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Ana Ulehla. Juan Moreira Mimodrama de circo criollo Juan Moreira es una de las leyendas fundacionales de la sociedad argentina. Russell Senior is a man too smart to have ever been a pop star. And Pulp were too odd a band ever to have become so big. But we can only be grateful that he was, and they did - and that Freak Out the Squares tells the story in Russell's inimitable, entertaining and fascinating way. The first account of life inside Pulp, Freak Out the Squares recounts the band's origins in Sheffield to their glory days at the height of Britpop, revealing the story behind the anthem of a generation, "Common People".

The book gives a glimpse into the world of Britpop luminaries such as Blur, Elastica and Suede and charts Pulp's reunion tour, which culminated in a triumphant Glastonbury performance. Freak Out the Squares is Russell's exceptionally witty, unusual and enlightening account of the heady time of being a key member of Britpop's best-loved and most enduringly relevant band.

Seller Inventory AAO Published by Babelcube Inc. About this Item: Babelcube Inc. Condition: Brand New. In Stock. Seller Inventory zk Language: Portuguese. O poema, em paulo da costa, surge como um todo articulado. Digamos que o faz exibindo o poema como um cristal polido por onde a luz passa e se difunde. Un nivel en nuestra estatura que tanta falta nos hace. Vivimos en un mundo consciente. De necesidades conscientes. De tribulaciones, descuidos y caprichos conscientes. Tanto; que olvidamos a la otra voz.

Esa voz de un sentido mayormente agudo. Esa voz del presentimiento. En pocas palabras. Un libro de amor. Armando Blanco. Trans-imperial networks in global ports. His interests include the early modern European history in global perspective in particular Portuguese and Spanish empires , Atlantic History, and institutional economics.

He focuses on global ports, slave trade, trans-imperial networks, and Enlightened political economy. My research focuses on two ports of the Portuguese and Spanish empires, Havana and Rio de Janeiro, during the Age of Revolutions This project aims to reconstructing the trans-imperial networks of merchants based in these sugar export, slave import ports. Further, the research has two broader goals. Firstly, by dialoguing with institutional economic theory, I analyze the process of institutional evolution that took place in the Portuguese and Spanish empires in the turn of the 19th-century.

Secondly, the project seeks to intertwine both the North and South Atlantic.


Historians have lastly called the attention on the possibility of exploring a hemispherical approach as a way to overcome limitations imposed by imperial frameworks. Intertwining the history of different empires appears therefore as a fundamental task. We now dispose of works that compare and connect the British and Spanish areas, but unfortunately, comparisons that focus on both Spanish and Portuguese monarchies are yet to be done.

The latter might contribute to better understand the functioning of these Southwestern European empires when compared to the performance of their Northwestern competitors. Its principal objective is to arrive at a better understanding of how perceptions of this specific location contributed to the shaping of distinct political and cultural identities among different groups of Creoles residing in the viceroyalty.

Las rivalidades entre descendientes de panacas incas durante las rebeliones de los Tupa Amaru y de Pumacahua Documentos ineditos de los Tupa Guamanrimachi Inga - Cusco Carmen Escalante Se trata de investigar las rivalidades existentes entre los descendientes de Panacas Incas durante las rebeliones de los Tupa Amaru en y de Mateo Pumacahua en La legitimidad de ser los verdaderos descendientes de los Incas. Put together by different scholars and collectors between c. In this research, I argue that, much like Renaissance natural history, early modern ethnography was also comparative in its core.

By taking this argument to its fullest potential, this research presents an innovative approach to the study of the position of indigenous peoples within the early modern European mindset. More often than not, scholars have studied representations of South American indigenous peoples isolated from their North American, African and Asian counterparts. This division in national boundaries, however, is a result of later historical developments and does not do justice to the original contexts in which such materials were produced and used, which were in fact global contexts.

From a methodological and historiographical point of view, thus, the underlying premise of this research is that we can better understand how ideas about indigenous peoples helped shape early modern European mindset if we look at them comparatively, much like those early modern scholars did. Historia comparada y conectada de tres centenarios patrios latinoamericanos: Buenos Aires, Santiago de Chile y Lima por Pablo Ortemberg. Gypsy immigration to Argentina, Aleksandra Pudliszak.

The project focused on gypsy immigration to Argentina in the period of mass immigration to the country. Nine months of archival data collection and investigation of other primary sources such as newspapers, literary and folkloric sources, government reports and publications as well as scientific reviews of the time, helped to refine the research questions and to design a more sophisticated research proposal. Out of submitted applications, 40 proposals have been selected. The final decision of the committee is expected at the end of July The research started with the assumption that since gypsies are not indigenous to Argentina, they must have arrived to the country.

I found some important information see attachment 1 and indications for further research procedure. Programa de Doctorado. A letter of recommendation from the supervisor of this research Researchers accredited with these scholarships are expected to present their research to C EDLA , either by taking part in a conference, or by submitting a publication of their research. Biography of Professor Dr.

In this sense, Unamuno takes up the pen that Cide Hamete had hung up at the end of the novel, and puts himself in the place of Cervantes. Some chapters of the original work are dwelt upon a length; others are summarized in a single sentence. Similar selectivity is extended to certain aspects of the novel, especially the comic dimension. This is clearly the case in chapter X of Part II, another well-known passage, in which Sancho tries to convince Don Quixote that the evil-smelling and coarse peasant woman they meet is the enchanted Dulcinea.

Unamuno claims to be so distressed by the scene that he is unable to reproduce it in detail. No puede leerse sin angustia este martirio del pobre Alonso. This martyrdom of the poor Alonso cannot be read without anguish. All these reductions isolate and emphasize the figure of Don Quixote as a tragic and idealistic hero. Indeed, the work teems with references to figures from Spanish epic and mystic literature who lived fully prepared to die for their faith. All seem to come together in Don Quixote as the messianic proto-hero of Spanish faith and idealism.

Ultimately, the representation of Don Quixote and Sancho as real historical figures is in itself an act of fiction. Unamuno assents to the baroque thesis that life is a dream, an illusion, fiction. Y todo cuanto es vida es verdad. And whatever is life is truth. Is what we call reality anything more than an illusion which leads us to act and which produces deeds?

The practical effect is the only worthwhile criterion of the truth of any vision of whatever kind. In the last chapter of the book, this idea is associated with the political and cultural crisis of Spain. Beaten and battered, and finally vanquished in America, they return to their village. To cure themselves of their madness? Who knows? Perhaps only to die. Almost certainly to die, had there been no Sancho left to replace you, a Sancho full of faith.

By transforming Don Quixote and Sancho from fictional into real historical figures, Unamuno breaks away from Cervantes and creates his own fictional universe. Originally, a further two meditations were planned. This thesis is illustrated with the example of perspective drawings a technique called escorzo in Spanish , in which the foreshortened forms, although they remain surface, widen into depth.

All the more reason for us to focus on Quixote, our great question: O God, what is Spain? Ortega defines Don Quixote de la Mancha as a modern novel, no more distant from the sensibility of the contemporary reader than the work of Balzac, Dickens, Flaubert or Dostoyevsky. According to his theory of genre, the modern novel originates with the entry of reality as a new dimension in art. The hegemonic genres of the pre-modern period — epics and fantasy literature or literature of imagination, which included chivalresque fiction — focused on the representation of, respectively, a mythical past or an imaginary world of adventures.

Everyday reality was excluded from poetic representation. Ortega ascribes the poeticization of ordinary reality in the modern novel to the urge to parody. But we can consider it obliquely as destruction of the myth, as criticism of the myth. These aspects of Don Quixote had raised little interest in Spanish Cervantes criticism, although they had been studied by foreign critics, especially the German romantics Castro 80; Close Don Quixote is a part of Spanish circumstance to the point that Ortega concentrates the question of Spanish identity in it, as I have mentioned before.

This approach matches his conception of the Meditaciones as a collection of essays. Instead, a work like Don Quixote must be conquered as Jericho was taken: slowly and in wide, meditated circles The concept has often been interpreted in a philosophical sense, in relation to the notion of circunstancia. While Unamuno chooses to cultivate the illusion in the figure of Don Quixote, Ortega celebrates fiction as critical self-awareness in Cervantes and his work.

According to Ortega, Cervantes reflects in this chapter on the psychology of reading, opposing two ways of reading. Both Unamuno and Ortega derive a poetics from Don Quixote which informs their own work. Meditaciones del Quijote encourages an oblique, non-linear reading, symbolized by the circled siege of Jericho. Thus, the irony in the passage quoted at the beginning of this article, in which Ortega derides the figure of Don Quixote as unifier of the nation, is not aimed at the concept of the nation, or even at the messianic calls for its salvation,2 but at the idealistic nature of traditionalist quixotism.

Against the passionate enthusiasm of Don Quixote, Ortega opposes the art and skill of Cervantes. Ortega conceives of literature as an instrument for remedying a problematic concept of nation, and that goes for the novel of Cervantes as well as for his own essay. Works Cited Britt Arredondo, Christopher. El pensamiento de Cervantes. Barcelona: Noguer. Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de. The Adventures of Don Quixote. London: Penguin Books. Close, Anthony. The Romantic Approach to Don Quixote. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Paris: Seuil. Madrid: Aguilar. Meditaciones del Quijote. Meditations on Quixote. New York: Norton. Buenos Aires: Espasa-Calpe. Unamuno, Miguel de. Explicada y comentada por Miguel de Unamuno. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe. Anthony Kerrigan. Princeton N. Sender was already a well-known novelist and journalist. In the brief and turbulent period of the Second Republic, the young Marxist-oriented writer, who was committed to the social function of literature, called upon the ingenious gentleman Don Quixote de La Mancha in order to enforce his political and literary ideas.

When it seemed necessary, he did not hesitate to take the road that transforms a text into a pretext. The present essay discusses the articles Sender wrote in I presume that what happened to me, happens more or less to all children. Since then I consider it a cruelty to give this book to children.

It is the most sadly adult book that exists. Sender even transforms himself, at least for the time of the writing and publication of an article, in a one-day and impetuous Cervantes scholar who does not hesitate to question the authorship of one of the chapters of the Quixote, as we shall see later. In the present essay I concentrate on the particular, and very politicized, vision on Cervantes and his masterpiece in the texts that Sender wrote before the outbreak of the Civil War.

In he went into exile: first to France and then to Mexico and the United States, where he wrote a substantial oeuvre. The former PCE sympathizer abandoned Marxism and became not only an anti-Stalinist, but also re-wrote his own past.

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Occasionally I will refer to other articles of those years. I knew all Marx and Engels in Spanish or French. Nineteen villagers and two officers died. In a famous series of articles in the newspaper La Libertad, Sender reported on the circumstances of the massacre. Since the Middle Ages, the State and the Church suppress all thoughts that disturb the existing orthodoxy and the official culture which Sender actually identifies with barbarism. Needless to say that the concept of realism in Sender goes easily beyond the limits of its definition as a nineteenth-century literary school.

Sender works so hard to underscore the paralysis and the feudal character of the political power since the end of the fifteenth century that the reader is almost compelled to believe that Sender continues to lend the works of Cervantes, Quevedo, etc. Sender 56 7 the political banner of quixotism is not to be taken seriously at all. It is the banner of impotence and ridicule. To take the knight of the lions as motto is […] like going to the country with a brain as vacuous and full of delusions — Hitlerian, Mussolinesque — as Don Quixote and, without further knowledge, to mount a grey horse and to tilt at windmills.

Stupid nonsense. Cervantes was without doubt one of the main cultural heroes of Sender and continued to be so in exile, although with different accents. In the nineteen-thirties, every time when Sender invokes Don Quixote the same basic interpretation emerges: it is a book of materialist content whose revolutionary significance is of current interest, because if originally it was a critique of feudalism, it currently functions as a critique of bourgeois idealism.

De todas formas es un libro revolucionario. Sender b: 6 As I had said that the Quixote is a book of materialist inspiration and of profound revolutionary intention, a boy asked me if I did not believe that Cervantes was a bourgeois writer, a product of the economic conditions of his time. I answered him that this was true, but that we were not supposed to argue about Marxism, but to discuss the specificities of Spanish literature.

This answer was well received by the public and the boy was satisfied: I had said that Cervantes tried to create the great nationalist myth and that he had not succeeded, because his hero turned out a sarcastic caricature of feudal idealism, as still today he is of bourgeois idealism. In this respect, the book could be a product of the conditions of the period in which it was written. In any case, it is a revolutionary book. And even if this would have been the case, the materialist surely repented along the way. The qualities attributed to Sancho make of him a figure of the new man.

Not infected, that is to say: healthy representatives of the revolutionary spirit. Because this is what all this is about: Sender uses Cervantes in order to expose the supposed imposture of the adherents of the spirit of a sick and reactionary society that takes refuge in fascism as a bastion. Of course, the vision that is discussed here does not appear out of the blue. As writes J. This change of viewpoint also affects the interpretation of the Quixote. In the last months of , as a result of the insurrectionist movement that culminates with the revolutionary situation in the coalfields of Asturias, the censorship severely limited the freedom of the press in political matters.

It is gently, without violence, restricted to the features of the landscape, the event and the spirit of every figure. And nevertheless, in the Quixote there is a rhetorical, artificial, tough and syllogistic chapter. A chapter of which, whatever the most authoritative experts may say, we will never believe that Cervantes wrote it: the fifth chapter of the Second Part. Then, after having invited the specialists to investigate the matter more thoroughly, he formulates his conclusion to which we will come back later. In reality, the wife of Sancho does not speak in a different manner in chapter L of the same part.

In none of the critical editions of the Quixote do the notes to the style of the chapter in question voice the slightest suspicion about the intervention of others. The argument based on an alleged lack of concern for form is doubtful for it is diametrically opposed to the essence of a work like the Quixote. This in itself was already sufficient reason for Cervantes to assert in different ways that the work belonged to him and nobody else. Contrary to what Sender asserts, Cervantes still has faith — a great deal of faith — in his book after the success of Part I.

It seems to me most unlikely in the case of Cervantes. Within this framework, and the systematic exploitation of the possibilities it offers, it is hardly surprising that Cervantes fully played with his fiction, creating a false apocryphal text. It is doubtful whether Miguel de Cervantes would have drawn so much attention to this text if it was really apocryphal. This and the device of the fake apocryphal text do nothing but reinforce and give more variety to the fiction of Cervantes.

This term covers everything the young Sender rejected as a writer in the name of realism and materialism: aestheticism, dehumanized art, literature of spiritualist and elitist orientation. To us this reveals — for me the apocryphal nature of the chapter is evident — among other things, the relative value that the men of great creative ability gave to matters of expression when the hero is already faced with his own world.

But the conclusion to the third article also forms the joint conclusion to all previous articles, in which Sender attacks a certain conception of style, namely that in which style is an end in itself, something purely ornamental, without social significance. The fourth dimension would be something like a bridge between two banks. Needless to specify that Sender believes in the genius and in the innate talent. Up to now, this curious hypothesis, quite sui generis, formulated in by a young writer who was an unconditional admirer of Miguel de Cervantes, has — as far as I know — not had any impact, acknowledgment, or continuation among Cervantes scholars.

Samuel Putnam. New York: The Modern Library. Don Quijote de la Mancha. Essai sur la mise en abyme. Paris: Ed. Memorias de un luchador, Madrid, G. Del Toro, Pini Moro, Donatella. Madrid: Cenit. La Libertad 6 de enero : ————. La Libertad 28 de julio : 6. Viaje a la aldea del crimen Documental de Casas Viejas.

Madrid: Pueyo. La Libertad 3 de octubre : 1. La Libertad 9 de diciembre : 1. La Libertad 19 de diciembre : 1. Examen de ingenios. New York: Las Americas. Comedia del Diantre y otras dos. Barcelona: Destino. Some of the stories he wrote are about an anti-neoliberal beetle, Don Durito de la Lacandona, who is endowed with speech and who presents himself as an emulator of Don Quixote. It has been suggested that the tales about Durito are a pastiche of the novel of chivalry. The exploits of Hidalgo, a new-style Quixote, maker of one-eyed persons, etc.

His objective was to attack the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costillo who, in , launched an uprising that would rapidly turn into a war of independence Azar In the furious polemic, the royalists were inspired more than once by the figure of the gentleman of La Mancha in order to ridiculize the insurgents, comparing them to Don Quixote for being foolish and unrealistic. The knight-errant was used again in the political literature of Mexico that aimed at the discursive construction of the nation in the period following the Revolution, the second struggle for liberation in Mexican history.

Contrary to the anti-independence parties that saw in Don Quixote an out of place, mad idealist, Fabela identifies himself with the knight of La Mancha and admires him for his altruism that prompted him to help the weak. I have seen nothing so painful, As Quixote becoming Quijano again; After having been divine, to be human again; To float, a cloud, high above the hateful swamp, and after having travelled the beautiful sky, to return to the swamp again.

The principal spokesman of the rebels of the EZLN, Subcomandante Insurgente Marcos, — even though using other words and a different register —says something quite similar to what Isidro Fabela and the poet he quotes said at the beginning of the century. The words with which Marcos also refers to the moment when Don Quixote becomes Alonso Quijano again, prove this.

Pero a pesar de eso la gente siempre recuerda las acciones heroicas y locas del Quijote y no las partes en donde se vuelve a la vida normal, donde vuelve a entrar al aro. To succumb to madness, to not be able to use one's senses wisely, these are the most painful elements of this book. Still, people always recall the heroic and crazy acts of Don Quixote and not the parts in which he comes to his senses, in which he is in control of himself again. This is what we would always want to avoid too: to have to say that we had been mad, that we were going to toe the line again, and that we were going to regain our lucidity.

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  7. In order to understand the implications of these allusions, it is worth recalling some of the basic aspects of EZLN discourse and of the problems of the different voices in the guerrilla ranks. Next, I will concentrate on those aspects of Zapatista discourse related to the construction of the characters, as far as they are inspired by the Quixote and appear in stories published between and The EZLN On January 1, , thousands of Maya natives, their faces covered by a balaclava, occupied a number of municipalities in Chiapas and declared war on the Mexican government.

    Given that they believed they could put an end to the dominant hegemony by transforming the common way of thinking which sustained this hegemony, the Zapatistas can consider themselves true disciples of Gramsci. But Gramsci also pointed out that this subversive activity would only be succesful if the intellectuals managed to elaborate new ideas which might reconcile the government with the civil society and impose an alternative common sense.

    Thus, Marcos claims to speak for the natives who do not speak Spanish, who do not have a forum at their disposal and who cannot be heard. As a university graduate who is tall according to native standards , mestizo and Spanish-speaking, he pretends to represent the natives, who are illiterate, rather small, dark-skinned and Maya-speaking. Those discrepancies make them question the legitimacy of Marcos as interpreter of native demands. In the most famous anti-Marcos book Sous-Commandant Marcos.

    According to these authors, Marcos might be the real leader of the Zapatistas while the CCRI only serves to create the illusion of an indigenous command. This is, more or less, the image diffused by the Mexican government and by the Mexican intellectuals most sceptical about the Zapatista movement. As was the case with Cervantes in a certain moment of the past, the apologetic quasi-hagiography of Marcos is accompanied by a kind of black legend, portraying Marcos as a violent, selfish and authoritarian leader. These press releases are usually introduced by or conceived as letters, often including postscripts constructed as Chinese boxes: a postscript may serve as a frame to a comment in which a sonnet is inserted, followed by another postscript, etc.

    In addition to the fact that the postscripts play with the meanings and the sounds of the words, some of them are made up of complete stories. They form part of the political project of the Zapatistas not because they represent their ideas or their real objectives, but because they reflect, due to their public character, the efforts to construct their image and to influence society in their favor.

    The author of the fictional texts is none other than Subcomandante Marcos. The narrator invites the reader to image that he is visiting Chiapas and he describes what he is seeing in a travel story. It also tells how the beast feeds on the blood of the people, as well as other miserable and unfortunate events.

    Although these aspects are interesting, in the next sections we will concentrate on the construction of the characters. Like El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha, the Durito stories are composed of a constant succession of rather dissociated episodes which are cleverly organized around a protagonist.

    Most of the time the beetle appears as a knight-errant called Don Durito de la Lacandona. With regard to the texts themselves, the most striking allusions to the Quixote are located on the level of the characters. It is Durito who sets the intertextual play in motion, since it is he who identifies most with the quixotic model, an identification made evident by his habit to quote entire passages from the Quixote.

    In order to play the role of the knight-errant correctly, Don Durito de la Lacandona carries some attributes. A medicine bottle top serves as a shield, a straightened paperclip is his lance, a small branch his sword, Excalibur. First, the character of Durito is representative of the social misfits for more than one reason.

    Not only does he not even belong to the human species, but, as a beetle, he is also among the smallest and most vulnerable animals. When he appears for the first time, he is studying the neoliberal strategies in Latin America. None of the two fits the typical image of the heroic and extraordinary gentleman whom they desire to imitate and whose miraculous force is paradigmatic.

    On the other hand, the little Durito is the one associated with knowledge. Far from sublimating such lessons, Marcos sometimes makes fun of his character and puts the lessons into perspective by associating the beetle with the figure of Don Quixote, a figure that evokes the limits of sanity. By relating the texts about Durito to the context of the Zapatista struggle, it becomes clear that from a certain point of view the errant beetle represents the natives. They are marginalized as well as vulnerable, longing for the end of neoliberalism and the restoration of peace.

    Moreover, in the Zapatista ranks they are respected for having gathered knowledge that was forgotten or that had been repressed for more than five centuries. The guerrillas want to restore this wisdom of the natives by giving them a voice. On the one hand, this absence has made it easier for Marcos to avoid the trap of the idealization of the natives and all forms of nativism that might discredit the Zapatistas. On the other hand, the fact that he refused to create a realistic character, that he changes the appearance of that character and that he associated it with Don Quixote, a figure which is so universal that it has been interpreted in many different ways, makes it possible that every reader, according to his or her personal reading horizon, identifies the figure of the beetle with any marginalized group he or she is sympathetic with.

    A Sancho with a Big Nose Another effect that derives from the quixotic hypotext is related to the Subcomandante and deliberately reinforces some features of the portrait that he paints of himself. The guerrilla and author Marcos is not only the first narrator in the Durito stories, but he presents himself also as a character, a character that can be interpreted as a literary replica of the Subcomandante, in response to whoever blames him for being authoritarian and for acting as a leader rather than as a mere spokesperson.

    Contrary to Durito, who revives the knight-errantry full of enthusiasm, the character of Marcos, as suggested by the narrator Marcos, is involved in the project willingly or unwillingly. But it is also possible to argue that there exists a structural analogy between the literary figure of Marcos and the position which the Subcomandante allots himself in the Zapatista ranks. Just as Marcos declares being subordinate to the natives, he appears in the texts as the assistant of Durito.

    This is significant of the way in which the narrator Marcos describes himself as a character. By doing so, he always manages to reverse his supposed superiority into subordination. But, even here Marcos intensifies the relation of subordination. While, in his capacity of squire, he should serve his master, instead he constantly begs him to help him.

    In other words, Marcos is doubly dependent. To these literary borrowings that highlight his subordinate position, other elements are added which portray Marcos as an anti-hero in the image of Sancho Panza: he does not manage to respect the deadlines imposed by periodicals or organizers of colloquia if it comes to that, Durito has to lend him a hand , he is a real sleepyhead and, furthermore, he has a very large nose. Marcos also constructs an antiheroic self-portrait by showing the problems he has to survive as a mestizo, intellectual and townsman in the Lacandon jungle.

    He is not able to follow the rhythm of the natives, he always arrives exhausted wherever he needs to be. Like Sancho Panza, he asks himself a thousand times why he got into this trouble and he announces a thousand times his intention to end his adventures. The fact that he is an intellectual, that he is a city dweller of mixed blood, who suddenly finds himself in the middle of a guerrilla struggle in a tropical forest, is a source of inconvenience and makes his life a misery. Hence, Marcos reinterprets the features that his opponents underline in order to show his alleged superiority towards the natives and implicitly reacts against the discourse that represents the indigenous as victims of the rhetoric of the power of an outsider mestizo.

    In the jungle, Marcos is the victim of the forces of nature and of his own physical limitations. They simultaneously illustrate that Marcos aspires to be seen as a poor among the poor and as a black-skinned fellow among the natives. In the Zapatista ranks, Marcos suggests, it is not the natives who conform to the mestizos, but the other way around: the mestizos pattern themselves on the natives and keep themselves at their disposal. As more texts are published, the identities become more numerous and blurred.

    Yo les digo que no les crean: eran gigantes. Good evening, everyone. We have arrived a little late and we apologize for this delay, but the thing is that we have bumped into some multinational giants who tried to prevent us from getting here. I tell you not to believe them: they were giants. From this we can deduce that Durito presents himself as Sherlock Holmes. A writer who became famous thanks to Durito is Bertolt Brecht.

    Something very similar to what you are doing right now. In honor of Brecht, Durito is prepared to behave as if they had written the text together. This statement confirms the priority function that the signs have in the Zapatista guerrilla and illustrates how certain questions of literary criticism become a substantial part of the characterization of Durito, as is the case with Don Quixote Riley Moreover, just like Don Quixote, Durito portrays himself as a character, notwithstanding the opinion which Marcos, his alter ego and creator, might have.

    In other words, Marcos does not matter since it makes no difference who happens to be the voice of the community. Once more we can relate this interpretation to the image of the balaclava. We no longer consider it in function of the dark color that enables the Subcomandante to cover his face, but in function of the lack of significance of the individual voice in the Zapatista army.

    Marcos and Cervantes Some commentators have claimed that the impact of the EZLN can be explained by the diversity of contents and registers used in its press releases. While some of these are dispatches, others have a more essayistic nature and analyze Mexican policy or the consequences of neoliberal globalization. They range from a declaration of war to parody, from prophetic visions to stories. Even though these stories have no literary pretentions, Marcos attaches a lot of importance to the form of his messages, in which he accumulates alliterations, metaphors and allusions to canonical literary texts.

    The way in which he plays with the Quixote is illustrative in this respect. On the one hand, this play is in line with a long tradition, as it illustrates once again that the urge to comment on Cervantes and to reflect on his most famous novel is innate to every Spanish-speaking writer or aspirant writer, also in Mexico, as the examples provided at the beginning of the essay demonstrate. In this sense, the Durito stories, for instance, are not only a pastiche of the novel of chivalry, as Armando Bartra 12 contends.

    In the same way in which Cervantes rewrote old genres by parodying them and confronting them with elements of contemporary popular culture, the texts about Durito, as far as they are a heartfelt homage to Cervantes, move away from the traditional works of engaged literature in Latin America. The literary resources he uses for this purpose are the same as many of those used by Cervantes. Marcos combines and intertwines popular and academic language; he diversifies his stylistic devices and accumulates them by playing on words.

    And, above all, Marcos shares with the Spanish writer the ambition to balance instruction and delight. Teatro mexicano: historia y dramaturgia. XII: Escenificaciones de la Independencia Mexico: Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes. Bartra, Armando. Bruhn, Kathleen. Sous-Commandant Marcos. Yo, Marcos. Mexico: Ediciones del Milenio. Documentos y comunicados I. Mexico: Era. Fabela, Isidro. Sepan cuantos Le Bot, Yvon. Subcomandante Marcos. Utopia and Counterutopia in the Quixote. Robert W. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. Maspoch-Bueno, Santiago. Madrid: Gredos. Obras completas I.

    Riley, Edward C. Subcomandante Insurgente Marcos.

    La parole aux lecteurs

    Don Durito de la Lacandona. Conversations with Durito. Stories of the Zapatistas and Neoliberalism. New York: Autonomedia. Vanden Berghe, Kristine. Los relatos del Subcomandante Marcos. Frankfurt-Madrid: Vervuert-Iberoamericana. For Fuentes, the descendants of Cervantes conceive a world with multiple points of view characterized by a pervasive sense of ambiguity. Firstly, we will analyze how Fuentes conceives the universality and current interest of the Quixote. This open, pluridimensional tradition is then connected to the postmodern moment, the baroque and the multicultural society of Latin America.

    Next, the paper explores how this basic assumption gives rise to a re-conceptualization of literary geography, with Latin American literature no longer — as is traditional — occupying an eccentric position, but rather emerging as one center amongst others. In spite of the cultural and geographical embedding of most of his novels, Fuentes is undoubtedly heavily indebted to European literature, not in the least to the Spanish literary tradition, from La Celestina to El burlador de Sevilla, as can be deduced from the innumerable references and allusions in his short stories as well as in the carnivalesque novel Cambio de piel , his ambitious magnum opus Terra Nostra , or the love triangle drama Gringo Viejo It goes without saying that the Quixote, a work that Fuentes, by his own account, rereads each year during the Holy Week, has its place in this complex web of intertextual references.

    It sounds rather paradoxical that Fuentes, both in his creative oeuvre and in his essays, frequently alludes to a novel in which the main character went mad because of intertextuality, but it is hardly necessary to recall that The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha is as much a part of Mexican literature as it is of Spanish literature: the Hispano-American palimpsests of the Quixote, which crossed the Atlantic as early as the spring of Leonard , are indeed legion.

    His literary criticism presents some obvious clues to decipher his novelistic production, but is obviously not restricted to a comment on his own work. To a certain extent, he states in the opening piece, Cervantes was as ingenuous as Columbus: they both ignored that they had discovered a new continent, respectively that of the modern novel and that which was to be named after Amerigo Vespucci. The Quixote is not just a satire on the chivalric novel, but a new way to read the world, characterized by a plural look cf. The peculiarity of Don Quixote consists in his self-reflexivity: he is conscious of being read.

    The centrifugal forces exceed the centripetal ones. The mutual incomprehension between Sancho Panza and Don Quixote is highly significant in this respect. Initiated by Alfonso Reyes, the heated discussions about the dependence on the national-political relations, which are symptomatic of the progressive emancipation of the literary space, would eventually lead to a new literary constellation.

    Their permanently open and unfinished work demonstrates that the lessons of Cervantes have not been neglected — on the contrary even. The news of the novel is then, first of all, verbal imagination, not mere information. And this imagination is a shared thing; it is fed by the common work of other novelists in communication around the world.

    The reality of a novel is its functioning at all levels of the critique of reading. The modern novel, born as a refusal of purity and a mestizaje of genres, is a repertory of possibilities, of past and present, of writing and reading. Drawing a map of the literary globe, Fuentes pointedly observes that the age in which Goethe coined the term Weltliteratur did not allow a really universalistic vision on culture: Goethe himself was far from being a multiculturalist. As a reaction to the exhaustion of the metanarratives of Enlightenment modernity, Fuentes proposes non-linear, minor narratives that contain multiple centers.

    In our time, the old Eurocentrism and the binary model of center and periphery have given way to a widespread polycentrism: there is no longer a single point of reference. Cultivating a neobaroque sensibility that is informed by a tripartite civilization that incorporates the Iberian, Indian and African legacies, Fuentes calls into question the claims of any culture to possess a fixed and homogeneous body of values. Because of the fact that nothing is central, we are all eccentric and this is, in the opinion of Fuentes, the only way to be universal. Hence his conclusion that the Quixote has finally prevailed: the modern novel is not the expression of one single voice or one lecture, but it is the battle scene of many registers, the meeting place of many heterogeneous traditions and cultures.

    In this sense, Cervantes brings about a shift in the production of literature: instead of presenting one particular world view, he introduces multiple characters with a variety of perspectives. This implies the rejection of every form of exclusion in favor of the acceptance or assimilation of the other. Using this method, it would be possible to reveal that the language of Don Quixote accurately reflects the ideas of the Counter-Reformation and Ignatian spirituality.

    This is also what Foucault was referring to in Les mots et les choses when he argued that thought ceases to move in the element of resemblance during the baroque period. Notwithstanding the attempts of the Spanish Inquisition to resist modernity, Fuentes signals a similar epistemic shift by means of the principle of uncertainty that haunts the peninsular arts at the beginning of the seventeenth century: whereas the political and religious system of the Hapsburg territories sealed off Spain from the rest of Europe and the winds of change, the dynamic art of the baroque accelerated the emergence of modernity.

    By asserting that uncertainty is an essential ingredient of the baroque,5 Fuentes seems to imply that the first modern novel is less a product of Renaissance thought than of the baroque aesthetic.

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    According to Fuentes, the principle of uncertainty enables literature not only to reflect the diversity and mutability of the universe, but also to enlarge the borders of reality by means of the imagination. As a democratic vehicle, the literature of difference in the tradition of Cervantes is indispensable to an increasingly Manichaean world that is menaced by terrorism, xenophobia and religious fundamentalism.

    But by invoking the inheritance of the Quixote for the present, Fuentes implicitly draws a parallel between the decadent Spain of the Council of Trent and the Holy Office, on the one hand, and our contemporary societies, on the other: As Cervantes responded to the degraded society of his time with the triumph of the critical imagination, we, too, face a degraded society and must reflect upon it as it seeps into our lives, surrounds us, and even casts us upon the perennial situation of responding to the passage of history with the passion of literature.

    Although his thought is far from being original from a literarytheoretical point of view, his merit is to have underscored the topicality and the universalism of the Quixote and its epigones in the current multicultural moment. Nevertheless, this multiculturalist rhetoric is less unequivocal than it might appear: as a herald of an idiosyncratic pan- Hispanic identity, Fuentes celebrates cultural and racial intermingling, yet at the same time he draws a border around Hispanic identity in order to highlight the difference between Latin and Anglo America cf.

    Van Delden But Cervantes also gave us a vision. A vision of the world in which authors and readers of all countries and languages can recognize themselves. Without Cervantes, he adds, the work of Dostoyevsky, Faulkner or Machado de Assis would be virtually unthinkable. In this shattered constellation of the literary universe, the open-endedness and the overall incertitude of the Quixote and, by extension, of the eccentric tradition of La Mancha prefigure the true encounter with the Other and this is, according to Fuentes, what world literature is really about.

    Works Cited Beaussant, Philippe. Madrid: Alianza. Casanova, Pascale. Foucault, Michel. Les mots et les choses. Paris: Gallimard. Casa con dos puertas. Valiente Mundo Nuevo. Boston Mass. Barcelona: Seix Barral. This I Believe. London: Bloomsbury. Online video clip.

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    El boomeran g. Accessed on 15 December Hatzfeld, Helmut. El Quijote como obra de arte del lenguaje. Joset, Jacques. Historias cruzadas de novelas hispanoamericanas. L'art du roman. Leonard, Irving. Books of the Brave. Berkeley: University of California Press. La cultura del Barroco. Barcelona: Ariel. Paris: Sulliver. Rousset, Jean.