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They typically involve adult villains who hate and mistreat children, and feature at least one "good" adult to counteract the villain s. The BFG follows it in a more analogous way with the good giant the BFG or "Big Friendly Giant" representing the "good adult" archetype and the other giants being the "bad adults". Class-conscious themes also surface in works such as Fantastic Mr Fox and Danny, the Champion of the World where the unpleasant wealthy neighbours are outwitted. Dahl also features characters who are very fat, usually children. All of these characters with the possible exception of Bruce Bogtrotter are either villains or simply unpleasant gluttons.

They are usually punished for this: Augustus Gloop drinks from Willy Wonka 's chocolate river, disregarding the adults who tell him not to, and falls in, getting sucked up a pipe and nearly being turned into fudge. In Matilda , Bruce Bogtrotter steals cake from the evil headmistress, Miss Trunchbull , and is forced to eat a gigantic chocolate cake in front of the school.

In The Witches , Bruno Jenkins is lured by the witches whose leader is the Grand High Witch into their convention with the promise of chocolate, before they turn him into a mouse. When Dahl was a boy his mother used to tell him and his sisters tales about trolls and other mythical Norwegian creatures and some of his children's books contain references or elements inspired by these stories, such as the giants in The BFG , the fox family in Fantastic Mr Fox and the trolls in The Minpins.

Receiving the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement , Dahl encouraged his children and his readers to let their imagination run free. His daughter Lucy stated "his spirit was so large and so big he taught us to believe in magic. Dahl was also famous for his inventive, playful use of language, which was a key element to his writing. He would invent new words by scribbling down his words before swapping letters around and adopting spoonerisms and malapropisms.

He didn't always explain what his words meant, but children can work them out because they often sound like a word they know, and he loved using onomatopoeia. For example, you know that something lickswishy and delumptious is good to eat, whereas something uckyslush or rotsome is not definitely not! He also used sounds that children love to say, like squishous and squizzle , or fizzlecrump and fizzwiggler. In , marking the centenary of Dahl's birth, Rennie compiled The Oxford Roald Dahl Dictionary which includes many of his invented words and their meaning.

Dahl's collection of poems Revolting Rhymes is recorded in audiobook form, and narrated by actor Alan Cumming. For a brief period in the s, Dahl wrote screenplays. Dahl later disowned the film, saying he was "disappointed" because "he thought it placed too much emphasis on Willy Wonka and not enough on Charlie". This resulted in his refusal for any more versions of the book to be made in his lifetime, as well as an adaptation for the sequel Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator. A major part of Dahl's literary influences stemmed from his childhood.

In his younger days, he was an avid reader, especially awed by fantastic tales of heroism and triumph. Amongst his favourite authors were Rudyard Kipling , Charles Dickens , William Makepeace Thackeray and Frederick Marryat , and their works went on to make a lasting mark on his life and writing. Dahl travelled to visit Thomas's hut in Carmarthenshire, Wales in the s and, after taking a look inside, decided to make a replica of it to write in.

Dahl liked ghost stories, and claimed that Trolls by Jonas Lie was one of the finest ghost stories ever written. While he was still a youngster, his mother, Sofie Dahl, would relate traditional Norwegian myths and legends from her native homeland to Dahl and his sisters. Dahl always maintained that his mother and her stories had a strong influence on his writing. In one interview, he mentioned: "She was a great teller of tales. Her memory was prodigious and nothing that ever happened to her in her life was forgotten. In , Dahl hosted and wrote for a science fiction and horror television anthology series called Way Out , which preceded the Twilight Zone series on the CBS network for 14 episodes from March to July.

Dahl introduced on camera all the episodes of the first two series, which bore the full title Roald Dahl's Tales of the Unexpected. Roald Dahl died on 23 November , at the age of 74 of a rare cancer of the blood, myelodysplastic syndrome , in Oxford , [] and was buried in the cemetery at St Peter and St Paul's Church in Great Missenden , Buckinghamshire, England.

According to his granddaughter, the family gave him a "sort of Viking funeral ". He was buried with his snooker cues , some very good burgundy , chocolates, HB pencils and a power saw. Today, children continue to leave toys and flowers by his grave. Plass is Norwegian for "place" or "square", alluding to the writer's Norwegian roots.

There have also been calls from the public for a permanent statue of him to be erected in Cardiff. Dahl's charitable commitments in the fields of neurology , haematology and literacy during his life have been continued by his widow since his death, through Roald Dahl's Marvellous Children's Charity, formerly known as the Roald Dahl Foundation.

It was unveiled by his widow Felicity and son Theo. For instance film director Tim Burton recalled from childhood "the second layer [after Dr. Seuss ] of connecting to a writer who gets the idea of the modern fable — and the mixture of light and darkness, and not speaking down to kids, and the kind of politically incorrect humour that kids get.

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I've always like that, and it's shaped everything I've felt that I've done. The Independent , Regarded as "one of the greatest storytellers for children of the 20th century", [6] Dahl was named by The Times one of the 50 greatest British writers since Rowling named Charlie and the Chocolate Factory one of her top ten books every child should read.

Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album cover — to celebrate the British cultural figures of his life he most admires. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Roald Dahl. Patricia Neal m. World War II. A grown-up being mischievous. He addresses you, a child, as somebody who knows about the world. He was a grown-up — and he was bigger than most — who is on your side.

That must have something to do with it. Roald Dahl Plass. Main articles: Roald Dahl bibliography and Roald Dahl short stories bibliography. Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 April Retrieved 30 August BBC News. Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 16 September The Times. TODAY today. NBC News. Associated Press. The Independent. The Guardian. Roald Dahl Facts. Retrieved 14 March Retrieved 24 December Wheeler Roald Dahl p. Sharp Popular Contemporary Writers p.

Marshall Cavendish, Oxford University Press. BBC Wales. Retrieved 24 January Book of the Week. BBC Radio. Boy: Tales of Childhood. Puffin Books. Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 26 May Los Angeles Review of Books. Retrieved 6 July Treglown's source note is as follows: "Several people who were at the top of Priory House at the time have discussed it with me, particularly B. Reuss and John Bradburn. Jonathan Cape. Books and Writers kirjasto. Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 10 February Roald Dahl's Incredible Chocolate Box.

London: HarperPress. London Gazette. The Daily Telegraph. Going Solo. Going Solo excerpt. The London Gazette.

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The Washington Post Magazine. Retrieved 30 November BBC Studios. The True Intrepid. Archived from the original on 22 May Retrieved 11 May Advances in Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation. The Telegraph 3 February Retrieved 4 January Retrieved 1 February The Telegraph 6 August Pat and Roald. Kingsport Press. Retrieved 13 June Retrieved 7 November Retrieved 27 January Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 17 May Ruffin Meet Roald Dahl. Infobase Publishing, Macmillan, Retrieved 28 January Danny, the Champion Of The World.

Random House, Retrieved 1 October The Facts on File companion to the British short story. Publishing News Ltd. Fox' movie review: Wes Anderson joyfully re-creates Roald Dahl's foxy family". The Star-Ledger. Audition Speeches for Year Olds. Scranton Gillette Communications. Archived from the original on 5 December Internet Movie Database. The Paley Center for Media. McElmeel " most popular children's authors: biographical sketches and bibliographies".

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Dictionary of Minor Planet Names — Dahl. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 7 July Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 28 April Retrieved 25 October Retrieved 7 March Roald Dahl Museum roalddahlmuseum. Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 20 September World Stamp News worldstampnews.

Archived from the original on 18 July Retrieved 9 January Out from tomorrow, the stamps also show James and the Giant Peach and The Witches , while a triumphant Charlie Bucket from Charlie and the Chocolate Factory is brandishing a golden ticket on the new first class stamp. Wales Online. First of two pages. Archived 2 September by the publisher. Charles Dickens and Terry Pratchett led with five of the Top The four extant Harry Potter novels all made the Top Retrieved 16 July We followed the approach of Schmiedl et al.

Because the two longer deeper basin cores capture the isotopic composition of the coldest waters of the Last Glacial Maximum LGM , they have a larger total decrease and exhibit a 3. Assemblages older than After YD assemblages returned to Quinqueloculina spp. This change initiated a steep increase in the compositional dominance of B. Quinqueloculina spp. Steep declines were observed at termination IA in the two deeper cores, commensurate with an ephemeral increase in diversity and evenness in the shallow core. Diversity and evenness increased at the onset of the YD Sediment accumulation rates are dependent on a suite of depositional environment and postdepositional conditions, including sediment supply, downslope remobilization and winnowing, and preferential degradation of biogenic components.

The high sedimentation rates at the deeper sites suggest that these locations are sites of sediment focusing with enhanced accumulation rates. Bioturbation resumed in both deeper cores at the onset of the YD Laminations developed in the deep basin after termination IB and remained the predominant sedimentary fabric through the early Holocene.

Low diversity and high dominance i. Seafloor invertebrate richness and composition in OMZ environments are altered and reduced with dissolved oxygen concentrations below 0. Oxygen is a physiochemical parameter and acts as a limiting factor, determining the distribution of where foraminifera can live based on their physiological respiration requirements.

Within the optimal range of a limiting factor, foraminiferal species will reach maximum competitiveness and maximum abundance [ Levinton , ; Pianka , ; Dodd and Stanton , ], resulting in tight affiliations with specific oxygenation ranges. For example, Miliolid i. Community density is bounded at the upper oxygen threshold by predation or competition pressure and at the lower oxygen threshold by respiration requirements [ Phleger and Soutar , ; Mullins et al.

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The opportunistic group Bolivina excluding B. Such taxa, like E. The deep SBB chemical environment, including bicarbonate production associated with sulfate reduction, can buffer porewater pH and improve the preservation of benthic foraminifera [ Reimers et al. Alternations in hypoxic conditions over the vertical transect, and resulting changes in bioturbation, sulfate reduction, sulfide oxygenation, and bottom water oxygenation cycles, may have produced changes in the preservation and dissolution of foraminiferal assemblages.

While taphonomic biases are important to consider when conducting faunal investigations, these biases do not negate the usefulness of careful proxy reconstruction [ Jorissen et al. However, we highlight the progress and problems using benthic foraminiferal assemblages as an oxygenation proxy to address assumptions and strengths of our approach. Some investigations indicate that oxygen is not a limiting factor for many taxa [e.

However, it has been demonstrated that oxygen is a limiting factor below a critical threshold [ Jorissen et al. It is possible to use taxonomic composition to reconstruct quantity and quality of organic input [ Fontanier et al. Resource parameters, such as the quality or quantity of food, are expected to affect the density of foraminiferal populations and the composition, as maximum competitiveness is achieved within a particular flux range [ Jorissen et al. Benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates i. Oxygenation marker taxa were selected upon modern seafloor observations, a diversity index was added to increase proxy robustness, and evenness and density were added for a comprehensive assessment.

We follow Hofmann et al. Weak hypoxia 3. Intermediate hypoxia 1. Strong hypoxia 0. Prior to termination IA, benthic assemblages were primarily composed of species associated with oxic and weakly hypoxic environments Quinqueloculina spp. At termination IA, all three cores abruptly recorded a steep increase in extremophile fauna: B. A spike of B.


This vertical gradient in B. During the YD, all three cores record increased oxygenation through a resurgence of taxa associated with oxic and mildly hypoxic conditions, although not as oxygenated as prior to termination IA. During the YD, E. The intermediate core retained Quinqueloculina spp. By coupling with marker species composition, we interpret if low densities were associated with environmental predation or respiration requirements. Density in the shallow core increased after termination IB, in association with an ephemeral peak of B.

Order of magnitude density increases occurred in the shallowest core at These high densities indicate stable conditions of intermediate hypoxia throughout the Holocene, wherein foraminiferal communities did not experience strong metazoan predation pressure or respiration stress. Deep basin density was unstable through the Holocene, with intermittent and steep declines associated with lamination preservation and dominance of B.

Faunal assemblages analogous to modern OMZ community structure developed after termination IB most clearly in the shallowest core. High foraminiferal diversity and evenness are generally associated with oxygenated sediments [ Levin et al. High diversity and evenness values are complex paleoceanographic proxies that may indicate influences by a suite of different environmental parameters; on the other hand, low diversity and evenness are clear indicators of depauperate assemblages that result from strongly hypoxic environments.

All the three core assemblages exhibit rapid shifts in diversity and evenness, synchronous with rapid Northern Hemisphere deglacial events: termination IA, the YD, and termination IB. Increased diversity and evenness occurred across the depth transect during the cool climatic intervals of the LGM and YD, although this was not as clearly exhibited in the shallowest cores during the LGM, potentially because of predation pressure.

However, the intermediate core recorded an environment that was consistently more oxygenated than the deeper core, as seen in the more limited preservation of laminations, higher faunal densities, and reduced compositional dominance of extremophile taxa. Intermediate water deoxygenation at the shallow site is temporally synchronous with the dramatic oscillations in the deep basin deoxygenation records. SBB was generally well oxygenated during the LGM, a time of more restricted basin circulation, indicating that residence time may amplify oxygen depletion, but it is not the primary driver oxygenation changes.

Deoxygenation at termination IA was of a greater magnitude than seen at any other time in the record or known for the modern margin. The YD followed with a resumption of oxygenated conditions, corresponding to an interval of downward contraction of the upper boundary of the OMZ.

We extract changing community structure from paleoecological assemblages in order to improve paleoenvironmental interpretations of deglacial oxygen concentrations in the benthic environment. The investigation provides evidence for a vertical oxygenation gradient through the basinal feature, caused by the biochemical depletion of oxygen in the water column and the subsill basinal ventilation reduction in the basin.

This research underscores the high sensitivity for vertical shoaling of the upper boundary of the California Current OMZ in response to global warming events and the importance of the regional OMZ in modifying oxygen concentrations of restricted coastal basins like SBB. Thompson, D.

Winter, C. Replogle, and L. Jacobs for their technical assistance and T. We also thank L. Data are available online from the World Data Center for Paleoceanography. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries other than missing content should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.

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Volume 29 , Issue 1. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Open access. Paleoceanography Volume 29, Issue 1. Regular Article Free Access. Sarah E. Tessa M.