The human figure is revisited in the gestures of Alexandra Grant United States, The pin-up style female nude, behind a strip that reminds us of DVD titles, gives a new meaning to the idea of mixed media. While New York is often considered the birthplace of this genre, street actions had also taken hold in Latin America, and relationships between Latin American and U. Latin American artists who sought exile from dictatorships or had been awarded grants came to New York, while many U.
While the Civil Rights Movement and Vietnam War protests provided the backdrop against which street works emerged in the U. Artist: Erica Muralles Hazbun. Artist: Gabriel Sierra. By modifying and extending the guiding information of the exhibition space, Sierra will restructure the lower level galleries, effacing and confusing distinctions between the architecture, the institution, and the works that comprise the exhibition. The combination of alternative and existing floor plans, signage, and objects in the space all refer to the codes for viewing and maneuvering through the context of an exhibition.
This indexical accumulation makes it unclear exactly where the exhibition begins and ends, bringing into question the semantics of the various navigational prompts within art institutions. The exhibition structure asks that the visitor adjust to its new form. Artist: Elena Damiani. Artist: Paula de Solminihac. Officielle October , Paris, France. The exhibition is an extension of this dialogue into the galleries of the Museum of Contemporary Art Detroit via artworks suggested in dialogue format. The individual artworks touch upon themes such as geography, history, urbanism, memory, colonialism, architecture, war, modernism, social inequality, regionalism, and power.
It allows the viewer a glimpse into a reality that may seem geographically near, but is in many ways far away and unfamiliar. This glossary will be published in the exhibition catalogue along with a conversation between the curators, texts on all of the artists, images of the exhibited artworks, and a roundtable discussion featuring a number of curators based in Latin America. A range of public programs and educational activities will run concurrently with the exhibition, including a public conversation with the curators, lectures by some of the participating artists, film screenings, and performances.
Artist: Marco Maggi. He draws with paper on the walls in the main space, and presents an installation of pencils in a separate area. It is a superficial discipline that allows oneself to take distance from the depths of thinking in order to de-multiply an empathy for the insignificant.
Ideas have the tendency to become fixed and aspire ultimately to the status of ideology. A portable kit composed of thousands of elements cut-out from self-adhesive paper becomes an insignificant alphabet folded and pasted onto the walls during the months preceding the exhibition. The diminutive papers are disseminated or connected following the traffic rules and syntax dictated by any accumulation of sediments. Some areas throughout the gallery are infected with color, the edge of the wall in red, blue or yellow, like the margins of a misprinted sheet of paper. The colonies of stickers on the walls enter in dialogue with the light upon them.
Myriads of shadows and infinitesimal incandescent projections aim to slow down the viewer. The main ambition of the project is to promote pauses and make time visible. The trajectory of these Soviet era color pencils is frozen, almost going backward in time. Inside the room, two individual panels of cutout stickers face each other. These small referential stickers act as words cut out from a larger message, recoding the original context. His work has been exhibited extensively throughout the United States, Europe, and Latin America in galleries, museums, and biennials.
His first monograph was published on this occasion. In , he received the Premio Figari Career Award. Artists: Claudio Vera and Martin Pelenur.
It is embedded in human nature to be thoughtful and innovative for survival. Such primordial concerns with existence have continued through ancient times into contemporary civilization. To investigate Vera and Pelenur in this vein brings to light the association of physical and cerebral conditions, which are key to the balancing act that humanity must perform throughout time.
Focusing on the notion of abstraction in twentieth-century and contemporary Belgian art and the varying sources of influence and inspiration among the artists of two generations, Tuymans has selected fifteen artists whose work either articulates a relationship to abstraction or takes as its cue the definition of abstraction. Although the artists themselves have emerged from different periods and motivations, a clear formal relationship between the selected works is apparent, and thereby reveals a current and earlier interest in abstraction that has not lost its relevance over recent decades.
Luc Tuymans, himself a figurative painter who constantly seeks to extend the traditional boundaries of his practice, has specifically selected these artists for the individual nature of their practice and the paradoxical way each of them uses their medium. Presented in the two gallery floors of Parasol unit, their works collectively investigate the potential, formal and conceptual tensions within the notion of abstraction.
Works by the earlier generation of artists represented in the show can be loosely situated within geometric abstraction and abstract constructivism, influenced by artists such as Piet Mondrian — and groups such as De Stijl founded and the ZERO movement of the s and 60s, as well as the American Colour Field painters. Ultimately, this exhibition highlights the diversity of artistic practice within abstraction, while revealing intergenerational influences and allowing viewers to explore and be challenged by the depth and limits of abstraction. Artist: Mario Navarro. Navarro extracts fragments from the exhibition space thus creating voids and duplicates that that echo each other.
The artist understands the void as a loss or as something missing, but as a place where it is possible to multiply reality over and over. The void works just as another constructive element that operates by pointing to the limits of forms and things. The monochrome as a focus in the SPACE Collection began in a spontaneous form and soon became a systematic field of research. This exhibition is about the contemporary monochrome in Latin America. The monochrome is one of the most elusive and complex art forms of modern and contemporary art.
If we think about its origins or meaning, we find that the monochrome is many contradictory things.
It may be painting as object, the material surface of the work itself, the denial of perspective or narrative, or anything representational. The monochrome may be a readymade, a found object, or an environment—anything in which a single color dominates. The monochrome can be critical and unstable, especially when it dialogues critically or in tension with modernism. These themes have been conceived to create context and suggest interpretations that otherwise might be illegible.
These may overlap at times, pointing to the multiplicity of content in many of the works. The unclassifiable and variable nature of the monochrome in Latin America today is borne of self-criticality and from unique Latin contexts, to exist within its own specificity and conceptual urgency. To purchase the catalogue click here. Artists: Felipe Mujica and Herbert Weber. Fronzoni —has greatly influenced the visual, sensorial, and experiential aspects that distinguish her work.
The artist has stood out as one of the most innovating artist of contemporary geometric abstraction. Her multidisciplinary work conjugates light, sound and contemporary criteria of space and use of materials, with some formal concepts of the traditional legacy of optical and geometrical abstraction. In her work, the artist proposes a dialogue of visual and sensorial perceptions with space, transforming geometry and abstraction into nature for the senses. Quatro relevos e sete desenhos completam a mostra. Esto es, un renacimiento inventado por el siglo XIX para proyectar sus propios deseos y frustraciones.
Un plan para organizar el crecimiento de la ciudad y separar sus distintas funciones de manera racional. How come some features of the old Enlightenment have crept back and are now being revisited in art, activism, and theory? Why now, after just about a century problematizing, questioning and opposing its legacy?
Perhaps it is an ever more economized, fragmented, privatized, and surveilled existence where, for instance, taxpayers are forced to compensate for the crimes of financial speculation and the gap between the rich and the poor is rapidly increasing. It now becomes enticing to return to some fundamental notions and phenomena inherited from the struggle for universal emancipation: the light of reason and rationality, the individual subject, and the public sphere. They point to a wish to explore vision from its very basics—as if to try to see anew, to radical transformations of desire and to challenges to ownership and property relations as we know them.
And to do so while not losing sight of the future, in the midst of parallax views, in light of the hyper-contradictions of our time. A future beyond pre-emptive and algorithmic forecasting. Art has after all this capacity to function as part seismograph and part sniffer dog, detecting things not yet seen, gelled and shaped in other parts of society, creating new imaginaries. Whether utopian or dystopian, or an unclear mix of the two. These basic notions in radically mutated forms seem to indicate a future affected by an emerging movement toward a new enlightenment, conscious of the violent heritage of the old one in whose name atrocities have been committed over the centuries.
Thus, three strands of thought and action have crystallized within the framework of Future Light : non-penetrating light, the individual subject as reworked by the politics of queer-feminism and its polymorph desires, and the public spherereconceived through and as commons and commoning. Within contemporary art, instead of the penetrating light that gives clarity and transparency, there is the reflected and refracted light that creates opacity, abstraction, and shadows. It is the light that goes on and off, that does not serve as a searchlight and yet is able to nurture new beginnings.
Besides conditioning human visual perception, its new forms—for example the low-power LED light—are having other literal effects on the look and taste of plants as well as the physical and medical conditions of humans and animals. Furthermore, the future remains a point of orientation in many of the artworks. All this is being played out in the group exhibition at the MAK. Existing paintings, videos, sculptures, and drawings by seventeen artists is making up an installation without walls but with plenty of natural light. Theory and practice in the name of LGBT and queerness have for some time reshaped notions of the individual, subjectivity, and desire.
If traditional notions of gender rely on heteronormative patriarchal formations of desire, then this linchpin is now being challenged in ways hitherto unseen, affected by synthetic extensions of identity such as hormonal drugs. The installations convey filmed performances where the tensions between the individual and the collective carry a high degree of theatricality. While curtains and fumes create opacity, glitter and wigs indicate glamour. The characters who feature in these dramas are consciously multi-sided, defying normality, including the law and economy. Neither being entirely historical nor present, they project ahead in a truly anachronistic manner, to new and unrealized forms of enjoyment.
It will be released as a limited printed edition in September In a new film Marysia Lewandowska is exploring the commons as experienced through the kindergarten as an early testing ground for sharing, belonging, privacy and withdrawal. Artist: Diana de Solares. Artist: Christian Camacho Reynoso.
Artist: Ricardo Alcaide. Artist: Lucila Amatista. From a distance, the stacks of thousands of sheets of paper 24, total that are set out in a grid onto the floor suggest a landscape, circuit boards, or an architectural model for an imagined city. He creates a patchwork of lines that impart a sense of movement across the surface of the piece. Marco Maggi was born in Montevideo, Uruguay. The Uruguayan pavilion is one of the twenty-nine national pavilions located in the Giardini della Biennale. La segunda parte muestra dos vertientes, la emocional y la intelectual al enfrentarnos con la responsabilidad de formar el futuro.
Even at its inception and during its heyday in the mid-sixties and early seventies, conceptual art was difficult to define. No one knows who started it, which artist did what and when, what were his or her philosophy, goals and policies. None of those present remember much; each person has its own history and scholars and critics have been left to try to make head or tail out of the movement—among them, many who did not live through those times and did not witness those events.
That is why American curator and art critic Lucy R. They rest directly on the floor or hang from the ceiling, casting dancing shadows on the wall. The works of Edgar Orlaineta, also suspended from the ceiling like a Calder mobile, have the appearance of a three-dimensional puzzle with each element playing a vital role in the final composition. This practice dictates that the circle should be drawn with a single stroke, which once made cannot be altered.
The gesture highlights the character of its creator and the context of its creation in a short and contiguous period of time. Traditionally this type of painting is done in black ink on very thin white paper. The accumulation has formed a heap of sand, in the form of a volcano, burying the papers supposed to be archived there.
With its continued air movement the fan erases them so that others can make them again. Using film, video and photography, the artist often introduces the relations between architecture and city-planning with regard to history. Because the legacy of The Jamaica Letter has often been used to support any manner of political tendency, the artist has it read out loud by residents of a poor Caracas neighborhood, themselves leaders of different political groups chavistas and anti-chavistas. These protagonists do not understand English, so the reading swiftly turns into a form-focused performance, a parody of a charisma-free discourse which seems devoid of meaning, but where we rediscover the corporal language and the intonation usually adopted by leaders.
The artist proposes a deconstruction of the political discourse, keeping just the elements and codes to do with representation—the body language and the vocal intonation which punctuate the film. Commissioned by the Goethe-Institut in , Yamaikaleter was screened at the 54th Venice Biennale in He lives and works between Madrid and Caracas. He was awarded the prize of the Rockefeller Foundation, Bellagio, Italy, Artist: Guido Ignatti.
Su secreto ya no existe. La verdad depende de que demos con algo que nos obligue a pensar y a buscar lo verdadero. Es precisamente el signo el que establece el objeto de un hallazgo, el que ejerce sobre nosotros esta violencia. Ideas y Valores. Working together over a two-year period, Open Sessions artists participate in ongoing studio visits and discussions, punctuated by small group exhibitions at The Drawing Center, as well as other self-organized shows in New York and abroad.
Artist: Miguel Rothschild. This year marks the twenty-first edition of the Rohkunstbau exhibition. The notion of transition serves as the focus of the examination of apocalypse. Every end brings a new beginning. This choice of theme for the XXI. In previous exhibitions artists have been invited to address themes of Power , Morals , and Revolution , now followed by Apocalypse for Folding is the action through which a line turns into a figure, a plane becomes tridimensional, and a painting becomes an object. And beyond all these actions, we see how representation becomes presentation. This exhibition presents the work of Latin American women artists from the s through the present day, showing the different ways in which they worked with abstraction and geometry to explore the space of the artwork and that of the spectator, as mediated by the body.
Latin American abstraction has gained recognition worldwide in the last decade. In all of these avant-garde scenes, women artists gained—not without struggle—a place of recognition and a social circle in which they could develop their profession with relative tolerance. Still, except a few exceptions like Gego, Lygia Clark and Lygia Pape, it is mostly male artists we see represented in museums and art history books. This exhibition does not intend to resolve that problem, which is of a much larger scale, but aims to present some of their production and to explore the formal and creative connections among this diverse group of artists from the continent.
This show also chooses to escape the historical understanding of abstraction, which is referred to here not as the Post-war movement but more broadly as a creative strategy that has continued through the decades. The Venezuelan artist, who was a pioneer of abstract art in Venezuela along with her husband Alejandro Otero, focused on a sensorial use of color in abstract compositions to achieve the autonomy of painting.
A similar emphasis in color is seen in Acrylic No. The case of Regina Aprijaskis exemplifies the difficulties of being a woman artist and of combining work and personal life. Other works in the show leave color aside and refer to the white monochrome also with the means of exploring geometry and space. The Argentine is represented with her work Untitled Line , in which her finger is photographed as interrupting a line, one that transcends the frame of the work onto the real space of the wall.
The urban space is also the canvas chosen by Brazilian conceptual artist Anna Bella Geiger, whose video Passagens II shows her body creating diagonal trajectories in the grid-like formation of the steps of a stairway. In the exhibition we also encounter more expressive uses of abstraction, where experimentation with materials led to more free-flowing forms.
Trinidanian artist Valerie Brathwaite opts for anti-geometric shapes in her Soft B odies , a series initiated in , where the hanging and floor fabric sculptures play fluidly between the borders of figuration and abstraction. After all these decades, geometry is still very much present in the work of younger artists.
Others adapt geometric abstraction into new formats, like the wood piece Untitled Free Construction No. Finally, Mariela Scafati goes back to the original questions of abstract painting in her works Tu nombre completo and Nueve minutos exactos , both from , which literally —through bondage ropes— and conceptually —by transforming them into objects— tense the possibilities of what a painting can be: not a representation but an object, a body itself.
These interactions between the artwork, its surrounding spaces and the bodies that interact with it are present through the sixty years in which these artworks were created. The formal explorations initiated by the historical avant-gardes have not, as proven by the younger generation, exhausted themselves.
This group of women artists from Latin America offer a wide range of answers to these questions, all personal but also collective. The line and the plane not only folded but became the body, expanding the shape of art above and beyond. These historic objects have gained the status of icons. It is a testament to their enduring power that they now catalyze a generation of artists too young to have experienced modernism firsthand. The notion of modernist design and architecture had its genesis in Europe, particularly during an intense decade of experimentation at the Bauhaus beginning in Weimar, Germany, in Modernism was the pure and true mode in which to design everything from typography to furniture to architecture.
When architects, those removed by several generations from the birth of modernism, came to maturity as designers——Frank Gehry, Charles Moore, and Robert Venturi——they challenged all that modernism had embraced. Their vocabulary included fanciful embellishment, applied color, decorative patterning, and references to historical styles. Now, over 90 years after the revolution at the Bauhaus, modernism continues to spark a passion in designers and collectors.
The prices of signature objects of the classic modernist era are soaring, and its buildings are being restored and valued as historical monuments. Although vintage Eames rockers have been integrated into contemporary high-end living rooms, they are quite different in these new eclectic contexts. Using classic elements in new configurations, these artists are making original works of art that comment on the claims of the past in light of the complexities of the present. The artists in this exhibition, most of whom were born in the s, adopt the actual vocabulary of the modern movement to question the content of its style and its relationship to history.
Their work challenges the tenets of modernism head on. Often ironic and witty, the works in this exhibition offer a thoughtful critique of innumerable issues that extend across the fields of design and history. She brings found objects together in space and across time, and her works establish a tangible record of ephemeral relationships encountered. Bill and Horni produce work by assembling smaller collages, which later become part of a larger collage.
They only determine a final result after countless trials and manipulations to the images physically and digitally. Together the dishes though legible as food when close up appear as strange planets or discs in space. Some of the dishes are isolated and then completely removed, leaving a ghostly blank. He draws these images without magnification; in order to reduce eyestrain, he rests every ten minutes. The end result is a work of extraordinary detail that appears to be a pattern from a distance, and speaks of the passage of time and the link between the microscopic and the infinite.
The dense textile of woven and knotted, colored electrical wires, forms a series of functional circuits that distribute four channels of sound to the numerous speakers interleaved in the weaving. Artist: Barbarita Cardozo. Visual art has always been closely associated with storytelling. In Western culture, painting and sculpture initially evolved to illuminate narratives of religion, patronage, and power.
Over the centuries, genre scenes, still lifes, and portraits—often created as intricate allegories for religious or historical subject matter—became popular as the narrative role of art expanded. In the twentieth century, with the advent of abstraction as a radical break with the past, many artists associated with the avant-garde rejected the figurative and, hence, eliminated explicit narrative content.
The s witnessed a resurgence of figurative art, much of which harked back to expressionistic styles of the s and s. During the s, a generation of younger artists embraced the concept of storytelling to articulate the politics of identity and difference, investing both abstract and representational forms with narrative content. Most of the works on view, however, were created after and offer an expansive view of the new paradigms for storytelling forged during the past ten years to communicate ideas about race, gender, sexuality, history, and politics, among other trenchant themes.
For these artists, storytelling does not necessarily require plots, characters, or settings. Rather, narrative potential lies in everyday objects and materials, and their embedded cultural associations. In projects created through extensive research, acts of appropriation, or performance, the artists in Storylines uncover layers of meaning, turning to individual experience as a means of conveying shared stories, whether real or fictional. The recent narrative turn in contemporary art cannot be separated from the current age of social media with its reverberating cycles of communication, dissemination, and interpretation.
Seemingly every aspect of life is now subject to commentary and circulation via digital text and images. As a means of celebrating this dynamic, the museum has invited writers to contribute reflections—in prose or poetry—on selected works in Storylines. Engaging the rich historical relationship between literature and art, the resulting polyphony signals the diverse interpretive potential that lies within each object on display. Visitors may access these texts using the Guggenheim app or in booklets located throughout the museum.
Throughout her career Lucia Koch has become known for her interventions within existing architecture, either through her use of sculpture, photography, video or colored filters. In this, her second exhibition with the gallery, she will intersect the entire space with a gradient printed on fabric — something that moves in space but is constant, subtle, transformative and never repeating.
Lucia Koch b. Artist: Gabriel Acevedo Velarde. They break down barriers to create new mythologies. In another direction, cultures borrow from, adapt, and change each other in myriad ways. Artist: Bernardo Ortiz. Haciendo uso de soluciones formales que van desde sobreponer dibujos, intervenir los soportes con distintas capas de gouache o perforaciones, contrastar colores afectando la legibilidad de las palabras, o reuniendo trazos hechos a mano con impresos — al igual que trazos precisos con pinceladas despreocupadas— el artista busca acercar lo conceptual a lo material.
Artist: Francisco Ugarte. The exhibited pieces have an interest in documenting changes within the natural environment in a specific time frame. Therefore, they are not meant to be observed necessarily from beginning to end, but to be seen like a scene through a vain. Using a variety of media including site-specific interventions, video, installation, sculpture and drawing, his work can be understood as a phenomenological exercise in which reality is comprehended through contemplation and perception of things. Las artistas responden precisamente a este modelo familiar y lo invierten.
My Buenos Aires at la maison rouge continues a series of exhibitions that showcases the art scene in cities worldwide. The series was launched in summer with Winnipeg, Canada, followed in by Johannesburg, South Africa. The mere mention of tango or beef, of Borges or Maradona, of Argentinean beauties will plunge anyone, even someone who has never set foot in the city, into dreamy nostalgia. The visual and cultural familiarity that greets a European visitor can disappoint those in search of instant exoticism and pre-packaged emotions.
Buenos Aires is a child of immigration, whether voluntary or forced; a city haunted by absence. To live there is to accept estrangement and to overcome loss. Seductive, Buenos Aires is no less sombre. The public protests that arose following the crisis have shown a capacity for counterpower that has no equivalent in the history of modern nations. Even in the throes of crisis, strikes and the pillaging of recent decades, Argentineans continue to wield sarcasm, dark humour and irony as a remedy against resignation.
Authors and actors from all disciplines have in them this extraordinary and also determined capacity for reinvention. Artists have responded to the lack of infrastructures and learning opportunities by throwing open their studios, hosting charlas group discussions where ideas can be brought out into the open. Those who do manage to enter the global art market willingly put their own money into supporting local creation. The grant endowed by painter Guillermo Kuitca, for example, gave an entire generation of artists between and access to a studio, and to critical and technical support with which to develop their work.
Little by little, the art scene is moving away from the centre. New venues are opening in the north, such as Hotel de Inmigrantes. Further north still, the Haroldo Conti Memorial Cultural Centre includes a sculpture park that pays tribute to the men and women who disappeared during the dictatorship, and a cultural centre showing contemporary art. The disgruntled still march on Plaza de Mayo while artists have begun to install works under the obelisk. The direction it will take remains to be seen.
The Patronage Law has forged stronger ties between business and the worlds of art and culture by encouraging the private sector to become involved with projects of cultural significance for the city. My Buenos Aires runs counter to the romantic vision of Buenos Aires. The exhibition moves back and forth between political and private, public space, the domestic and the unconscious, exploring themes such as instability, tension and explosion, masks, encryption and the strange.
Along their way, visitors will encounter remnants of facades, mutant scaffoldings, car bonnets, motorway junctions, burned-out houses and headless statues. They will sink into a waking dream inhabited by strangely unnerving doubles and faceless people falling from the sky, only to wake in the muffled folds of a stucco wedding cake. With more than sixty artists working in all media, from installation to painting, sculpture, video and photography, four generations are represented. More than 15 of them will travel to Paris to work on in situ installations.
My Buenos Aires is an invitation to plunge into the mystery of Buenos Aires without attempting to resolve it, and to experience the unsettling strangeness of its multiple personalities. The sculptures are presented in dialogue with American minimalist sculpture, not as a continuation of it, but as an exploration of its aesthetics and its socio-economic structure from an artistic and intellectual space. Escobar sculptures contrast with the austere minimalist works by inserting the industrial object, which had a fairly significant presence in contemporary sculpture in the s.
Minimalism was born in the sixties and is geographically focused on the island of Manhattan, New York. A purely American movement, Minimalism refers primarily to a type of sculpture or three-dimensional works made beginning in the, which emphasize the abstract and downplay the expressive, avoiding any embellishment or decoration. Among the most renowned exponents are Donald Judd, Ron Bladen, and Tony Smith who exploited industrial mass production and Carl Andre, Dan Flavin, and Robert Morris who chose to present the objects, as they were indistinguishable from found objects, generating an art that could be classified as non-art because of its aesthetic ambiguity.
Still Life No. But Escobar contaminates the minimalist spirit of his work with the addition of industrially manufactured objects that are easily recognizable as basketballs and baseballs. The Duchampian readymade is also evident in the works that have a closer relationship with the austere sculpture of Andre. Equilibrio No. They are examples of a type of unadulterated sculpture. Their genesis is wood that Escobar found in a local sawmill and used as is, changing its configuration by rigging beams and square blocks in a vertical or horizontal orientation.
The presence of basketballs and soccer balls balancing precariously on a fairly sophisticated play of balance is amusing and contrasts with the severity and lack of expressiveness of the wood. The spherical shapes temper the rigidity of the straight lines. The same applies to Balance No. The balls subvert the geometry of the work by allowing a glimpse of the negative spaces beneath it; its hard surface is turned into a kind of false floor that precludes a direct physical relationship with the work because one cannot stand firmly on it.
Untitled No. The irregularity of the hoe handles reveal their hand-made origin: a found object used by Escobar to create a work which, despite its uniqueness, it has a relationship with Minimalism in the use of the repetition of forms. Untitled 1 leans against the wall with the top of the hoe handles forming a straight horizontal line that contrasts with the bottom, which seems undulating and disorderly. While for Andre the transformation of the materials was unnecessary and the use of raw unadulterated materials essential in his questioning of what and who makes a work of art, Escobar is determined to destabilize again and again these and other principles of Minimalism from a non-hegemonic perspective and in relation to more recent artistic trends.
The exhibition is completed by ten drawings made with cinnabar pigment and graphite on paper and four small paintings on wood. The series entitled Dibujo que no obedece al contorno No. Their solidity and forms have a certain kinship with certain sculptures by Tony Smith, as they do not easily reveal themselves but require time and attention as any work that is based on visual perception. The use of cinnabar pigment, employed by the Maya in ceramic painting, bestows them a unique and valuable attribute for the rarity of the material and its use in contemporary art.
With this Escobar attempts to open a dialogue that is pending in Central America, and certainly in Guatemala since the cultural disruption caused by the armed conflict that began in the sixties. Artist: Alice Quaresma. The current exhibit of Alice Quaresma is one of the most interesting ones, not only for its unstable and migrant character in the photographic process, but also for embodying, in a poetic and unique way, some pungent issues to the contemporary artist. In particular, we can highlight those that lean towards relationships, identity issues, uprooting, sense of permanence and displacement, among other powerful traits within her work.
Graduated in painting in London, she began to experiment with photography in college, and then went through a phase of self-portraits and other phases of still life in the studio setting, with equipment and strategies focused on an impeccable technique. Later she got back to painting and, from there, managed to deconstruct her own photographic process using elements of other plastic arts and visual researches, guided by a formal detachment.
Despite his excellent technique with these forms, Nandino is perhaps best recognized for his use of the nocturne. A Symbiotic Relationship Among U. Indeed, it served as inspiration for much of his work. Working with inmates, whom many would consider the dregs of society, Nandino learned that everyone is capable of both good and evil.
Practicing medicine, Nandino maintained, produced in him a greater sensitivity to literature. Until the very end of his own life, he continued to explore the options of death as pleasure or pain Aguilar I stretch out and also limit myself to the defenseless contour that delivers me to the island of oblivion where one forgets. And so I feel myself divided and at the same time imprisoned by a mold. The second circle was made of up Salvador Novo and Xavier Villaurrutia.
Finally, Jorge Cuesta and Gilberto Owen formed the third subgroup. In addition to this core of eight poets, Forster has labeled four poets as fringe members: Carlos Pellicer, Octavio G. Clearly, the very inner circle of members had been friends since high school and then introduced other friends to the group. In his autobiography, Nandino describes his deep friendship with Xavier Villaurrutia, and many other members of the group. Writer such as Borges and Neruda, who were just beginning their literary careers at that time, were also published.
Of particular note in the journal were translations of French and English writers. He stated that, other than Villaurrutia, others of the group criticized his poetry and. Perhaps the greatest similarity is that of themes — life, death, love — however no single generation has a monopoly on these. Because of his longevity and his continuous literary output up until the very end of his life, he lived to see himself rediscovered.
Many of his early works were long out of print, but were released in new editions during the early and mid s. Estaciones and the literary workshops In addition to his work as poet, Nandino is also recognized for his work as editor and publisher. In his early years of college, Nandino organ-. The journal attracted critical attention in the U. These reviews also noted the importance of the journal to young writers.
Biographical Information of Invited poets to the XX International Poetry Festival of Medellín
His attitude toward young people was very radical; he gave them the books and journals that they would need. Here he also established a literary journal Revista de Occidente Occidental Review , a student journal Papeles al sol Papers. Here he continued his work with young writers including Jorge Esquinca. These workshops continued, with some interruption, until when he settled permanently in his home town of Cocula and established similar workshops there. Because of his continued dedication to helping establish young writers, the National Prize for Young Poets was named in his honor.
I left forgiven and both of us ended up crying However, beginning with Eternidad de polvo Eternity of Dust, continuing with Cerca de lo lejos Close to Faraway, and culminating in Erotismo al rojo blanco White Heat Eroticism, , Nandino began to write his way out of the literary closet as well.
There is a high price on maintaining erotic dissidence; with the hostility and taunts, one needs to adopt a language that is seemingly neutral, one that continuously describes the most personal life experiences and offers them as an intense abstraction. The earlier language of the physician is still obvious, but the veiled, coded language has given way to simple, direct expression.
His work is generally described as accessible and unadorned. His long life allowed him to explore these themes throughout his writing career. At the. Cerca de lo lejos, , showed a radical change in style for Nandino. The long, formal nocturnes had been replaced with short, free-verse poems. Nearly deaf and blind, he lived alone, in a private world. He rose at and retired by in the evening, and wrote, as he pleased, in between. He ignored phone calls from Mexico City and declined all invitations to attend literary events Hernandez.
He did, in fact, live his life exactly as he wanted, writing his poems until the very end. Personal interview. Cocula, Jalisco, Mexico. July 8, Aguilar, Enrique. Cohen, Sandro. Foster, David William. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Elias Nandino. July 11, Montelongo, Daniel. Cocula, Jalisco, Mexico, July 8, Montemayor, Carlos.
Sandro Cohen, ed. Cerca de lo lejos. Erotismo al rojo blanco. Juntando mis pasos. Mexico, DF : Editorial Aldus, Mexico, DF : Nueva Voz, Sonetos — Todos mis nocturnos. Guadalajara, Jalisco: Ayuntamiento de Guadalajara, Por ella fui lascivo y no he dejado puro ni un poro de mi cuerpo.
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- Tours of the Black Clock: A Novel.
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Erotismo al rojo blanco In my lust for life not a single pore of my body remains pure. Espiral Magnolia Tree You are a green cage where the ecstatic white dove sleeps, with beak beneath its wing. In the absence of hands, a new touch will spring forth to graze the intangible presence of our bodies. An oblivion of words will form a precise language to understand the glances of our closed eyes.
Sleeping here in bed, our bodies will be like children huddled together as fear approaches Keep sleeping without seeing me, awake here beside you. Y en el azul que esconde la evidencia yo descubro tu faz inolvidada, y sufro la presencia de tu ausencia. Sonetos , And in the blue that hides the proof I discover your unforgettable face, and suffer the presence of your absence. Sonetos You Are in Me You are in me, a fervent pulse of my trembling nervous system, in my veins of stormy instinct, in the oceans of insomnia in my head.
You are outside of me, like the slope of vague voices, of sobs, of edges of dark secrets, and the touch of absent caresses. You cover and uncover me, leaving no space without your presence, no atom without trace of your breath. Further Further than chemistry and hate, than the dark channels of echoes, than the nocturnal mirror of shadow. Further than the names and touches, than the gray spider of the pubis, than the red mollusks of tongues. Further than voice and vice, than strong chains of heredity, than the clock of age, of innocence.
Further than the terror of shadows, than the luminous pulse of stars, than the subterranean scream of blood. Further than the torture of torsos, than the sea waters of kisses, than the blue waves of remembering. Further than the prison of embraces, than the eternal clamor of hope, than the smell of earth and branches.
Further than frankness and cynicism, than the corporal tree surrounding around us, than the unquenchable thirst that defeats us. Tan lejos me distancio de mi mismo cuando estoy a la orilla de tus ojos que en la carera de mis pensamiento lo olvido todo Tan lejos es el mundo que me inspiras, que tengo miedo de seguir volando por sendas de dolor y de misterio y quedarme solo Es mejor que te quiera y no te piense, cuerpo a cuerpo vencidos por la llama del amor que encadena nuestras vidas.
Muy cerca Es mejor que me quede emparedado en tu abrazo carnal que me destroza, en tu instinto animal que me consume. Further than the network of senses, than the exciting poison of hysteria, than the sweet bitterness we feel. Further than where my thoughts roam when I forget the presence of your form and I shape you in the air of my dreams. Almost at the cosmic border of beginning, in the mind of God, in the disturbing unease of light and silence.
I travel so far from myself when I am on the shore of your eyes, that my racing mind forgets everything So close Nudo de sombras I no longer want to escape my body, or turn you into my dreams. Si arrastro lo que soy y lo llevo por el fuerte declive del silencio sin poder descansar con mis palabras. Si me pesa la vida y ya no puedo la piedra de mi historia acumulada. If I drag myself down the steep slope of silence without resting with my words. If life weighs me down and I can no longer carry the stone of my long history. I have no hands, I am incapable of caresses and touching, I am thaw of forgotten snows, I am man without name I am phantom They can destroy your sweet-smelling vessel and turn your blood into bitter water like my blood Prismas de Sangre Look for the peak on the blue wings of your dreams, and reach for the highest branch to pick the sweetest of fruit.
Sonnets to Indifference I You are with me — torso of bitterness — spilling your tormented life in my arms of frozen shadow where your tenderness no longer lives. You are with me — maddening hell — trembling beside this charred body that does not feel the light of your look or your sharp, burning touch. Indifference — the death I feared — separates me from the your sobbing passions begging for my caress.
Prisoners in this knot of agony, we are the echo of a distant love and we both cry together. You and I are no longer what we were together. We are someone else on this hidden cross — trembling, lifeless, weeping. Indifference erased what we dreamed of and the knot of our souls has become an anguish that buries us both. Me das la brisa que en tu boca anida y no puedo embriagar mi desconsuelo porque tu llama incita mi deshielo y me quema la hoguera de tu vida.
Espejo de mi muerte You give me a breeze from deep inside. The essence of your dream is not mine. Soy demonio que crece en tu sonrisa, el cielo asesinado en tus pupilas; la tragedia que amarga tu saliva con el raro sabor de mis instintos. Poem on Your Body I I am young in your body, I am your blood; the moss of years in your days; the cloud of experience that grazes you with wise instances of sin.
I am the senile nest where your form is shaken — fuel of my fever — igniting the obsession of my desire and my envy of April in your cheeks. I climb the summit of your restlessness to lower your modesties, naked, and wrap them with a skillful, ardent touch until they return with the hunger that hounds me. And you are, you must be, I feel it: the human lily who expires in my night with the spasm of my agonies and waves of amorous phrases Quiero ser el cadalso de tu fuerza; tu sombra, tu tristeza, tu fantasma; el gustano que muerde tu memoria y siempre te pronuncie mis palabras.
Pero Santo o Demonio, soy tu centro; el amor con el odio de beberte; el viento que desata la marea en el desnudo mar de tu pureza. Y tengo que vivir de tus anhelos, sangrar tu boca, y contagiar mi sombra en la luz infantil de lo que esperas y en la cruda verdad de lo que gozas. III I want to be the poison inside you; the good, the tremendous, the impossible, the angel and devil in one embrace; serpent and dove in your green branch.
I want to be the scaffold of your strength; your shadow, your sadness, your specter; the worm that eats your memory and then speaks you as my words. IV I am young in your body, I am your death: the specter who lives in your blood; the man who devours your limits like the wolf that swallows the lambs. But, Saint or Demon, I am your center; the love-hate of drinking you; the wind that frees the tide in the naked sea of your purity. And I must live in your longings, bloody your mouth, and infect my shadow in the childlike view of your hopes, the raw truth of your desires.
I want to climb the clouds of your dreams, take root in the light of your brain and enslave you with my thoughts. Poems of Remembering Fragment From one life I create another and the two form my being. A ciegas voy caminando por la orilla silenciosa de tu ausencia misteriosa donde te estoy escuchando. Poems for a Deceased Poet Fragments 1. I walk blindly along the silent shore of your mysterious absence where I am listening to you. I know that searching accelerates my fall because my stubbornness to see you, to make your life reappear, hastens my own death.
Tu palabra desnuda y palpitante era sonido y eco, como si ya volviera fatigado de un lejano viaje. Todo en ti fue la vida de tu muerte, presentido y sentido un coloquio de sangre y de misterio habitando tu frente. Epilogues for a Deceased Poet Your departure convinces me you knew you never walked alone but behind the echo of your steps other steps, echoless, followed you Official website.
C, its main campus spans 90 acres near Ward Circle , a residential area in the northwest of the District. AU was chartered by the U. Congress in at the urging of Methodist bishop John Fletcher Hurst , who sought to create an institution that would promote public service and pragmatic idealism. AU broke ground in , opened in , admitted its first undergraduates in Although affiliated with the United Methodist Church , religious affiliation is not a criterion for admission.
D programs. AU's student body numbers over 13, and represents all 50 U. The university is recognized as a second tier research institution by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education and is ranked 69th nationally by U. AU is a top producer of Fulbright Scholars , was one of only seven institutions in with more than one Truman Scholar , with two recipients; as of , AU ranked first in Boren Scholars and Fellows, second in Udall Scholars , fourth in Presidential Management Fellows.
Reflecting the school's founding emphasis on public and international service, 95 percent undergraduates participate in at least one internship, while 71 percent of students participate in study abroad, the ninth highest rate in the nation. Among medium-sized schools, AU ranks second in the number of students serving in the Peace Corps and tenth for the most Teach for America volunteers.
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According to the Princeton Review , AU students rank first for most politically active and run the seventh most active student government in the country; the American University was established in the District of Columbia by an Act of Congress on December 5, due to the efforts of Methodist bishop John Fletcher Hurst, who aimed to create an institution that could train future public servants. Hurst chose the site of the university, which at the time was the rural periphery of the District.
After more than three decades devoted principally to securing financial support, the university was dedicated on May 15, , with its first instructions beginning October of that year, when 28 students were enrolled, 19 of whom were graduates and the remainder special students not candidates for a degree; the First Commencement, at which no degrees were awarded, was held on June 2, The Second Annual Commencement was held the following year and saw the awarding of the first degrees: one master's degree and two doctor's degrees. AU was notable in admitting women and African Americans , uncommon in higher education at the time.
Shortly after these early commencement ceremonies, classes were interrupted by war. During World War I , the university allowed the U. In , the U. Camp American University became the birthplace of the United States ' chemical weapons program and the site of chemical weapons testing. Camp Leach was home to advanced research and testing of modern camouflage techniques; as of , the Army Corps of Engineers is still removing ordnance including mustard gas and mortar shells.
Instruction was offered only at the graduate level, in accordance with the original plan of the founders; this changed in with the establishment of the College of Liberal Arts , which offered the first undergraduate degrees and programs. What is now the School of Public Affairs was founded in to educate future federal employees in new approaches to public administration introduced by the New Deal. AU's relationship to the U. For AU's role in these wartime efforts, the Victory ship SS American Victory was named in its honor; the post-war period saw considerable growth and restructuring of AU.
In , the Washington Semester Program was established, pioneering the concept of semester-long internships in the nation's capital. In , the university merged with the Washington College of Law , which had begun in as the first law school founded by women and the first coeducational institution for the professional study of law in the District. Shortly thereafter, three departments were reorganized as schools: the School of Busines.
Scholarly method The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the subject as valid and trustworthy as possible, to make them known to the scholarly public. It is the methods that systemically advance the teaching and practice of a given scholarly or academic field of study through rigorous inquiry.
Scholarship is noted by its significance to its particular profession, is creative, can be documented, can be replicated or elaborated, can be and is peer-reviewed through various methods. Begun in order to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval theology , scholasticism is not a philosophy or theology in itself but a tool and method for learning which places emphasis on dialectical reasoning; the primary purpose of scholasticism is to find the answer to a question or to resolve a contradiction.
It was once well known for its application in medieval theology but was applied to classical philosophy and many other fields of study. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and to write history. The question of the nature, indeed the possibility, of sound historical method is raised in the philosophy of history, as a question of epistemology.
History guidelines used by historians in their work require external criticism, internal criticism, synthesis; the empirical method is taken to mean the collection of data on which to base a hypothesis or derive a conclusion in science. It is part of the scientific method, but is mistakenly assumed to be synonymous with other methods; the empirical method is not defined and is contrasted with the precision of experiments, where data is derived from the systematic manipulation of variables.
The experimental method investigates causal relationships among variables. An experiment is a cornerstone of the empirical approach to acquiring data about the world and is used in both natural sciences and social sciences. An experiment can be used to help solve practical problems and to support or negate theoretical assumptions. The scientific method refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.
To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. A scientific method consists of the collection of data through observation and experimentation, the formulation and testing of hypotheses. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center.
Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, ; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together.
A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records. The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records.
The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In , the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition.
On March 16, , the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold readers.
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In the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to , volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses.
During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in , to the numerous works purchased by the library. In , when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory , making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions.
The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,, items, including 15,, books and other printed materials, 4,, graphic materials, , sound recordings, , music scores, more than , microforms, , maps, , newspapers and serials, 90, audiovisuals, 90, electronic documents, 30, manuscripts. Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems.
Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,, bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Spain Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula , its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar.
With an area of , km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe , the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union , the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35, years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician , Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around BCE, after which the region was named Hispania , based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe , invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo , which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania.
In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate , who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year , leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada ; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon , Kingdom of Castile , Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista , which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples , had competed with Genoa and Venice.
In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis , meaning "city of the western world".
Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means " Hyrax " due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia , reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" Hesperia. Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America.
Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean , covering 9. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa , its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra , its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border.
Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in In , with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom.
This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of and culminated in the Canada Act of , which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition , with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations , a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level.
It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.