Matthew ; ; Luke ; ; John Jesus Himself declared that fish and eggs were good to eat, but that scorpions and serpents were not Luke The context of Romans 14 clearly shows that the subject is vegetarianism Rom , not a discussion of whether or not unclean meats should be eaten.

If this scripture or any other declares unclean meat fit for food, why doesn't it say so? Why do we never read of any Christian eating meats previously considered to be unclean in the New Testament? Romans simply does not say that all unclean meats are clean food. Romans says that all things are pure or clean. It certainly is not trying to say sin is clean. It does not say all meats are clean.

The context shows that Paul is discussing whether or not it is acceptable to eat animal flesh, and then he mentions alcoholic beverages, etc. Romans I agree that all food which is not diseased is clean. However, I am unaware of any scripture which states unclean animals are food. Now these things became our examples, to the intent that we should not lust after evil things as they also lusted.

And do not become idolaters as were some of them. As it is written, "The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play. Now all these things happened to them as examples, and they were written for our admonition, on whom the ends of the ages have come. Therefore let him who thinks he stands take heed lest he fall 1 Corinthians In other words, Paul is saying that many of the things written in the Old Testament were written for examples for Christians so that we should not lust after things those who were supposed to be God's people, lusted for.

He did not starve either Daniel , even though that was an apparent concern amongst one who was trying to feed Daniel unclean 'delicacies' Daniel , Shepherd the flock of God which is among you, serving as overseers, not by compulsion but willingly, not for dishonest gain but eagerly; nor as being lords over those entrusted to you, but being examples to the flock; and when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that does not fade away 1 Peter Nor is there any hint that this was accepted by any who professed Christ until at least years after Jesus died.

The Bible warns in a prophecy that people will eat unclean meat--this is a prophecy that has not been yet fulfilled, hence it should be clear from those that read and plan to live by "every word of God" that they should not eat unclean meat. Notice this prophecy that still is to be fulfilled:. My experience has suggested that those of modern Assyria, such as the Germans, eat a lot of unclean meat for more on the identity of Germany, see Germany's Assyrian Roots Throughout History. It is important to understand that the Bible clearly teaches that God will punish those who eat unclean meat in the future:.

The above is an end time prophecy. That is clear because Jesus will come and gather all nations upon His return--it has not happened yet. Since this a condemnation of those eating unclean animals at the end times, should any really think God thinks it is acceptable for Christians to eat the flesh of pigs and rats and other abominable things now? Since the New Testament complements the Old, and warns against uncleanness and unclean creatures, how have certain Protestant and Catholic theologians justified the position that it is acceptable to consume biblically unclean animals?

Although various theologians have pointed to the other points discussed earlier in this article, none of those verses allow for Christians to eat unclean meat. Nor are there any records into the first century that show that any professing Christians ever ate unclean meat. However, allegorical Gnostics from Alexandria Egypt may have been the first to teach that this was acceptable for Christians. The following is from an early second century document falsely titled The Epistle of Barnabas it is 'falsely' titled because the biblical Barnabas did not write it and it is not accepted as scripture by Protestant, Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, or Church of God followers:.

But in that Moses said, Thou shalt not eat the swine, nor the eagle, nor the hawk, nor the crow, nor any fish that hath not scales in itself, he had in his mind three doctrines. For in the end he saith unto them in Deuteronomy, And I will arrange before this people my ordinances.

The commandment of God is not, therefore, that they should not eat; but Moses spake in a spiritual sense. He spake of the swine with this meaning: Thou shalt not cleave, he meaneth, unto men of this sort, who are like unto swine, for when they become wanton they forget their Lord, but when they are in want they think upon the Lord; even as the swine when it eateth knoweth not its lord, but when it is hungry it crieth, and when it hath received it is again silent Apostolic Fathers, Epistle of Barnabas, , translation by Charles H.

The above is certainly not in the Bible. God told Moses to write statements such as:. And while some may wish to speculate as to why God made such an ordinance, it is certainly wrong to conclude, as the so-called Epistle of Barnabas does, that God did not command that swine are not to be eaten. It may be of interest to note that Alexandria appears to have been the original home of allegorists amongst those that professed Christ, as well as the home of various Gnostic and semi-gnostic leaders.

Do Christians wish to base their faith on those who do not believe what the Bible says? Even though the heretic Justin advocated eating unclean meats, even as late as around A. Now the law has figuratively predicted all these, delineating man by the [various] animals: whatsoever of these, says [the Scripture], have a double hoof and ruminate, it proclaims as clean; but whatsoever of them do not possess one or other of these [properties], it sets aside by themselves as unclean The unclean, however, are those which do neither divide the hoof nor ruminate But as to those animals which do indeed chew the cud, but have not the double hoof, and are themselves unclean Justly, therefore, did the apostle call all such "carnal" Irenaeus.

Adversus haereses, Book V, Chapter 8 , Verse 4. Excerpted from Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume 1. American Edition, Notice that Irenaeus, in the late second century, specifically taught that certain animals are unclean--Irenaeus also claimed to know Polycarp and perhaps he learned this from him Polycarp knew the Apostle John. And while Irenaeus is also describing how humans can be clean or unclean, he never suggests that one should eat anything that is unclean--especially since he condemns gluttony and adopting the lives of swine and dogs both of whom eat unclean meats. Eating unclean animals was certainly not an original part of the Christian faith.

Those who claim to believe the New Testament should consider the following:. Jude So since early Christians did not eat unclean animals, how come consumption of unclean meat became common? Well in addition to the Gnostic writings which were generally in conflict with the Bible , the answer could be revealed in a Catholic document titled Liber Pontificalis. According to the Liber Pontificalis , this was changed by Bishop Eleutherius shortly after the time the above was written:.

He also decreed that no kind of food in common use should be rejected especially by the Christian faithful, inasmuch as God created it; provided it was a rational food and fit for human kind Book of the Pontiffs Liber Pontificalis 2nd edition. Translation by Raymond Davis. It should be noted that Roman bishops were not called Popes that early that did not happen until the late fourth century.

This book which I purchased at the Vatican itself states this about Eleutherius:. He dispensed with the obligations of Christians to follow dietary laws of Judaic origin page 5. The above book should have said the obligations of biblical origin as the dietary restrictions began with God and not Jews the distinction between clean and unclean animals was known by at least Noah's time, since God so declared in Genesis Perhaps it needs to be stated that no one called of God in the Old Testament is ever shown to have consumed unclean meat.

Hence the Catholics and the Protestants that follow this edict are relying on a possible pronouncement of a bishop of Rome for justification of eating unclean meats more than they may realize. And this alleged decree did not happen until about years after Jesus was resurrected.

It would seem, however, that this could not have been assigned any earlier than A. Hence, it is clear that well into the second century, the laws concerning clean and unclean meats were considered to have been in force for Christians in general exceptions including the apostates in Alexandria. And that it is due to a later Catholic tradition that unclean animals became food for Roman supporters. In the third century an elder named Pionius, who claimed to be part of the Catholic Church, refused to eat unclean meat:. It was Saturday and after they had prayed and taken the sacred bread with water, Polemon the temple verger came in on them with his men in order to seek out the Christians and drag them off to offer sacrifice and to taste forbidden meats.

Polemon said: "Come then to the market-place; there you will change your minds. Sabina and Asclepiades said: "We obey the living God. As they came into the forum, by the eastern Stoa and the double gate, all the forum and the upper storeys of the porches were crowded with Greeks, Jews, and women. They were on holiday because it was a great Sabbath. They drew near, looking towards the tribunal steps and the voting urns. There was a lawyer by the name of Alexander, a wicked man, who spoke: "Listen to us, Pionius. What you know, I know; but what I know, you are ignorant of.

Then he interrogated him for the sake of the record, while a notary took everything down. Text from H. While some associated with the Greco-Romans, like Justin, apparently ate unclean meat, Pionius who seems to have had a connection to Polycarp of Smyrna did not. As far as the 'Catholic Church' goes, the first two times this appears in the literature it is a reference to the Church of God in Smyrna.

It was not until the late 4th century that the Church of Rome and its Eastern Orthodox confederation had it for its exclusive legal use because of a decree of the Emperor Theodosius related to the Council of Constantinople he called for in I should also add that the Church of Rome considers that the presbyter Pionius was a saint, hence the fact that he did not even wish to be accused of eating it in the mid-third century should show that those that considered themselves faithful Christians did NOT eat biblically unclean meats in the third century.

The Rome Emperor Constantine apparently liked unclean food so much that he persecuted those who would not eat it. Here is a report from a source with Middle East ties:. Constantine called a gathering of Christian monks with a view to the formulation of obligatory religious beliefs…However, some of them disagreed with this text…There was a scission and the symbol of faith which had been formulated was not regarded as valid.

Thereupon, three hundred and eighteen men gathered in Nicaea and formulated a symbol of faith, which was accepted and made obligatory by Constantine. People who dissented from it were killed and professions of faith differing from it suppressed. In this way people who professed the religion of Christ came to do all that is reprehensible; they worshipped the cross, observed the Roman religious rites and ate pork. Those who did not eat it were killed Pines S.

Jerusalem, pp. We know how the Judaeo-Christians refused this in order not to transgress the Mosaic law to which they held there were bound Bagatti, Bellarmino. Translated by Eugene Hoade. The Church from the Circumcision. Nihil obstat: Marcus Adinolfi, 13 Maii Imprimi potest: Herminius Roncari, 14 Junii Franciscan Printing Press, Jerusalem, , pp. And this was probably why the following is reported about the Greco-Roman Cyril of Jerusalem:. Perhaps the main argument I have seen from Protestant advocates is that many state that in the vision Peter received in Acts 10, that this vision meant that Christians were to eat unclean animals.

Of course, that is NOT how Peter understood the vision. Note that in and after the vision, Peter never eats any unclean thing. And unlike certain theologians who jump to inaccurate conclusions on this matter, Peter did not. Acts says,. After receiving instruction to see those men from the Holy Spirit Acts , Peter realized the meaning of the vision, which was,. The reality is that, even after leaving the Roman Church, Protestant leaders kept some of the unbiblical traditions that Gnostics and later, the Roman Church had.

And for nearly all of them, this included the consumption of unclean meats. Therefore, it is apparently from tradition, and not the Bible, that Catholics and Protestants truly came to their positions on this matter. And in vain they worship Me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men Matthew It matters not if the tradition happened for some , , or years after Jesus was crucified--early Christians did not believe that they were to eat unclean animals.

Interestingly, even though they would often eat unclean meat, even as late as the early third century, those affiliated with the Roman Church would not eat blood which is also prohibited in the Old and New Testaments. To clench the matter with a single example, you tempt Christians with sausages of blood, just because you are perfectly aware that the thing by which you thus try to get them to transgress they hold unlawful. And how unreasonable it is to believe that those, of whom you are convinced that they regard with horror the idea of tasting the blood of oxen, are eager after blood of men Tertullian.

Chapter 9. Translated by S. From Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. Cleveland Coxe. For Moses has had throughout many generations those who preach him in every city, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath Acts Notice that the apostles are teaching that avoiding blood is based upon the teachings of Moses:. Yet, even though the consumption of blood is specifically prohibited in New Testament, many who profess Christ today do or will if offerred eat blood or blood sausage. There is also pig and cow blood used in certain other processed foods these days as a type of "meat glue" see Pig and Beef Blood Used in Food Supply.

Of course, there are various health benefits associated with eating less processed foods see also UK Study Supports Daniel Diet. Perhaps I should mention that some believe that the decision of Acts 15 allows for eating unclean meats, not keeping the Ten Commandments, and many other such positions. The reality is that Christians, including most second century apostates claiming Christianity, did not understand Acts 15 that as the Ten Commandments were understood to be in forece after Acts 15 see The Ten Commandments and the Early Church and there is no evidence that Christians in the first century intentionally ate unclean animals.

A passage of scripture, not otherwise quoted in this article, is from Isaiah which teaches:. You will throw them away as an unclean thing; You will say to them, "Get away! The people shall dwell in Zion. His ultimate purpose for his people is that they may dwell in security and peace in his holy city. Yet he must prepare them and teach them translate Teacher in v. Evidently a description of the glories of the Millennium since this kind of prosperity has no appropriateness for a heavenly existence.

Copyright c by Moody Press. Well since the millennium has still not begun, this means that there are still unclean things that one should dispose of. Hence, it is not appropriate for Protestant, or other scholars, to imply that concepts of "unclean" were somehow done away. Thus, the relevance is that both the Old and New Testaments show that "unclean" is a concept that is relevant, even today, for true Christians. You will note that this passage says that creatures to eat are sanctified by the word of God. Recall that the word of God does sanctify those creatures to eat that the Bible calls clean and does not sanctify those creatures to eat which it calls unclean.

Furthermore, it should be clear to any with eyes to see that this passage is directed towards those who follow various teachings of Roman Catholicism. And it is the Roman Church that forbid the eating of clean meats on Fridays for centuries. It is this type of human restriction that the Apostle Paul is discussing in 1 Timothy. In the area that I live in, there are signs near the beach that state that it is illegal to sell local shellfish for about six months per year.

This is because it is considered to be unsafe to eat by medical authorities then. Of course, since shellfish tend to be bottom-feeders that eat scum I have watched many "fish" for crabs with the most rotten baits , no one really should consider these toxin collectors as healthy to eat. Furthermore, because of these toxins and other factors such as the exceptionally high iodine content in some shellfish, including shrimp , shellfish are one of the most severely allergic "foods" that humans tend to consume. Scientists have detected antibiotic-resistant bacteria in pork, pigs and some veterinarians.

It is possible that these so-called superbugs could infect farmworkers or even people who eat pork. Antibiotic-resistant bugs were found in more than 7 percent of over swine veterinarians tested. The same bacterial strains were found in nearly 50 percent of tested pigs. Perhaps of greatest concern, the bacteria were also found in 10 percent of more than samples of ground pork and pork chops collected from four Canadian provinces. An estimated 18, deaths a year in the U.

According to a study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , eating bacon five or more times a week was linked to increasing your risk of bladder cancer by 59 percent. You also need to beware of eating undercooked pork, as it can cause trichinosis. Fortunately, trichinosis affects only 11 people per year in the U. Turns out the high salt and sugar content of pre-cooked canned hams provides an ideal growth medium for the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The rare disease causes severe stomach pain, vomiting of blood and low blood pressure.

The culprit is the chitterlings-contaminating bacterium known as Clostridium perfringens type C, which produces a toxin that is lethal to tissue in your digestive tract. Even cooking the chitterlings might not rid them of the bacteria. The pork and swine industry has been continually plagued, and continues to be so to this day, by a wide variety of hazardous and deadly infections and diseases, including:. PRRS — A horrendous disease, which I first reported on in , but which had been a nightmare for many nations since the mids, is still alive and kicking today.

Initial research revealed that the virus was transmitted via semen, saliva and blood, leaving pigs herded closely together and transported in close quarters by trucks more susceptible to infection. However, according to new research presented at the International PRRS Symposium shows that the disease is now airborne , making eradication efforts very difficult.

The Nipah Virus — Discovered in , the Nipah virus has caused disease in both animals and humans, through contact with infected animals. In humans, the virus can lead to deadly encephalitis an acute inflammation of your brain. I originally reported on this virus in , but according to CDC data , the Nipah virus reemerged again in Hepatitis E HEV — According to the Mayo Clinic and an article in the Journal of Clinical Biology , pork may be the reservoir responsible for sporadic, locally acquired cases of acute hepatitis reported in regions with relatively mild climates as HEV has been found to transmit between swine and humans.

Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus PERV — According to a study in the journal Lancet , this virus can spread to people receiving pig organ transplants, and according to test tube studies, PERV strains does have the ability to infect human cells. Menangle Virus — In , the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases reported that a new virus infecting pigs was able to jump to humans. The menangle virus was discovered in August when sows at an Australian piggery began giving birth to deformed and mummified piglets.

Pasture-raised pig farming has expanded with increased demand from health conscious consumers, and currently there are 28 U.

Often it is paid through Medicare — costing taxpayers thousands. Tapeworms enter the body, normally ingested through pork or beef. The larvae use hook-like teeth to tear tiny holes in the intestines and sometimes travel to the brain. According to the CDC, neurocysticercosis is preventable, but happens with larval cysts of the pork tapeworm enter the brain. It is the most severe form of cyticercosis. The diagnosis, officially called Neurocysticercosis, is common in the third world about 50 million people are infected globally.

The worms are originally tiny: about the size of peas. They come from eating contaminated pork , and fight their way into the small intestines and cling to the flesh there while draining nutrients from their host. They can grow to be 20 feet long and can make tens of thousands of eggs a day, which ride through the bloodstream through the whole body. I found that both shocking and astounding. It probably should be noted that because cattle are not always proper raised, parasites can come from them, but the neurological parasitic problems are much more closely associated with pork.

CNN Once you consume them, they can move throughout your body -- your eyes, your tissues and most commonly your brain.

They leave doctors puzzled in their wake as they migrate and settle to feed on the body they're invading; a classic parasite, but this one can get into your head. Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas about a British man found to have a tapeworm moving inside his brain in This form of tapeworm had never been seen before in the United Kingdom. There are many forms of tapeworm, three of which can readily infect the brain. From a public health perspective, there's one in particular to watch out for. The pork species, known as Taenia Solium, can infect humans in two forms. The first is by eating undercooked pork from infected pigs, resulting in taeniasis -- an adult worm residing in the intestine.

The second, in the larval form, through contact with the feces of an infected pig or human, which can go on to infect many tissues.