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Forgot your password? PDF Preview. Table of Contents. Related Content. The case studies included in the volume represent women writers from various European countries and comparatively reflect the nuances of their participation in a burgeoning commercial market for authors while profiting as much from patronage. Editor: Andrea Rizzi. Drawing on a wide variety of sources published in Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Latin, German, English, and Zapotec, this volume brings a global perspective to the history of translators, and the printed book. Together the essays point out the extent to which particular language cultures were liable to shift, overlap, shrink, and expand during one of the most defining periods in the history of print culture.

His material has been scoured from an exhaustive interrogation of the records of the book trade. Both England and France were conversant with some very negative ideas about Spain. New York, Venice is a maze. It insists on its own complexity and defies its viewer to resolve the seemingly irresoluble. When I first encountered it I was working on my dissertation, which evolved, at first almost unwittingly, into a study of midcentury Venetian madrigals engaged equally in the play of literary texts and musical ones. Since then I have increasingly tried to understand what singing poetry meant in midcentury Venice by widening my gaze across the city's cultural life.

I hope this broadening of perspective is at once a deepening as well, a means to swell the space in which composers' settings of verse are seen to coexist with an array not just of literary texts but of other artworks, forms, events, habits, and personalities. This book, then, seeks to view madrigals in Venice as specific cultural practices, entangled inextricably with a great variety of other practices.

Yet there is a more particular story about it and them, book and madrigals, which emerged from problems that arose along the way. One central, and generative, problem had to do with how to situate madrigals in a city that lacked systematic accounts for their main habitat, the private salon. For unlike many courtly and provincial counterparts, Venetian salons that accommodated madrigals resisted the schemata of chronicles and registers, rules and logs.

Refusing to straiten their activities into schedules and preserve them in records, they thwarted the facile discernments of others, the capacity to be known and defined. I came to these places as removed and inquisitive as the contemporaries they excluded — more so, perhaps. For even as I saw how the city's memory had dispersed and obscured the practices I aimed to grasp, I continued to hone the scholarly tools of documentary discovery and control. Ultimately these tools both failed and enabled my ends: failed in that I quickly had to abandon hopes of recovering.

In time I came to regard Venice as my ethnographic field and the subject of my study not as Venetian madrigals but madrigals in Venice. Further, the material amassed on my several "field trips" seemed to carry an irrepressible charge to admit the cacophonous and often contradictory subjectivities and mechanisms that defined madrigals in Venice, even while the city claimed to position sovereign authors in figures like Adrian Willaert, Cipriano de Rore, and Gioseffo Zarlino. One of my cases in point is a book entitled Di Cipriano il secondo libro de madregali a cinque voci insieme alcuni di M.

Adriano et altri autori a misura comune novamente posti in luce — a book dedicating less than a third of its space to Rore, the rest to eight named authors and three anonimi. The inalterable necessity to seek out madrigalian practices in fragmentary testaments — scattered dedications, prefaces, dialogues, tracts, letters, occasional and dedicatory poems, handbooks, genealogies, wills, contracts, and more — was thus in the end a liberating constraint.

Moreover, as the contexts of Venetian musical life failed to reveal themselves on the cognitive ground on which I was largely trained, they helped remake my ways of knowing according to their own modes and sympathies. The more reflexive spirit of inquiry that has entered musicology had a hand in this in later stages of the book, of course. But that was not all. The image of a unitary musical Venice at midcentury continually broke down on close encounter to divulge not a single fixed reality but particular modes of display that existed in competition with many other ones.

Mine is not primarily a study, then, of musical forms or their numerous manifestations. In developing my thoughts on the subject, moreover, I have not tried to provide anything like an encyclopedic extension of Alfred Einstein's treatment of Venetian madrigals in The Italian Madrigal — that is, to account comprehensively for the whole range of composers and madrigal prints that might reasonably be called "Venetian.

By mediating between this complex of relations I hope to make intelligible the place of Venetian madrigals within the particular urban context that engendered them. We may begin to unravel the skein of questions gathered in this study by starting with a strand from social history.

In the year Bernardino Tomitano, a Paduan teacher of logic, wrote a long, fictitious letter to Francesco Longo enumerating the. John A. Agnew and James S. Duncan Boston, , pp. It offered, in effect, a partial Venetian miniature of Baldassare Castiglione's famous Cortegiano, defining the boundaries of a Venetian aristocracy with its own special formulas for courtliness.

Describing the manners of the patrician politician, for instance, Tomitano exhorted Longo to habits that had long served to clothe Venetians in the public eye: modesty, benevolence, purity and naturalness of speech, sententiousness, gravity, measured orderliness, dignity, and practicality. Cede audacity to modesty. Incline toward esteeming yourself less, not more, than your rank. Don't rely on your might. Pay no heed to flatterers. Think in the evening of how benevolent your actions were in the day, how worthy of you, how useful to the common good, especially in managing public concerns.

When you come to speak in the [Major] Council, make your speech conform to your age and profession — not rough, for this would not be what is expected of you; nor overtly artful, for this would bring you little praise. Let it then be made up of natural artfulness, pure words, and full of examples and thoughts of your homeland, not sung out but espoused with gravity; not convoluted but disposed with order.

Be rich with reason rather than commonplaces. Magnify your case with all diligence and insist on its necessary aspects. I start with this now obscure text for two reasons. The first is to invoke it as an epigraph for my study, since the ideals it distills might be taken as a standard to which Venetians by turns conformed or resisted. The second is to point up the profoundly Venetian transformations that brought it to print. Tomitano's exhortations found no place in the heavy traffic of Venetian printed words until they were recast. VII, no. A published edition is extant at I-Vnm entitled Lettera di M.

Bernardino Tomitano al Magnifico M. Francesco Longo del Clarissimo M. Antonio [n. Antonio Coleti, ? Coleti's preface states that the letter was discovered by "Sig. Jacopo Morelli Custode di questa pubblica Libreria di S. I quote here and elsewhere from Morelli's edition, which corresponds in all but modernized orthography to the Marciana manuscript. Tomitano was born in Padua in and died there in ; for a brief biography see the Dizionario enciclopedico della letteratura italiana and Chap. Note numbers as cross-references direct the reader to the main text in the vicinity of the cited number.

Non vi fidate delle vostre forze. Non ascoltate adulatori. Pensate la sera le operazioni fatte il giorno quanto siano state buone, quanto degne di voi, quanto utili al comune benefizio, spezialmente maneggiando le pubbliche cure. Sia dunque fatta con arte naturale, con parole schiette, e della patria vostra, piena di esempi, e colma di sentenzie; non cantata, ma gravamente esposta; non inviluppata, ma con ordine disposta; sia piuttosto ricca di ragioni, che di luoghi comuni; esagerate con ogni diligenza il caso, ed insistete sopra le parti necessarie" Tomitano, in Operette, p.

But as a dialogue, the text promoted all the more powerfully his idealized model of Venetian character. In such a form it took as its main target the growing numbers of nonpatrician readers, curious to learn how they might borrow some measure of this "glory and honor" and increasingly able to do so.

The Dialogo was adapted by the printer, popular historian, and frequent ghost-writer Francesco Sansovino, son of the famous sculptor. For them, as for much of Italy and Europe, Venice functioned as an exemplum among modern states. It represented unmatched constitutional stability, political wisdom, good judgment, and liberty. These virtues were intoned in innumerable public speeches. In the same oration he exalted the city of Venice for its balanced form of government, its rule by many, its liberty, tranquillity, and sagacity, and especially its prudence.

The qualities they exemplified had only magnified in the foreign gaze with the repeated invasions of Italy after , culmi-. The Dialogo was printed in Venice by Francesco Rampazetto and bears the shelf no. As Emmanuele A. Cicogna points out, Triphon Gabriele, who communicated with friends but wrote little, may have been the one who gave Tomitano the ideas included in the letter to Longo. A Venetian patrician resident in Padua, Gabriele's thoughts on the Venetian republic were recorded by the Florentine Donato Giannotti in his Repubblica de' vinitiani of See Cicogna, Delle inscrizioni veneziane, 6 vols.

Venice, , For a biography of Sansovino see Paul F. Grendler, "Francesco Sansovino and Italian Popular History, ," Studies in the Renaissance 16 : , and for further bibliography, p. See also Chap. Lorenzo Cosatti Milan, , pp. Faced with such perils and failures, both Italy and Europe at large fell increasingly prey to Venetians' myths about themselves. This too was something of an irony. While Venice's self-image was crystallizing into a doctrine of virtues, its own fortunes had suffered a decline.

In the imperialist republic had been jolted from its confident penetrations of the mainland by the League of Cambrai, which ranged against it all the major forces of Europe. The league's formation represented the shattering moment when Venice's political star began to dim. The city never recovered the full political strength it had exercised at the turn of the century, nor did it regain all of its dominions on the terraferma. In such a time Venetians might have looked on the imaginative realms of arts and letters with some indifference.

But from all that can be deduced, this was generally not so. If the city failed to recoup certain of its land claims, it fortified its assertions of glory after only a brief period of restraint by compensating with redoubled artistic investments. By the mid-sixteenth century the doge's processions, state political iconography, and performances of civic liturgy — all highly visible forms — had assumed unprecedented levels of vigor.

They remind us, in turn, that while many of the most famous reinscriptions of Venetian myths came from travelers and onlookers from abroad, these myths started with Venetians themselves. It was partly by these means that Venice continued to maintain its status as the ne plus ultra of republicanism among the Italian city-states. The mythologizing that marks internal explanations of Venetian history and character, both implicit and explicit, did not just ornament the city's infrastructure, then, but carefully constructed its identity, fostering images of Venetian equilibrium at home while spreading them abroad.

Any attempt to reconcile the Venice. See, for example, James S. John R. Hale London, , pp. Hale, pp. Venice was a town that absorbed and balanced a huge range of divergent views, activities, personalities, social and professional types. It was a necessary part of such an urban fabric that myth should collide with material realities. Among many spheres in which Venice mediated such contradictions, one that gained new vitality in the sixteenth century was the private drawing room.

There, Venetians played out their civic ideals in less systematized and obvious forms than the ritualized ones orchestrated for public ceremonies, but in ways no less implicated in the newly heightened consciousness of civic identity. Private salons could reiterate values of the old order yet still embrace a new diversity of social classes and professional affiliations and a new casualness in intellectual expression. The multi-form bands of poets, collectors, polygraphs, singers, and instrumentalists who attended salons probably seemed to descendants of quattrocento Latin humanists too eclectic and dilettantish to be taken seriously.

But theirs was a resourceful accommodation of old values to new circumstances — to the intellectual and social mobility promoted by a younger culture and epitomized by its energetic relationship to the press. Ultimately, by accommodating foundational beliefs to a wider, more variable commerce in ideas, Venice's new generations reshaped the ideas of old. Thus, whatever strains of unreality marred the layered myths that compounded the Venetian image, their sum total made for a powerful frame of reference: no one who sought success in Venice, native or foreign, could remain isolated from the insistent demands of the city's mythologies.

Such demands weighed heavily on artists and literati. In many domains — political iconography, music for state occasions, encomiastic verse, and the like — artistic production explicitly articulated the city's self-images, trumpeting its claims to republican success and longevity. But how are we to understand the interplay of artistic forces and local imaginings in realms less directly allied to state. David Rosand Venice, , pp. David Rosand New York, , pp. Much of the work, it should be noted, was actually done by assistants in Sansovino's workshop, as was the norm in sculpture at the time.

These are the central questions in my consideration of the city's relationship to one musical genre, the madrigal. Its two most famous exponents from mid-century, Adrian Willaert and Cipriano de Rore, both linked with Venice, were Netherlanders. Even though the repertory of madrigals they developed around must be understood within the play of things Venetian, much about it that changed the shape of secular music in Italy was decidedly the product of northern music — a network of separate parts woven into a pensive and intricate polyphony. What is more, the most ample and significant contributions to the Venetian repertory were settings of lyrics by a Tuscan poet, Petrarch.

Willaert's one monument of madrigalistic composition was located in his four-, five-, six-, and seven-voice corpus of motets and madrigals called Musica nova, published in but probably written for the most part between the late s and mids. This collection preserved Willaert's weightiest undertakings in both genres, twenty-seven motets and twenty-five madrigals. It was published in a spectacular format, with its title enclosed in a fantastical illustration representing a storm-swept Venetian sea bordered by mermaids and cupids Plate 2. A woodcut of the aged Willaert, emanating gerontocratic excellence, appeared on its verso Plate 3.

The madrigals of the Musica nova departed from all previous ones by consistently setting complete sonnets — all but one of them Petrarch's — in the bipartite form of the motet and by adapting a dense counterpoint formerly reserved for sacred music. Like the speech of Tomitano's ideal patrician, these madrigals aspired to a declamation less "sung" than set forth with recitational "gravity.

None of the madrigals Willaert published between until his death in in anthologies or other mixed collections echoed the spirit of patrician Venice with the same precision or weight as the Musica nova; if anything, they diffused and softened its aims. Long before the Musica nova left its private shelter, Rore made a stunning debut as an apparent unknown with his Madrigali a cinque voci of later known as the Libro primo. Like Willaert's madrigals, many of Rore's set full sonnets by Petrarch,. Rice, Jr. John Monfasani and Ronald G. Musto New York, , pp.

Yet his madrigals ventured more dramatic and expressive gestures than Willaert's. They contrasted melodies that were sometimes more cantabile than Willaert would invent, at other times rougher and more irregular. Such biographical fragments as survive about Willaert and Rore might tentatively be related to differences in their music. As a servant to Italian patrons from or and chapelmaster of San Marco from , Willaert's connection with the Venetian establishment seems relatively straightforward. Contemporary accounts saw in him the mythological personification of Venice, an embodiment of the modest reserve demanded of its nobles and figured in its stately images.

In his pupil Girolamo Parabosco's comedy La notte called him "so kind, gentle, and modest that one could set him as an example of all manner of other virtues. Willaert was thus an arm of the state whose position demanded unfaltering loyalty to the republic's self-image and its long-standing ideals.

The Procuratori approved Willaert's suitability in the record of his appointment with the epithet "circumspectus vir" a deliberate or cautious man , [17] a characterization on which numerous variations were rung in popular literature during his subsequent tenure. Thus, despite his northern origins — and, as we will see, despite the fact that he enjoyed the private patronage of the elite Florentine nobleman Neri Capponi — Willaert was wholly assimilated to a Venetian image and made instrumental in its representation.

Rore's orientation to Venetian cultural and musical habits is far more ambiguous. His biography remains cratered despite information that he probably resided in Brescia from at least until possibly or It seems doubtful that he ever lived in Venice, except perhaps briefly early in his career and then without a regular appointment.

Only two documents allude to such a relationship between them: one, an. Mark's," p. On Rore's trip s to Venice, where he delivered compositions to Capponi, see Chap.

City Culture and the Madrigal at Venice

But these tell us only in fact that in the late forties some people in Venice had begun to describe Rore as a follower of Willaert's practice. It is rather more pointed testimony to an association with Florentine exiles. Yet in their broad contours, if not their idiomatic details, Rore's madrigals of the s embrace a style whose identity is otherwise exclusively the province of composers resident in Venice and the Veneto: Willaert, his students at San Marco — principally Parabosco, Perissone Cambio, and Baldassare Donato — and, beginning in the later s, composers in the Veneto like Giovanni Nasco, Francesco Portinaro, and Vincenzo Ruffo.

Any attempt to explain Venice's effect on the course of secular music through its larger cultural themes, then, will be complicated both by the elusive genealogy of Venetian madrigal writing and by the complex and tacit place its various incarnations occupied in the city's larger cultural patterns. It may be all the more significant, therefore, that one of the few from a Venetian dominion, a native of nearby Chioggia, became the foremost explicator and apologist for the Venetian idiom.

My Shopping Bag

Gioseffo Zarlino, theorist, teacher, and later chapelmaster, played a crucial role in clarifying for later generations the aesthetic impulses and compositional habits of contemporaneous Venetian musicians. His first publication, the imposing Istitutioni harmoniche of , assumed the daunting task of codifying a style whose constant shifts and irregularities made it all but impossible to systematize. In this his role was unique, for his exegeses of Venetian counterpoint, modes, and text setting were only faintly anticipated by his predecessors and abandoned by his successors. Chief among the former is the Venetian Giovanni del Lago, whose sketchy, derivative writings from around only hint at the new horizons.

Without this written witness we would have virtually nothing from the mouths of musicians themselves. More plentiful explanations of Venetian thinking come from literati, whose accounts complement those of del Lago and Zarlino. Literary figures wrote abundantly on poetics, vernacular style, grammar, imitation, the questione della lingua, and genre, and in a wide range of forms: rhetorical handbooks, letters, commentaries, dialogues, and treatises.

The large, rapid production of these. Bonnie J. Blackburn, 2 vols. Chicago, , Yet the term used there is discepolo, like that in the title page of the print, Fantasie, et ricerchari a tre voci RISM 34 also printed by Girolamo Scotto , a term that often meant "follower" i. Ultimately, musical and literary writings of mid-cinquecento Venice illuminate one another, both of them translating Ciceronian precepts of style while imposing on them their own idiosyncrasies and formal demands.

In some way, virtually all these theoretical writings were dominated by the Venetian Pietro Bembo's dialogue on the questione della lingua, Prose della volgar lingua of , a work whose relevance to secular music has been recognized for some time. Bembo's Prose recast Ciceronian rhetorical precepts in the terms of trecento Tuscan literary style. In this study I take Bembo's transformations of Ciceronian canons as central to a tropology of Venice that interconnects civic identity, rhetorical principles, and expressive idioms.

I argue that Bembo merged Venetian mythology with ancient rhetoric in a way that made one particular meaning of decorum — that of moderation — the all-embracing, universal principle of his stylistics; and further, that this principle functioned as an inseparable corollary of variazione, calling the latter into service as a means of tempering extremes in order to avoid too intense an emphasis on any one style or affect. In proposing this scheme Bembo claimed Petrarch as his model for the vernacular lyric. Bembo's Prose tried to codify and make imitable Petrarch's rime for readers whose linguistic style he hoped to shape.

Yet Petrarch's lyrics had already come to hold an unequalled appeal for the indigenous society that formed Bembo's most eager audience. Among the aspects of Petrarchan verse that appealed to Bembo and to the rhetorical culture for which he wrote was its delicate interplay of verbal sounds as Dean Mace has pointed up. This is the facet of his poetics that has commanded the greatest attention of music historians, interested in its effect on contemporaneous madrigalists. Nonetheless, I argue that Petrarch's continual undercutting of verbal utterance through oxymoron and paradox symbolized even more importantly the reserve on which Venetians claimed to insist in other domains.

Coupled with its intricate plays of verbal-psychic wit, this poetics, not surprisingly, entranced a society bound by civic habit to discreet emotional display and simultaneously absorbed in a stylized self-presentation. By explicating Petrarch in Ciceronian terms, Bembo implicitly located his lyrics in the performative domain. So doing he underscored the concerns and biases of his Venetian readers and granted them what must have seemed a deeply satisfying endorsement and an irrefutable authority.

In the succeeding pages I try to enlarge these themes to consider Venice's signal role in steering Italian secular music on a new course. Enlargement in this sense means something like the magnification one gets when peering through a lens. For in drawing repeatedly on sources like Tomitano's letter that stand outside the immediate business of making madrigals, I try to picture close up the intricate cultural weave of which madrigals were a part and to reconstruct aspects of its palpable form.

My aim is not to find in these far-flung sources exact mirrors of the madrigalists' ideals or the aesthetic structures they built. Rather, it is to develop, figuratively speaking, a colloquy between various players in Venice and to discover in the city's multiple texts a way to contemplate the diverse meanings and eclectic processes that involved madrigals in larger cultural patterns. On the path to finishing this book I received invaluable help from many institutions and countless friends and colleagues. A Fellowship for University Teachers from the National Endowment for the Humanities provided me with an indispensable year's leave from teaching, during which most of the writing was done.

To all of these I am deeply appreciative. At the University of California Press I benefited from the expert skills of my acquisitions editor Doris Kretschmer and project editor Rose Vekony and from astute copyediting by Fronia W. I am grateful for helpful comments I received from two readers solicited by the press, James Haar, a longtime source of stimulating dialogue on Italian madrigals, and Dean Mace. Many of them are thanked in footnotes where it has been possible to point to a particular debt.

There are several others whose roles I must acknowledge more specially. Tita Rosenthal offered probing comments and copious bibliographical advice on Chapters 1 through 6 and made Venice an altogether richer place for me. Gary Tomlinson, at first the advisor on my dissertation, has since been a continual interlocutor on madrigals and histories.

He knows how important our conversations have been to me over many years, for which I could not begin to thank him here. My friend and colleague Howard Mayer Brown gave me many lively conversations and insights on cinquecento music and countless other topics, scholarly and otherwise. Before his sudden death in Venice on 20 February , every page of this book was intended to elicit his sharp reading. At every turn my husband, Thomas Bauman, has contributed his critical acuity as well as his remarkable skills as a writer, linguist, musician, editor, and computer whiz.

I have been abashed and touched by his colossal support over all this time. And I have been blessed by the good humor, affection, and patience of Emily and Rebecca Bauman. Finally a few words about the dedication. I take leave of this project deeply aware that what I have tried to envision in the nexus of people's language, their pictures, their music, and their city had its origins in my parents' house.

The example they gave me to imagine worlds beyond our own cannot be measured in words. I dedicate this book to them with the sort of tender appreciation that the frailty of life makes only sweeter. Mid-sixteenth-century Venice was arrayed in such a way that no single mogul, family, or neighborhood was in a position to monopolize indigenous activity in arts or letters. Venice was a city of dispersal. Laced with waterways, the city took its shape from its natural architecture. The wealthy houses of the large patriciate, scattered throughout the city's many parishes, kept power bases more or less decentralized.

Apart from the magnetic force of San Marco — the seat of governmental activities and associated civic ritual — no umbrella structure comparable to that of a princely court brought its people and spaces into a single easily comprehended matrix. As a commercial and maritime city, Venice offered multiplicity in lieu of centralization. It offered rich possibilities for dynamic interchange between the wide assortment of social and professional types that constantly thronged there — patricians, merchants, popolani, tourists, students, seamen, exiles, and diplomats.

Local patricians contributed to this decentralization by viewing the whole of the lagoon as common territory rather than developing attachments to particular neighborhoods — a quality in which they differed from nobles of many other Italian towns. Since most extended families owned properties in various parishes and sestieri the six large sections into which the city still divides , neighborhoods had only a circumscribed role as bases of power and operation; indeed, it was not uncommon for nuclear families to move from one parish to another. The great exception was patrician women.

Their lives outside the home were basically restricted to their immediate parishes, at least so long as their nuclear families stayed in a single dwelling see Romano, pp. In this, Venetian practice reflected generalized sixteenth-century attitudes that tended to keep women's social role a domestic one. We can easily imagine that Venetian salon life profited from the constant circulation of bodies throughout the city, as well as from the correlated factors of metropolitan dispersion and the city's relative freedom from hierarchy. Palaces and other grand dwellings constituted collectively a series of loose social nets, slack enough to comprehend a varied and changeable population.

This urban makeup differed from the fixed hierarchy of the court, which pointed structurally, at least to a single power center, absolute and invariable, that tried to delimit opportunities for profit and promotion. There, financial entrepreneurialism and social advancement could generally be attempted only within the strict perimeters defined by the prince and the infrastructure that supported him. The lavish festivals, entertainments, and monuments funded by courtly establishments accordingly concentrated, by and large, on the affirmation of princely glory or, at the very least, tended to mirror more directly the monolithic interests of prince and court.

With less enthusiastic patrons, like Florence's Cosimo I de' Medici beginning in and thus coinciding with the Venetian period I focus on here , centralization and authoritarian control could straitjacket creative production according to the narrowly defined wishes of the ruling elite. In the worst of cases they could suffocate it almost completely. Structural differences between court and city that made themselves felt in cultural production were thus enmeshed with political ones.

In contrast to the courts, the Venetian oligarchy thrived on a broad-based system of rule and, by extension, patronage. Within this system individual inhabitants could achieve success by exploiting the city in the most varied ways — through business, trade, or maritime interests, banking, political offices, academic and artistic activities. Such a pliable setup depended in part on numerous legal mechanisms that, formally at least, safe-guarded equality within the patrician rank.

Robert S. Iain Fenlon and James Haar, writing on Cosimo I's effect on madrigalian developments in Florence, propose that the end of republican Florence initiated the degeneration of individual patronage dominated by the family. The Medici restoration, they recall, led to an exodus of painters, sculptors, and musicians from the city The Italian Madrigal, pp.

In order to maintain the symmetries of patrician power and an effective system of checks and balances, a large number of magistracies and councils shared the decision-making process, and the vast majority of offices turned over after very brief, often six-month, terms. This made for a cumbersome, mazelike governmental structure that led many observers to comment wryly on the likeness of topography and statecraft in the city.

In the late fifteenth century a complex of attitudes guarding against the perils of self-interest found expression in a series of checks advanced by the ruling group to counter the self-magnifying schemes of several doges — schemes epitomized by the building of triumphal architecture like the Arco Foscari, which verged on representing the doge as divinely ordained.

The patriciate ventured if hesitantly to extend these mechanisms to include some nonpatricians. Despite the inequities and stratification that divided nobles from the next rank of residents on the descending social ladder, the cittadini and even more from the still lower popolani , the Venetian aristocracy by tradition and a long-standing formula for republican success had accustomed itself to making certain efforts to appease classes excluded from governmental rule.

The success achieved by the mid-sixteenth century in checking the doges' schemes is attested by the English translator of Gasparo Contarini's De magistratibus, Lewes Lewkenor, who showed astonishment that the patriciate reacted as casually to the death of a doge as to the death of any other patrician: "There is in the Cittie of Venice no greater alteration at the death of their Duke, then at the death of any other private Gentleman" pp. King's interpretation of the interaction of class, culture, and power in quattrocento Venice would argue that the political power of the ruling patrician elite extended far enough into what she calls "the realm of culture" — by which she means the culture of the "humanist group" — as to control them in a unique way see pp.

See also Romano, Patricians and "Popolani," pp. On institutions of charity run by citizens and nobles for popolani see the classic work of Brian Pullan, Rich and Poor in Renaissance Venice: The Social Institutions of a Catholic State to Oxford, , and on confraternities generally in the period, Christopher F. For a study that tries to debunk emphases on Venetian traditions of charity by stressing patrician corruption and the split between civic ideals and reality see Donald E.

Queller's view seems to me equally problematic in invoking an alternate "reality" as true, rather than traversing the dialectics of various realities and representations. They could ship cargo on state galleys. And they maintained the exclusive right to hold offices in the great lay confraternities, the scuole grandi. While many cittadini, as well as plebeians and foreigners, were doomed to frustration in their search for power and position, others experienced considerable social and economic success.

At the very least many had come to view their circumstances as malleable, there to be negotiated with the right manoeuvres. The collective self-identity that promoted various attitudes of equality and magnanimity both within and without the patriciate was expressed with considerable fanfare in official postures. Gradually, the underlying ideals had come to be projected in numerous iconic variations on the city's evolving civic mythology.

By the fourteenth century, for instance, Venice added to its mythological symbolism the specter of Dea Roma as Justice, seated on a throne of lions and bearing sword and scales in her two hands Plate 4. By such a ploy the city extended its claim as the new Rome while reminding onlookers of its professed fairness, its balanced constitution, and its domestic harmony. This conjunction of morality and might was reiterated in a series of bird's-eye maps, the most remarkable of which was Jacopo de' Barbari's famous woodcut of Plate 5. Set at the extremities of its central vertical axis are powerful representations of Mercury atop a cloud and Neptune riding a spirited dolphin Plate 6 — iconography as vital to the city's image as its serpentine slews of buildings and its urban backwaters.

In the mid-XX Century the city expanded even more, reaching , inhabitants in the 70s and 80s. The city, after becoming a metropolis, experienced the phenomena of commuting and counter urbanization, while the tertiary sector and the industrial area grew.

Due to its location, there is a significant flow of immigrants coming to Bari; in the Vlora ship was docked and was carrying more than 20, Albanians. Around the old town was restructured and a large infrastructure renewal was started, involving port, airport, "interport" and railway. It covers an area of 3, square kilometres and includes 41 municipalities. Its population is more than a million inhabitants, while the original core of the City of Bari has nearly , inhabitants. Tickets are sold in tobacconists and newsagents.

It was first a transit station, but as the years passed and the traffic increased, it acquired a forecourt giving access to 17 railway lines. With Trenitalia, you can reach Bari from the main Italian cities, with various connections a day and different fares. Every day there are flights to the main Italian airports and almost all the European capital cities.

It is a multipurpose landing place able to respond to all operating requirements. The operating multifunctionality of the Port of Bari can count on equipped docks for handling all kinds of goods and an excellent network of connections with all means of transport. Located in the south-east of Italy it is traditionally consi-. The "Aldo Moro" university of Bari is a national university located in Bari, it's the university within Puglia region with the higher number of students and one of the bigger universities in Italy. The university has been founded in and its base is inside the historic building in Umberto I square, in the heart of the city centre.

The university made up of more than 20 faculties. Languages, Art, Italian disciplines and Culture. The Politecnico di Bari is a technological Italian public university which trains architects, engineers and industrial designers, granting academic qualifications of all levels of Italian higher education curricula. According to SIR World Report concerning the quality of scientific research, Politecnico di Bari appears to have an impact factor of 2.

Still according to this report, the Politecnico di Bari registers the highest "excellency rate" in Italy measuring the percentage of works quoted in international bibliography : The Academy's main offices are in the Apulian capital city. Here, bachelor's degree courses take place. In Mola di Bari instead, in the former Santa Chiara monastery, some laboratories are still active and master's degree specializing courses take place.

It was the fourteenth music school to arise in Italy. Nino Rota became director in Some services for the students are localised in the university campus, which is the housing estate of "Barialto" in Casamassima. There are the Law Faculty and the Economics Faculty, as well as postgraduate educational courses.

However, it has been active on the territory since already, and been growing day after day thanks to the international students going to Bari through the different mobility programmes. ESN Bari section welcomes approximately students every year. One of the distinctive characteristics of this section is that it includes in its staff incoming foreign students.

Some of them even become members of the Board, so that they can understand better the others' needs and find the most effective solutions. ESN Bari is officially recognised by the University of Bari and the Politecnico of Bari, and works together with them and the other public institutions in order to constantly improve the welcome services of the city.

Among the most interesting initiatives undertaken by the Bari section members every year, we would like to highlight: the "Help Finding House" project, in which they help new students integrate since they get to the station or airport and find them accommodation; the WelcomeWeekESNBari during which the association is introduced and organises different activities for the Erasmus students to get to know the city, such as the welcome dinner, the city tour and the Pub Crawl; the guidance activities on academic courses and the solution to bureaucratic problems; the linguistic AperiTandem, which between a drink and a game, allows informal learning of the most miscellaneous languages and the knowledge of cultures and people.

Since another project has been started: "Un Erasmus per amico" an Erasmus as friend , an informal tutorship project in which the tutors of the new incoming students are the former outgoing students of the University of Bari and the Politecnico.


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TIPS - Not to miss in the city The city of Bari, although it has the role of Capital city of the region and is growing in size and business, keeps its unique popular traditions alive - traditions that any visitor cannot miss! Every morning the fishermen arrive there with fresh fish caught near the coast, they sell it, and it is often eaten right there!

The city, invaded by pilgrims from all over the world, lights up, gets filled with stalls and celebrations begin, giving a great sense of excitement. On the 7th of May the city turns back in time with a characteristic historical procession along the streets of old Bari; on the 8th San Nicola "arrives to the port" and every two years the "Frecce Tricolori" show is organised: literally "Tricolour Arrows" it is the aerobatic demonstration of the Italian Aeronautica Militare team.

Lastly, on the 9th the sky and the sea are coloured by a long fireworks show. Perfect, may the city tour begin!

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Starting from the monumental fountain in Piazza Moro exactly in front of the train station , which was unveiled in and completed the construction of the pugliese aqueduct, go towards via Sparano, the shopping street with high-level brands. Passing through Piazza Umberto I, you'll find the historical Palazzo Ateneo, where the University of Bari has its premises, and the historical Palazzo.

Mincuzzi, an impressive Liberty-style commercial building. Then, heading to the sea, you'll be getting to Corso Cavour, and important street where you can find three of the main buildings, next to each other: the Palace of the Chamber of Commerce, founded in under the rule of Ferdinando II with the name of "Camera Consultiva di Commercio"; the Palace of the Bank of Italy, built in , over a project by the engineer Accolti Gil, on an area of approximately square metres; the Petruzzelli Theatre, the main theatre in the metropolitan city, the fourth theatre in Italy in size and the largest private theatre in Europe, burnt down in and re-opened just in At the end of Corso Cavour, in front of Corso Vittorio Emanuele and the Margherita theatre built between and in the hook of the old port on pillars based in the sea , there is the Medieval area of Bari, commonly known as "Old Bari".

After crossing Piazza Mercantile and Piazza Ferrarese, the two squares where the "movida" takes place, you will get to the Old Bari Walls. Along the Walls, which terminate with Abbazia S. Scolastica with its Peucetian culture museum, you'll first pass by the Pillbox of S. Nicola Basilica where the remains of the saint are kept and to the heart of Old Bari.

The tour ends at San Sabino Cathedral and at the "Castello Normanno Svevo Aragonese", an impressive fortress on the edges of the ancient village. This is just in front of Via delle Orecchiette, the place where every morning Sunday included women prepare hand-made orecchiette on the tables along the street and sell them to tourists and passers-by.

A legend narrates that Benevento was founded by Diomedes landed in Italy after the destruction and fire of the city of Troy. Actually, according to the story, the city was founded by the Osci before the Samnites took the control. In B. In the Longobardi founded the first duchy and the first duke to be named was Zotto, until The Longobardi duchy lasted about 5 centuries and then the church sovereignty took the control of the city. The church sovereignty lost the control of the town during the war among the House of Anjou and the Crown of Aragon. During the 17th century the city suffered from pestilences, famines and earthquakes that increased the poverty and only with the Pope supremacy Benevento rose again.

In a devastating earthquake destroyed the city that was reconstructed thanks to an economic help from archbishop Orsini, later proclaimed Pope Benedict XIII. During the Second World War the city was bombed by Allies: 2. Huge damages were caused by a flood in After that, Benevento never stop to grow up. De Nicastro, 13 , Benevento. Several small streets and alleys, which lead to many historical districts such as Trescene or Triggio, converge to the main street.

Moreover, it still is possible to admire small parts of the old wall The Longobardi built as a defense for the city. At the highest point of the hill there is the Rocca dei Rettori Castle. Benevento has a significant amount of monuments mainly placed on Corso Garibaldi. The historical center is the area where usually students spend their evenings and night hours.

Most of the places preferred by young people, indeed, are located in Piazza Vari and Piazza Piano di Corte. Most famous clubs, however, are located outside the city. Info desk is open from to Tickets are available at the station and also in authorized travel agencies. Both bus and train need about one hour and half to reach the city.

The different departments have separate locations from each other but all of them are close to the city center and within easy walking distance. The University also has a language center CLAUS where Italian and foreign students can access and Italian language courses for foreign students of the university itself are organized every year. All the enrolled students have the opportunity to take advantage of a wi-fi network within the university premises.

Moreover, all students have access to a university cafeteria, managed by ADISU, where they can have a complete lunch at the lowest price possible between 3 and 5 euro. The canteen is located near the Faculty of Law, in via Calandra. Benevento was created in , thanks to the initiative of a group of students returning from their Erasmus experiences.

The name was changed to E. Maleventum in , in order to underline the historical roots of the city. Thanks to their experiences, the members of the association started helping students, interested in having an Erasmus experience, giving them useful advices. At the same time they welcome and help incoming Erasmus students.

Before leaving their city, each student can contact ESN Maleventum to receive any information about studying at the University of Sannio and how to overcome bureaucratic difficulties. Year by year, ESN Maleventum counts more members, and it reaches more than new members per year. It's also the only section that organizes in the territory activities and events for who has the ESN Card, foreigners students and not.

TIPS - The Legend of Witches According to a popular legend, Benevento is the privileged place of witches, which meet around a walnut tree near Sabato river during the night. The legend is connected to a rite that the Lombards practised near Sabato river: some screaming women jumped around a tree where some snakes hanged down. Usually, they realized a propitiatory rite in honor of God Wotan: some fighters ran on a horse around a sacred tree hitting a goat skin hanged down from it with the aim to obtain little pieces than later they used to eat.

The catholics thought that these rites were linked to. Fighters and women were seen by the catholics like a witches' incarnation; the goat like Satan; their scream like orgiastic rites. Malformations, rare illnesses and everything that couldn't be explain were automatically attributed to the witches. Typical first courses all around the territory are: Lasagne, scarpariello, cicatelli, cavatelli with broccoli, fiavole and panzerotti di San Giuseppe.

Are also typical mugniatiello, the Christmas thistle and the nougat. Among the typical drinks there is the Strega liquor, whose name is linked to the legend of the witches. Another very famous one is Nocino. The Benevento area Is also famous to be a wine producer region. A large amount of fine wines are produced every year: from the Falanghina or Aglianico to the ones from the area of Taburno.

Several installations, furniture, entertainment and initiatives with the aim of open a space-time window for citizens and tourists, which are so projected to three typical days of the Middle Ages, surrounds the main event.

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The objective of the entire manifestation is to let people know and experience foods, instruments, uses, customs, traditions and cultural aspects of the city in the Lombard period. In a word, they wanted to build a welcoming environment to fall in love with. Hundreds volunteers worked and currently work with them, together with several sponsors and local institutions. The first inhabitants were Celts, Goths, Romans and Longobards. In the city some survived parts from the medieval period can still be seen.

In the 15th century, the Venetian conquered the city and thus started 4 centuries of dominance: the Venetian built the walls that surround the upper part of the city, in order to protect it from the several attacks from Milan; During this period, Bergamo started to develop a flourishing commerce and obtained more and more importance in the upper part of Italy.

In , after Napoleon fallen, Bergamo was assigned to the Austrian Empire. During the 20th century Bergamo become one of Italy's most industrialized cities. It is also one of the few Italian cities that did not suffer major. It has The city center is quite small so it is possible to go around by walk or by bike. Bergamo has also a good bus service that covers all the city and the nearby valleys. City Bus Tickets: It is not possible to buy tickets on the buses! There are automatic machines situated in the train station, at some of the bus stops and close to the funicular.

You can also buy them in some bars, in the news stand or at ATB offices. After 45 minutes, you pay depending on the amount of time you take the bike; when you finish, you can leave your bike at another bike station. The University of Bergamo is a State University which counts about 16, students undergraduates and graduates , and more than PhD students. The 6 Departments and the Research centers of the University of Bergamo are strictly intertwined in the town life.

They are grouped in three campuses located in three different areas: Campus of Economics and Law via dei Caniana 2 in the City of Bergamo few meters far from the train station Campus of Humanities in the Mediaeval Upper town depending on where the class is held Campus of Engineering viale Marconi 5 in Dalmine, the industrial outskirts of Bergamo inside the science park "Kilometro Rosso" International Office Address : via S. The courses are planned with the premises of. INFO: C. Bergamo organizes and advertises sporting activities and events for the University of Bergamo.

Students can practice sports and exercise. Some excellent sports equipment is available for the use. We organize trips to Milan, Rome, Venice and many others! Just follow us on twitter, facebook or our website to be always update! TIPS - Casoncelli The most typical dish is casoncelli alla bergamasca made with fresh pasta dough that envelopes a slightly sweet meat filling and are typically served with melted butter flavored with pancetta and sage leaves. It is usually combined with meat. Discover the neighbourhood of Bergamo because they will take your breath away.

The Sentiero delle Orobie runs among strategically located and panoramic mountain refuges. This beautiful kilometres mountain path crosses the entire length of the mountains from east to west at altitudes that vary from 1, to 2, meters. The two lakes Endine and Iseo will delight you, with their wonderful landscapes, especially in spring and summer.

Felsina, the ancient name of the city. After having been dominated by Gauls, the Romans found in B. Under the Romans Bologna was really florid, with 20 inhabitants, majestic buildings and a massive theatre. It maintained its prestige during the Imperial centuries but it declined when the Empire fell. In the V century A. From this point onward Bologna grew increasingly becoming the fifth European city due to its population. On June 19th Napoleon reached Bologna and declared that the Church government was over and it returned an autonomic city becoming the capital of the Cispadana Republic.

The city took part actively at the wars of the Risorgimento and in it turned to be part of the new Italian State and it was a significant hub for trade and travel. During the Fascism several repressive acts have occurred and after the second World War there have been 43 bombardments. In the Northern part of Bologna there are grassy plains; on the other hand in the southern rise gently its hills from which the sunset offers a romantic view of the city. The old town centre is one of the biggest and best preserved among the European Middle Ages ones; it is surrounded by massive doors, bridge houses and great towers.

The city counts about For this reason perhaps, Bologna is considered the Italian University city par excellence. Among the most beautiful university locations there are Political Science in Strada Maggiore and the gorgeous palace in Via Zamboni 33, which is now even the location of the Presidency of the University, as well as the office of the International Relations.

The Red one not only for its political past, the bulwark of the Italian left wind movement of the post-war period, but even for its colours: the walls, the medieval houses, the roofs that are seen from a height of metres of the Asinelli tower. Today, the survivors are just a couple of dozens: the Two Towers are the symbol of the city and one of them can be visited every day from 9 to 6 pm for 3 euro, steps!

At dusk a walk in the Giardini Margherita or in one of the little hills just out the city will give a taste of the depth of the landscape of the emiliano-romagnole hills. The more typical walk is the Portico of San Luca archways, 3km , but as much suggestive is the path between the slopes of Villa Ghigi or in Monte Donato where you can delight an inestimable view. Bologna is a city that is charming, fascinating, enchanting… unforgettable. This town is famous for its starters of affettati prosciutto, mortadella, salame, porchetta, coppa and cheese.

The main courses are many. Also the second courses, whose major part is of meal: grilled meat like sausages, chops or roast such as lamb, veal, and of course, pork such as the Christmas knuckle and cotecchino. You absolutely need to taste crescentine and piadine, that offer an alternative to the bread and you can fill them with salami or cheese. By the way, the pride of the city and of the region is Parmigiano, that here will be called forma, a very prestigious cheese, to be eaten as a second course or to be added with some pasta.

Dulcis in fundo, the traditional desserts are rich of spices, almonds and honey. Pinza is very typical, a donut or pastry filled with jam and raisins. Soaked in wine, and another dessert not to be missed is the sweet rice cake of Bologna. A good wine that can accompany your meal, might be Barbera and Lambrusco, and to end you might taste a typical liquor, with walnuts or zabaione. TPER S. Pietro Terme and Porretta Terme; it provides also suburban and extra-urban services in Bologna's and Ferrara's areas.

There are 45 urban routes, day and nighttime, 15 suburban and 11 extra-urban routes. The frequency of each route is different; this is why it is suggested to be well informed about timetable if you are planning to exit from the city center; an extremely strong positive element is the timeliness of the service. Every ticket can be used 75 minutes from the validation, and it allow to use more urban busses — if necessary — at the.

There is also the 5 Euro daily ticket: whit this ticket it is possible to use an unlimited number of public transports for 24 hours. You can also use the City Pass, a book of 10 urban tickets for 12 Euro. It i salso possible to buy a monthly or yearly ticket. The monthly ticket costs 27 Euro for students under 27 years old and 36 Euro for non students; it is transferable and non-personal so it can be used from different people, but not at the same time.

The annual one costs Euro for students and Euro for non-students. For suburban routes prices are different according to the final destination. TPER provides to their customers a widespread net for ticket purchase see at www. The most interesting element is that almost every. H OW urban busses has self-service on-board ticket service. Another public transport is the suburban railway route, that covers the path Bologna-Vignola: this line connect the municipalities of Bologna, Casalecchio di Reno, Zola Pedrosa, Crespellano, Bazzano, Savignano sul Panaro and Vignola, in an integrated way with the on-tyres public transport service.

It is a junction between the North and the South with more than 50 million of passengers every year and it is considered the most significant station of Italy. Bologna is easily reachable from all the main italian cities by trains of every typology both from the South and the North. On the site www. The university of Bologna www. It is divided in 11 schools, it offers 33 departments, courses of different degrees.

Every year the number of academic masters increases, presently they are In the University has also inaugurate its new branch in Buenos Aires. The foreign students regularly registered are more than 3,, while these coming with exchange programs as Socrates, Erasmus, Overseas and so on, are over 1, per years. Furtheremore this city host not only the University, but also the School of Fine Arts www. ESN is working at full speed! It has a six members management committee elected every year with whom are cooperating more than other 10 precious associates in several aereas to offer dozens of activities usually for free or with derisory prices to Erasmus students.

Here some suggestions, hoping they can be useful advices. Hotel Pedrini — www. Housed in a restored antique monastery dating back to the sixteenth century, Hotel Pedrini is located along Strada Maggiore in Bologna, 1. Every room offers a modern private bathroom and free Wi-Fi. Rooms at the Pedrini come with tiled or wooden floors, air conditioning and satellite TV. Guests can also enjoy a continental breakfast.

The Hotel is located in the city center, close to a bus stop, providing direct connections to Bologna CentralRailway Station, 2 km away. Tiny central local, near the Two Tower, specilized in american bar, with an international atmposphere. Special discounts with ESN card! Kinki — Via Zamboni, 1. Lab 16 — Via Zamboni, One of the most famous bar in the academic area. During the day is a bar, while at night it turns into a disco with a big dance hall underground.

You will have discount with your ESN card. Round after round at the end Queens and Kings of the beer will be crown. Eight-a-side football tournament: integration is the center of every erasmus experience and everybody knows how we can be in love with a football team. We propese you an 8 team tournament, each one composed by 8 people.

The player of the three winner teams will have a medal and lots of friends and good memories. Special dinners: On special holidays for example Easter and Christmas ESN Bologna organizes tasty dinner to Erasmus guys based on deliciuos traditional food, lots of drinks and good company. ESN Bologna organizes twice in one year this kind of event well know in U. Themed events: ESN Bologna organizes, both in discos and in private locals, big themed parties! Toga, college, mustache, flue, candy parties and so on.

All this to make your night in Bologna very special! Hatha yoga: in order to have a break from all the parties and trips, our section offers you once a week the possibility to attend to Hatha Yoga classes. Tastings: during the year we also organized different tasting events to discover local products such as wines and beers.

Salsa: What about Caribbean dances to warm us up during the cold winter? Our section in collaboration with a professional dance school offers you Salsa corses and Caribbean bachada Bowling: during the year Esn Bologna organizes often bowling matches, originally it is an american game but it is very popular also in Europe and particularly among the erasmus in Bologna! To the first three classified and also to the last one a prize is given at the end of all the matches. Photo challenge: Are you a prophessional photographer or do you simly like taking pictures?

Esn Bologna organizes alternative Sundays proposing photo challenges. Erasmus students will try to take the most beautiful and original picture of our magnificent city! Laser Combat Experience - www. Divided in two teams made of 10 people, in more than mq split in two floors, surrounded by music and haze you will fight to reach the higher score and win the game! The willing Esn Bologna members are also amateur guides which lead Erasmus students all around the city telling them the history of the most relevant monuments and also the story of some secrets of it.

This gastronomic culture is transmitted and preserved on the basis of an ancient ritual. It is a particular experience which the Erasmus have the chance to try thanks to Esn Bologna; there are several costless courses to learn how to make the pastry and cook tortellini. These classes are held by old ladies in a social society. On the top of it we set up a stand with tipical sweets and a cup of hot chocolate to be tasted from a breath taking view.

Come and discover all the secrets of the real italian ice cream with a fantastic taste! From 4th century it was invaded by the Ostrogoths with Teodorico and then by Longobards that made Brixia their chief town. After proclaiming itself free city in the 12th century, it was conquered from Milan's Visconti and then annexed to the Venetian Republic in The territory passed under Austrian domination in It was finally annexed to the Italian Reign in The last century sees Brescia as a main center of attention given the profound industrial and infrastructural evolution, as well as considering its importance during World War II given both its connections to Germany and the strong Partesan presence in the nearby mountains.

Downhill the historical city center hosts the Roman city, the medieval streets and the Renaissance squares. Brescia is known to be an industrial city: in fact Brescia's suburbs include the third industrial area in Italy for its productivity. The main activities are metal working machine tools, guns, cutlery , textiles, clothing and food industry. However, the city discovered its cultural and touristic imprint lately, beco-. ESN Brescia Contacts www. An event that is most known around the world is Mille Miglia, the vintage car racing that starts and ends in Brescia every year in May.

Before the start of the race, many vintage cars can be admired by just walking around the city center, as the racing atmosphere starts rising up amongst everybody. Another main events are the temporary show inside Museo di Santa Giulia and the cultural events at Teatro Grande. First of all we have to talk about meat, the main food here: spiedo first 1 meter-long skewers made with various type of meat in small pieces, often including small birds, cooked slowly on a wood fire with butter and spices served with unmissable polenta and red wines such as Groppello, Cortefranca or Botticino.

Often it is preceded by "dirty soup", a broth with chicken livers - very tasty in spite of the description. More classy is the choice of a sparkling Franciacorta Franciacorta wines are the Italian answer to Champagne, and are appreciated and envied in the world. Next, typical first dishes are casoncelli and risotto both meat and fish-based , but also trippa; seconds are manzo all'olio "oiled beef" , grilled meats, snails, frogs or fish of the two lakes aole, sardines, whitefish, filled eel.

Desserts are simple, at times rusty cakes, others roasted or boiled chestnuts. After coffee is compulsory tasting grappa, typical produce coming from eras ago.


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It's city heart is crossed by two rivers now underground and by a series of channels that leaded white and black water. An infinite number of bridges marked the passageways between streets and roads. Romans built pipes transporting water from the valley to the city, to host the baths and the high number of fountains the city still hosts Brescia is second only to Rome in terms of number of fountains!

The cupola in Duomo Nuovo, finished in , is the biggest after S. Pietro in Rome and Brunelleschi's in Florence. Amongst historical pubs in Brescia, mostly know is surely Viselli in Via Tosio 25, known for its Champagnone, secret recipe that attracts young people from Brescia, mainly during the weekend, filling the nearby streets. Be careful: the proprietary closes when he wants to, so be sure to be there before 9. Sports and luxury cars and beautiful women will parade under the square lights before driving to the many discos in the suburbs.

Also for its aperitif, another known place is the Beach in Via Castellini It's a restaurant, so you may taste fabulous dishes until very late. Not only city center: if the city center is interesting for the evening, with pubs in Via S. Faustino a little bit more "alternative" compared to those in Piazza Arnaldo, night continues outside the city heart. In May there is Mille Miglia, […]. Famous in the whole world, it hosts participants from everywhere. Not far there is Piazza Vittoria, of fascist age where you will notice the big Piacentini tower.

Brescia has a bus service allowing you to get around the city, with 18 bus lines having radial paths from the city center. An underground metro line will soon be opened, and it will supply transportation for the main direction followed by citizens: north-south. Until then, bus is still the main transportation service in the city, but unfortunately it isn't offered by night the last bus leaves terminal before midnight and the next one would be around 5AM , so below in this page you will find some alternatives available ;.

For a map of public transportation in Brescia, www. Please keep in mind that it makes sense to get to Brescia by bus only from the nearby provinces Bergamo, Cremona, Mantova, Verona.