The Romani people " Gypsies " who have origins in the Indian subcontinent travelled westwards and also took local wives in Central Asia , the Middle East , and Europe. Genetic studies show that the majority of Romani males carry large frequencies of particular Y chromosomes inherited paternally that otherwise exist only in populations from South Asia , in addition to nearly a third of Romani females carrying particular mitochondrial DNA inherited maternally that is rare outside South Asia.
They settled in different parts of India and befriended and traded with the local Indian population. Intermarriage occurred, and to this day the Indian Jews physically resemble their surrounding Indian populations due to intermarriage. There are also cases of Indian princesses marrying kings abroad. According to the Samguk Yusa, the princess' parents had a dream sent by a god who told them about a king from a faraway land.
In Goa during the late 16th and 17th centuries, there was a community of Japanese slaves and traders, who were either Japanese Christians fleeing anti-Christian sentiments in Japan,  or Japanese slaves brought or captured by Portuguese traders and their South Asian lascar crewmembers from Japan. Inter-ethnic marriages between European men and Indian women were very common during colonial times.
According to the historian William Dalrymple, about one in three European men mostly British , as well as Portuguese , French , Dutch , and to a lesser extent Swedes and Danes had Indian wives in colonial India. One of the most famous intermarriages was between the Anglo-Indian resident James Achilles Kirkpatrick and the Hyderabadi noblewoman and descendant of prophet Mohammed, Khair-un-Nissa.
During the British East India Company 's rule in India in the late 18th century and early 19th century, it was initially fairly common for British officers and soldiers to take local Indian wives. The , strong Anglo-Indian community has descended from such unions. There is also a story of an attractive Gujjar princess falling in love with a handsome English nobleman and the nobleman converted to Islam so as to marry her. The 65, strong Burgher community of Sri Lanka was formed by the intermarriages of Dutch and Portuguese men with local Sinhalese and Tamil women.
Intermarriage also took place in Britain during the 17th to 19th centuries, when the British East India Company brought over many thousands of Indian scholars, lascars and workers. A small number of which settled down in Britain and took local British wives, as well as a limited number going with their husbands. In Assam , local Indian women married several waves of Chinese migrants during British colonial times, to the point where it became hard to physically differentiate Chinese in Assam from locals during the time of their internment during the war , and the majority of these Chinese in Assam were married to Indian women, and some of these Indian women were deported to China with their husbands.
In the 19th century, when the British Straits Settlement shipped Chinese convicts to be jailed in India, the Chinese men then settled in the Nilgiri mountains near Naduvattam after their release and married Tamil Paraiyan women, having mixed Chinese-Tamil children with them. They were documented by Edgar Thurston. Edgar Thurston described the colony of the Chinese men with their Tamil pariah wives and children: "Halting in the course of a recent anthropological expedition on the western side of the Nilgiri plateau, in the midst of the Government Cinchona plantations, I came across a small settlement of Chinese, who have squatted for some years on the slopes of the hills between Naduvatam and Gudalur, and developed, as the result of ' marriage ' with Tamil pariah women, into a colony, earning an honest livelihood by growing vegetables, cultivating coffee on a small scale, and adding to their income from these sources by the economic products of the cow.
An ambassador was sent to this miniature Chinese Court with a suggestion that the men should, in return for monies, present themselves before me with a view to their measurements being recorded. The reply which came back was in its way racially characteristic as between Hindus and Chinese. In the case of the former, permission to make use of their bodies for the purposes of research depends essentially on a pecuniary transaction, on a scale varying from two to eight annas. The Chinese, on the other hand, though poor, sent a courteous message to the effect that they did not require payment in money, but would be perfectly happy if I would give them, as a memento, copies of their photographs.
The colour of the children was more closely allied to the yellowish tint of the father than to the dark tint of the mother; and the semimongol parentage was betrayed in the slant eyes, flat nose, and in one case conspicuously prominent cheek-bones. Vikings explored and eventually settled in territories in Slavic -dominated areas of Europe. Europe, especially the Balkans, was an important source of captives for the Arab slave trade then, and Saqaliba Slavic slaves taken to the Arab World often intermarried or had unions with their Arab owners. The French Normans were descended from Danish Vikings who were given feudal overlordship of areas in northern France —the Duchy of Normandy —in the 8th century.
In that respect, descendants of the Vikings in France and Britain continued to have an influence in northern Europe as well. Many of the medieval kings of Norway and Denmark married into English and Scottish royalty and occasionally got involved in dynastic disputes. During World War I , there were , soldiers from British India ,  a large number of soldiers from French North Africa ,  and 20, labourers from South Africa ,  who served in France. Much of the French male population had gone to war, leaving behind a surplus of French females,  many of whom formed interracial relationships with non-white soldiers, mainly Indian   and North African.
On the other hand, Hindu soldiers in France were restricted from intermarriage on the basis of the Indian caste system. The administrations of the German colonies in Africa and the South Seas enacted bans on marriages with non-European natives in the early 20th century. When the issue was debated in the Reichstag in , this ban was rejected by a majority and an inclusive marriage law was demanded see German interracial marriage debate However, it never came to pass because of the beginning of World War I a few years later.
Nazi Germany introduced the Nuremberg Laws in , among which was the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour that banned marital as well as extramarital relations between Germans incl. Although Slavs could be in theory included as Aryans ,  Nazi Germany's legal practice consisted in strict segregation of Germans and most subjugated Slavs and harsh punishment for miscegenation, as exemplified by the Polish decrees of Comparative sociologist Amparo Gonzalez-Ferrer argues that one of the main reasons why Turkish men marry Germans more than Turkish women do is due to Islam permitting men but not women to marry non-Muslims.
In ancient history , the Iberian Peninsula was frequently invaded by foreigners who intermarried with the native population. One of the earliest foreign groups to arrive to the region were the Indo-European Celts who intermarried with the pre-Indo-European Iberians in prehistoric Iberia.
They were in turn followed by the Germanic Visigoths , Suebi and Vandals and the Sarmatian Alans who also intermarried with the local population in Hispania during late Antiquity. In the 6th century, the region was reconquered by the Byzantine Empire Eastern Roman Empire before it was lost again to the Visigothic Kingdom less than a century later. After the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in the early 8th century, the Islamic state of Al-Andalus was established in Iberia.
Due to Islamic marital law allowing a Muslim male to marry Christian and Jewish females, it became common for Arab and Berber males from North Africa to intermarry with the local Germanic, Roman and Iberian females of Hispania. By the 11th or 12th century, the Muslim population of Al-Andalus had merged into a homogeneous group of people known as the " Moors ".
After the Reconquista , which was completed in , most of the Moors were forced to either flee to Morocco or convert to Christianity. The ones who converted to Christianity were known as Moriscoes , and they were often persecuted by the Spanish Inquisition on the basis of the Limpieza de sangre "Cleanliness of blood" or " blue blood " doctrine. According to Gilberto Freyre , a Brazilian sociologist, miscegenation was commonplace in the Portuguese colonies , and was even supported by the court as a way to boost low populations and guarantee a successful and cohesive settlement.
Thus, settlers often released African slaves to become their wives. The children were guaranteed full Portuguese citizenship , provided the parents were married. Miscegenation was still common in Africa until the independence of the former Portuguese colonies in the mids. Most Icelanders are descendants of Norwegian settlers and Celts from Ireland and Scotland , brought over as slaves during the age of settlement.
As was the case in other areas occupied by Muslims, it was acceptable in Islamic marital law for a Muslim male to marry Christian and Jewish females in southern Italy when under Islamic rule — namely, the Emirate of Sicily , and, of least importance, the short-lived Emirate of Bari between the 8th and 11th centuries. In this case, most intermarriages were between Arab and Berber males from North Africa and the local Greek , Roman and Italian females.
Such intermarriages were particularly common in the Emirate of Sicily , where one writer visiting the place in the s expressed shock at how common it was in rural areas. After a brief period when the Arab-Norman culture had flourished under the reign of Roger II of Sicily , later the mainlander Italians migrated to Sicily persecuted the Muslims of Sicily and they killed many of them;  later the remnants were expelled in with the persecution of Frederick II , who deported the Muslim survivors in Lucera.
In Malta , Arabs and Italians from neighbouring Sicily and Calabria intermarried with the local inhabitants,  who were descended from Phoenicians , Greeks , Romans and Vandals. The Maltese people are descended from such unions, and the Maltese language is descended from Siculo-Arabic. At times, the Italian city-states also played an active role in the Arab slave trade , where Moorish and Italian traders occasionally exchanged slaves.
For example, two researchers suggest that Leonardo da Vinci 's mother Caterina may have been a slave from the Middle East. Their Ottoman Turkish descendants went on to annex the Balkans and southern parts of Central Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. Due to Islamic marital law allowing a Muslim male to marry Christian and Jewish females, it was common in the Ottoman Empire for Turkish males to intermarry with European females. Some of these European wives exerted great influence upon the empire as Valide Sultan "Sultan's Parent" ; a notable example is Roxelana , a Slavic harem slave who later became Suleiman the Magnificent 's favorite wife.
Due to the common occurrence of such intermarriages in the Ottoman Empire, they had a significant impact on the ethnic makeup of the modern Turkish population in Turkey , which now differs from that of the Turkic population in Central Asia. The concubines of the Ottoman Sultan consisted chiefly of purchased slaves. Because Islamic law forbade Muslims to enslave fellow Muslims, the Sultan's concubines were generally of Christian origin. The mother of a Sultan, though technically a slave, received the extremely powerful title of Valide Sultan , and at times became effective ruler of the Empire see Sultanate of women.
Britain has a long history of interethnic marriage among the various European populations that inhabited the island, including the Celtic , Roman , Viking , Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman peoples. In the late 15th century, the Romani people arrived. The arriving Romani nomads took local British wives, forming a distinct community known as the Romnichal. Due to intermarriage, Romnichal today are often indistinguishable from the general white British population. Inter-ethnic marriage began occurring more often in Britain since the 17th century, when the British East India Company began bringing over many Indian scholars, lascars , servants and workers.
Though mixed marriages were not always accepted in British society, there were no legal restrictions against intermarriage at the time. The small number of ethnic minority women in Britain were often outnumbered by "half-caste Indian" daughters born from white mothers and Indian fathers although mixed race families were still very unusual in Britain at this time.
Following World War I , there were significantly more females than males in Britain,  and there were increasing numbers of seamen from the Indian subcontinent , Arab World , Far East and Caribbean. A number of the seamen intermarried and cohabited with local British women, which raised increasing concerns from a minority over miscegenation and led to a handful of race riots in at the time. A few concerns were voiced regarding white adolescent girls forming relationships with men of colour, including South Asian seamen in the s,  Muslim immigrants in the s to s,  African American GIs during World War II, Maltese and Cypriot cafe owners in the s to s, Caribbean immigrants in the s to s, and South Asian immigrants in the s although the continuing record of mixed marriages and the later acceptance of successful mixed-race offspring in public and cultural life suggests tolerance at the time was the norm.
But a recent ethnographic study  argues that there are a number negative impacts despite the veneer of tolerance. The first Chinese settlers were mainly Cantonese from south China , with some also from Shanghai. The figures of Chinese for are 2, men and women. Many Chinese men married British women while others remained single, possibly supporting a wife and family back home in China. During the second world war —45 another wave of Chinese seamen from Shanghai and of Cantonese origin married British women. Records show that about some of these men had married British women and supported families.
In , an international incident was created when the British government took exception to the "difficult problem"  of the marriage of Seretse Khama and Ruth Williams , whom he had met while studying law in London.
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The interracial marriage sparked a furore among both the tribal elders of the Bamangwato and the apartheid government of South Africa. The latter objected to the idea of an interracial couple ruling just across their northern border, and exerted pressure to have Khama removed from his chieftainship. Britain's Labour government, then heavily in debt from World War II , could not afford to lose cheap South African gold and uranium supplies.
They also feared South Africa might take direct action against Bechuanaland, Khama's homeland, through economic sanctions or a military incursion. Though the investigation reported that he was eminently fit for the rule of Bechuanaland, "but for his unfortunate marriage",  the government ordered the report suppressed. It would remain so for thirty years. It exiled Khama and his wife from Bechuanaland in It was many years before the couple was allowed to live in Africa, and several more years before Khama became president of what is now Botswana. Their son Ian Khama served as the president of that country decades later.
The largest differences between people who were married and cohabiting were in the Asian ethnic groups. The proportion of people in inter-ethnic relationships was lower in , compared to From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Further information: Marriage laws and Anti-miscegenation laws. Main article: Interracial marriage in the United States. No laws passed. Repealed before Repealed between and Overturned on 12 June See also: Metis people Canada. See also: Chinese Peruvian. See also: Chinese Cuban. See also: Chinese immigration to Mexico. See also: Chinese people in Costa Rica.
See also: Chinese Venezuelan. See also: Chinese Jamaicans. See also: Demographics of Australia. Main article: Tanka people. Main article: Marriage in South Korea. See also: Orfas del Rei. See also: Valide Sultan and Sultanate of women. See also: United Kingdom Census December International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling. Family Relations.
Retrieved 9 May Archived from the original on 15 October Retrieved 13 January Communication Quarterly.
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Channel 4. Archived from the original on 17 October Retrieved 22 March January Census Brief" PDF. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 8 May Retrieved 30 January Pew Research Center. Retrieved 22 October Pew Research. Retrieved 21 January Journal of Marriage and Family. Journal of Leisure Research. The Black Past. Retrieved 11 April Retrieved 29 January Chinese blacks in the Americas. Color Q World. Retrieved 15 July Retrieved 2 March Asian American children: a historical handbook and guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. Kessinger Publishing.
Catron Divorce: crisis, challenge, or relief? NYU Press. Intermarriage in the United States, Volume 5. Psychology Press. Interracial Marriage in Hawaii. Bulletin, Issues 13— Office of Education Bulletin, Issue American journal of physical anthropology, Volume 3.
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Archived from the original on Coolie Woman: The Odyssey of Indenture. University of Chicago Press. Liang-chi Wang; Gungwu Wang, eds. Volume 2 of The Chinese Diaspora illustrated ed.
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Johns Hopkins studies in Atlantic history and culture illustrated ed. Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved 17 May Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Origins and Development of Racial Ideology in Trinidad. Ryan Global Mixed Race. History in Action. The University of the West Indies St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago Dept. Archived from the original PDF on 8 March Retrieved 28 June Mike Hoolboom ed. Practical Dreamers: Conversations with Movie Artists illustrated ed. Coach House Books. Trinidad sweet: the people, their culture, their island 2 ed. Inprint Caribbean. Kaisa Para Sa Kaunlaran, Incorporated.
Dilip Parameshwar Gaonkar ed. Alternative Modernities. Volume 1 of A millennial quartet book, Volume 11 of Public culture illustrated ed. Duke University Press. John Janaki Nair; Mary E. John eds. Zed Books. History and African Studies Seminar series, Issues Reddock, eds. Women Plantation Workers: International Experiences. Volume 18 of Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Women illustrated ed. Bloomsbury Academic. Rhoda Reddock; Christine Barrow eds. Caribbean sociology: introductory readings.
Ian Randle. Volume 18 of Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Women. City University of New York. Association of Caribbean Studies illustrated ed. Women, labour and struggle in 20th century Trinidad and Tobago, — illustrated ed. Economic and Political Weekly. Palgrave Macmillan. University Press of America. India in the Caribbean.
David Dabydeen illustrated ed. Mate Selection Across Cultures. SAGE Publications. Studies of the Americas illustrated ed. Faith L. Smith ed. Sex and the Citizen: Interrogating the Caribbean. New World Studies illustrated ed. University of Virginia Press. Family in the Caribbean: themes and perspectives.
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Consuming the Caribbean: From Arawaks to Zombies. International Library of Sociology. Bechu: 'bound Coolie' Radical in British Guiana, — University of the West Indies Press. Wildside Press LLC. Janet Catherine North Symonds "Mrs. Symonds, " ed. Macmillan and Company. Maclean Publications. Bronkhurst Ontario Publishing Company. Ralph Norbreck's Trust. Meade The Chinese in Latin America and the Caribbean. Brill ebook titles. Lee Orientals: Asian Americans in Popular Culture.
Temple University Press. Chinese Overseas: Comparative Cultural Issues illustrated ed. Hong Kong University Press. Lee; Imogene L. Lim; Yuko Matsukawa Walton Look Lai illustrated ed. Press, University of the West Indies. Gonzales University of Texas Press. Volume 62 of Texas Pan American Series.
The David J. Weber Series in the New Borderlands History. UNC Press Books. Archived from the original on 1 July Latin American Perspectives. Their preferences also indicated that, as East Asians growing up in the United States, they had similarly struggled to belong and manage the expectations of their parents, described as an emphasis on education, hard work, honesty, and family.
More broadly, the making of Asian Americans reminds us that immigrant assimilations are multiple and may lead to integration into communities other than the white mainstream. The significance and survival of Asian American as an p. Complicating these debates about whether interracial marriage represented a pathway toward integration and equality or the surrender of political power through the collapse of cultural differences were interracial marriages that originated overseas and preceded immigration.
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As the United States became more diffusely involved in regions throughout the world during and after World War II, offering economic aid and intervening militarily, its civilians and soldiers came into intimate contact with other peoples. Wherever posted, American men developed sometimes fleeting, sometimes coerced, but sometimes consensual and lasting relationships with local women. Concerned that all such liaisons would cause tensions with local communities and leaders, the U.
Even after revising its policy toward soldier marriage through a series of bills passed between and , Congress initially excluded Asian brides and refused the request of Black and White interracial couples, reflecting and reinforcing racial prejudices of the period. War brides gained a privileged immigration status marked by exemption from quotas, accelerated naturalization, complimentary housing and care before departure, and free transport to the United States.
Their stories in part resemble those of other intermarried immigrants who struggled to build lives in a new country. In response to heightened Civil Rights activism and the search for peace between racial groups, these couples were also touted as an example of how diverse Americans could get along. Moreover, the heightened visibility of these war brides would practically encourage broader reforms, specifically an end to exclusionary policies toward Asian immigrants and the eventual substitution of preference categories for discriminatory, national quotas.
The reassuring and romanticized image of interracial war couples faded by the later Cold War as American doubts about the efficacy of U. The transition began in Korea with the proliferation of prostitution districts explicitly sanctioned by the Korean government and tacitly endorsed by the U. Although an estimated 11, Korean military wives would immigrate to the United States, most of whom had not worked in the sex p. Americans would similarly interpret Vietnamese women as prostitutes or saboteurs whose relations with American men should be reviled, not revered.
Such sentiments informed immigration policy; no longer would Vietnamese and other wives of American servicemen by the mids enjoy the special protections of the separate classification of war bride. Instead, they joined the general, undifferentiated pool of refugees. The history of war brides poses another crucial question for researchers of immigration.
What is the significance of intermarriage completed prior to immigration, a sequence that challenges Milton M. Census data, Daniel Hidalgo and Carl Bankston concluded that marriage to American citizens and resident aliens became a main avenue of Southeast Asian migration between and In contrast, Vietnamese refugees reaching the United States after proved less likely to marry non-Vietnamese. For both groups, the experience and memories of the war had a continuing, though declining effect on their connections with Americans as the century progressed.
To the contrary, they have noted that migration within or as a consequence of marriage can offer a unique path to social and economic mobility. More recently, the rising incidence of intermarriages and the election of Barrack Obama—son of a Kenyan immigrant and White American—have emphasized the complexities of migrations and racial mixing in a more globalized society as well as the prospects for new understandings of race and ethnicity. A more visible, and organized movement of mixed race Americans, who mounted a successful challenge to the U.
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Yet, questions about belonging and place remain unsettled. Will intermarriages if frequent and numerous enough, ultimately render meaningless the very categories of ethno-racial difference that have changed over time, but continuously organized American immigrant experience? Will we settle on another system of classification?
The importance of these and other questions reinforce the value of continuing to study intermarriage and immigration in the past. Despite the turn toward the transnational in U. David A. Chang, Martha Hodes, and Ben H. Johnson offer exciting examples of this line of investigation. He traces their paths back and forth across time, land, and water to illustrate the fluidity and multiethnic complexity of connected nodes in a global network.
There she enjoyed material comforts and respectability that had eluded her in Massachusetts. Historians are beginning to pay more attention, and should continue to do so, to immigrants arriving since Who are they marrying and not marrying? What ethno-racial and economic lines have they blurred or confirmed? Will new immigrants from Asia and Latin America repeat the patterns of European predecessors in creating larger categories of affiliation? What will these categories resemble?
Will they assimilate as readily? Some researchers studying current immigration have already expressed their doubts, citing the persistent, relative socioeconomic disadvantages of Mexicans in particular. The conclusions of such research about the marriage patterns of recent immigrants, of course, could shape thinking about immigration reform in a nation whose citizens agree change is necessary, but cannot agree about the details of change.
More theoretically, should we further interrogate the belief that intermarriage hurries integration or consolidation? How, when, and why are distinctions preserved and passed to new generations? For all the focus on intermarriages between defined racial groups, how has ethnicity fared especially among varied immigrants from Latin America who often resist the unity and utility of the labels, Latino or Hispanic?
Can historians discover more about the private as much as the public meanings of intermarriage? This poses a particular challenge given the interiority of such relationships, but oral histories and memoirs may offer glimpses into lives that are often discussed from afar, but not understood from within. Lastly, if not exhaustively, our definitions of intermarriage have assumed heterosexuality, but how do more capacious and varied definitions of sexuality and gender invite studies of other kinds of intimate, lasting relationships? Ultimately, the marriages and families forged by immigrants that defied narrower descriptions of ethno-racial traditions and community expose so much about the changing categories and hierarchies of belonging in American society.
Casas, Maria Raquel. Reno, NV: University of Nevada, Find this resource:. Chang, David. Duval, Katherine. Gualtieri, Sarah M. Berkeley: University of California Press, Hollinger, David. Katzew, Ilona and Susan Deans-Smith. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, Lee, Jennifer. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, Lim, Julian.
Pacoe, Peggy. New York: Oxford University Press, Sassler, Sharon. Fall : — Varzally, Allison. Wiesner-Hanks, Merry. Zeiger, Susan. It said simply:. I almost didn't answer the letter. What could I say, after all? But then I realized: a lot, actually. And I bet readers of my column could also say a lot, because haven't most of us been unhappy at some point?
And regardless of WHAT is causing this letter-writer's unhappiness -- maybe it's her marriage, or maybe it's something else -- what she's asking, basically, is what she can do to stop being unhappy to start being happy, and that's something I can respond to. So here's what I told her:. The best place to start for anyone who is unhappy is to try to figure out the cause of your unhappiness, and since the only info you shared about yourself is that you've been married six years and you're unhappy, it would be a logical assumption that it's your marriage that's causing your unhappiness.
Maybe there are other internal or external causes for your unhappiness and it's your emotional state that's affecting your marriage and not necessarily your marriage primarily affecting your emotional state. Can you pinpoint a time that you started feeling unhappy? What else was going on in your life? Can you think of a time that you WERE happy? What was different about your life then? What did you have that you don't have now? Or, conversely, what do you have now that you didn't then? How has your lifestyle changed? What new responsibilities do you have? What is your support network like?
Do you live near family?
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What are your major stressors? What are you -- or can you -- do to combat them? Do you exercise regularly? What's your diet like? How's your overall health? Do you sleep well? Have you gotten a physical recently? Do you have any illness, either physical or mental, that requires meds to treat? If so, is it possible that your dose needs to be tweaked? Do you have work or projects or activities in your life that feel meaningful to you? Do you have hobbies you enjoy? Do you have children? And if so, how old are they and is it possible you have PPD? If you have kids, do you feel like you get adequate support caring for them?
If you don't have kids, are you happy not to? Do you feel pressure to have them?