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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the history of human medicine. For the book, see A History of Medicine. For the history of veterinary medicine, see History of veterinary medicine. Main article: Prehistoric medicine. Further information: Babylonian medicine. Main article: Ancient Egyptian medicine. Main articles: Ayurveda , Unani , and Siddha medicine. Main article: Traditional Chinese medicine. Main article: Medicine in ancient Greece. Main articles: Medicine in ancient Rome and Medical community of ancient Rome. Main articles: Byzantine medicine and Medicine in the medieval Islamic world.

Main article: Medicine in the medieval Islamic world. Main article: Medieval medicine of Western Europe. Further information: Paracelsianism. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Main article: Women in medicine. Further information: History of psychiatry. Main article: Public health. Main article: History of malaria. Health care in the United States History of dental treatments History of herbalism History of hospitals History of medicine in Canada History of medicine in the United States History of nursing History of pathology History of pharmacy History of surgery Thomas Clifford Allbutt [] Timeline of nursing history Timeline of medicine and medical technology History of health care disambiguation.

Neanderthal healthcare in social context". World Anthropology : 1— The British Museum Press. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspectives. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. Israel's Divine Healer. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan.

Biggs Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies. Archived from the original on In Horstmanshoff, H. Studies in Ancient Medicine. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Daily Life. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood.


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The Histories. Ancient Egyptian Medicine. University of Oklahoma Press. The Western Medical Tradition: — Cambridge University Press. Ancient History Encyclopedia. XIV, No. Harvard University Press. James; et al. Harvard U. Bk XI— Mending bodies, saving souls: a history of hospitals. Oxford University Press. Surgical cures by sleep induction as the Asclepieion of Epidaurus. Bacon, J. Elsevier Science B. Stanford University. Retrieved 30 December New York: W. Cancer Research UK. Henry V. Act II, Scene 3. The dawn of medicine. Retrieved 16 January Western Medicine: An Illustrated History. Ancient Medicine.

Quipus and Witches' Knots. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas Press. Psychology Press. Mattern Siegel, Galen's system of physiology and medicine Karger, Medieval Medicine: A Reader. US National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 29 August A medical history of Persia. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach p. Zahoor and Dr. Cas Lek Cesk in Czech.

Archived from the original on October 7, Archived from the original on 28 May Retrieved 11 Jun Retrieved 20 December Roots of European Medicine". Heart Views. Savage Medieval Islamic medicine. Washington DC: Georgetown University. Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures 2nd ed. Islam and Science, Medicine, and Technology. New York: Rosen Pub. London: Cambridge.

By writing a monograph on 'Diseases in Children' he may also be looked upon as the father of paediatrics. A medical history of humanity pp. Jewish medicine and surgery in Catania, Italy before In Acta Medica Mediterranea. Jewish Medicine and Surgery in Sicily Before Medieval Medicine. Heinemann-Raintree Library. Bowers, ed. The Medieval Hospital and Medical Practice p. E — C. Brock Biology of Microorganisms 11th ed. Prentice Hall. Social History of Medicine. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology.

Academic Press. History of Universities. Journal of Medical Biography. Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Bennett et al. University of Chicago Press, , pp. Scott Dixon; et al. Leonard, "Female Religious Orders," in R. Po-chia Hsia, ed. Lutheran Reformation And the Law. Medical Education at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, — Medical History. Prentice Hall , Hispanic American Historical Review. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Austin: University of Texas Press , p.


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John Jay TePaske. Durham: Duke University Press Austin: University of Texas Press American Journal of Epidemiology. Oppenheimer, G. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. Baly; Social Change Nursing History Review. The Contemporary Soviet City. American Quarterly. Historical Dictionary of Austria. Scarecrow Press.

Ambulance - Series 5 - Episode 2

Supplement no. Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 March Vermont History. Eileen William A. Concepts and Practice of Humanitarian Medicine. Everitt; Christopher Palmer Encyclopaedic Companion to Medical Statistics. Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics. Linton American Philosophical Society. London: Fontana. In Wear, Andrew ed. Medicine in Society: Historical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

History of Psychiatry. Mad Among Us. Simon and Schuster. In Jackson, Mark ed. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine. In Porter, Roy; Bynum, W. In Micale, Mark S. Discovering the History of Psychiatry. In Brunton, Deborah ed. Manchester University Press. In Porter, Roy; Wright, David eds. The Confinement of the Insane: International Perspectives, — Part I: Converts to a doctrine".

Part II: Doctrine and practice". A history of psychiatry: from the era of the asylum to the age of Prozac. Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c. European Journal of Sociology. Negotiating Insanity in the Southeast of Ireland, — Yale University Press. Alder Blumer, eugenics, and US psychiatry, —". Stanford: Stanford University Press , Encyclopedia of World Biography. Thomson Corporation. Webb Jr. In Chisholm, Hugh ed. Asylums and after: a revised history of the mental health services: from the early 18th century to the s. Athlone Press. History of medicine.

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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. FOFO: Ack. Neal Stothard. Fall On Out-Stretched Hand. Medical acronym describing cause of injury to hand, wrist, etc. Thanks B Villona. Focus On Reducing Costs Everywhere. From USA industry. An acronym that can be applied anywhere. Perhaps not the most progressive strategy ever invented, but sometimes necessary and helpful, provided the cost-cutting does not prevent activities that would otherwise bring good and fast returns on investment, and also provided that the long-term well-being of operations and people are not sacrificed.

Ack P Lock. Found On Roadside, Dead. A quick explanation for not pursuing the non-viable. An excellent reminder of the need to invest one's time productively. Ack T Day. Fornicates Regularly And Chain Smokes. ODSA The polite version is arguably better than the rude one. Nurses and doctors acronym for covert patients notes. Ack L Speden. Flipping Ridiculous Electronic Device. An increasingly popular acronym that many people now use to describe a computer or other gadget causing frustration or technical difficulty for the user.

Fouled Up Beyond All Recognition. Polie version. Ack E Thomas and the many others. Fouled Up Beyond Belief. An old acronym that is just as useful today as when first devised. Probably originated in the 2nd World War. Apparently this was initially a Royal Navy acronym bacronym to describe 'elbow grease' and a reminder that physical effort generally produces the best results of all, irrespective of modern technology. The meaning behind this wonderful acronym is supported by the following story thanks N Spargo : Apparently just before the Second World War, the British armed forces adopted new webbing, the belt and harness to carry ammunition, water bottle, bayonet, etc.

The new webbing was made of heavy canvas khaki for the Army, blue-grey for the Air Force, white for the Navy , with numerous brass buckles and strap tabs. Of course the webbing had to be kept clean and bright, for which sailors were issued Blanco whitening and Brasso brass polish. Early examples of the new webbing were particularly difficult to clean, whereupon official instruction from the old Chief Petty Officers was to use plenty of 'elbow grease', given that this was the 'Finest Universal Cleaner Known'.

The sailors soon recognised the significance of the initials and developed a typical piece of folk wisdom: "If Blanco don't whiten it and Brasso don't brighten it then FUCK it.. Failed Under Continuous Testing. In other words, broken. One of the all-time great acronyms, and nothing rude about it at all, surely. Used especially by technical people in the entertainment industry and deserves usage and recognition on a global scale. Arguably both are reverse acronyms, however you can't argue with them being very funny and elegantly succinct. In addition to the acronym itself, a particularly amusing example of usage was sent to me thanks P Giles : 'F U C T U P' written one letter each across the six broken channels of a lighting control desk.

Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt. Acronym from the marketing world, in which propositions leveraged by FUD create additional motivation for the target audience to buy or act - for example Y2K computer scare stories, various types of insurance, extended warranties and guarantees, security and surveillance offerings; typically most preventative products and services.

Thanks M Adamson. FUGAZI is potentially transferable to other disasters resulting from poor preparation and over-confidence, eg. FUGAZI was a Marillion album title they knew what it meant apparently, and is also a band who didn't know what it meant - apparently. Feck You Jack I'm Alright. Marginally polite version. A fruity old acronym that's not a precise abbreviation, instead partly a clever phonetic structure in which the 'IYAM' element equates to the words I am, or 'I'm. The expression is from the rank and file soldiers of the 2nd World War, notably and almost certainly originating in the Pacific war zones.

Interestingly this acronym also provided the origin of the more recent expression and humourous boast, at the expense of a lumbered mate: 'I'm alright Jack', which of course means the same as the full orignal FUJIYAMA version. Now this one looks like it's going to be packed full of swear words, but strangely it's not. A motto for self-reliance and taking personal responsibility. The quest for empowered people in organisations cuts both ways - the organisation needs to give people more freedom, and people need to take responsibility for finding their own answers and solutions.

It's a reminder that we all need to seek our own answers rather than rely on 'received wisdom' or someone else's solution that might well be overdue for improvement. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. To non-accountants this may seem a contradiction in terms. Generally Accepted Auditing Standards. Perhaps only marginally less contradictory than GAAP, but they do exist, honestly. Amusing if slightly insulting and ironically, envious reference to the modern generation of young people who need and can effectively absorb information, learning, entertainment, advertising, etc.

Previous generations X, Y, Baby-boomers for example were brought up reading whole books, writing memos, and attending meetings, so their brains tend to be less well-tuned to the dramatically abbreviated communications and speed of life which characterise the blackberryfacespace age. GADD people even have their own language - largely free of vowels, punctuation, capital letters, etc - which older people criticise, but this is exactly how life and society changes. Each successive generation becomes quicker and more efficient at sending and receiving information, and this also extends to entertainment and leisure activities.

To older people this faster lifstyle seems like laziness or carelessness, but in fact it is more a reflection of the progressive sharpening of human brainpower. Interestingly, genius minds of any generation have very low spans of attention: a sharp mind grasps a concept extremely quickly, becomes bored very quickly, and naturally seeks alternative stimulus if the present issue starts to drag. Despite what we might read about the worsening standards of education, young people are very sharp indeed.

Civilisation advances proportionately to knowledge transfer and human collaboration. Quick brains facilitate this, therefore so-called 'attention deficit disorder' among youngsters is a healthy indication that civilisation continues to progress, which is gr8. Reference to a person or group exhibiting encouraging signs of understanding and capability, and then failing to act or respond due to some sort of serious and usually permanent malfunction.

God Alone Knows. Originally British First World War doctor's shorthand on a traumatised soldier's medical report for shell-shock or other nervous disorder this prior to any official recognition of nervous condition resulting from months or years active service under fire and bombardment.

Nowadays GAK serves as an incredulous reponse to any unfathomable question. See also NYDN. Group Against Smokers Pollution. Going the Extra Mile. GEM is a very memorable, neat and powerful acronym for all sorts of situations relating to effort, quality, commitment, motivation, development, design, creativity, selling, customer service, leading, inspiring, teaching - in fact any activity, responsibility, project or task which benefits from extra thought, enthusiasm and energy, to produce an effect beyond usual expectations or standards.

GEM appears in themes and promotional messages for a variety of situations because it's an elegant impactful statement underpinned by a very potent concept - that of always striving to do better - to 'over-deliver' and to exceed expectations, in the very correct belief that doing so will produce great outcomes for the giver and receiver; supplier and customer. GEM is especially relevant for beating competition and delighting customers.

It's also a wonderful maxim for building self-esteem, integrity, respect, credibility, reputation and positive human relationships. GEM is actually an attitude for life as a whole: if a job is worth doing then it's worth doing in the best way you can. GEM people are noticed and remembered; they become trusted and valued, and accordingly, GEM, simple though it seems, is a wonderful life-code.

Garbage In Garbage Out. Originated as a computer metaphor but deserves a much wider exposure. Use freely for any situation at all that involves effort and output esp. Good Looking Mum. Healthcare industry shorthand. Less earthy and somewhat more detached than the MILF alternative. Garbage Made Carefully. A wonderful example of industrial warfare by acronym no offence intended.

Godt Mitt You. God be with you The only Anglo-German hybrid abbreviation I know, used today as a sign-off in certain naval communications, notably still among Swedish vessels. Some believe its origin dates from the 2nd World War, when the message was sent between British and German enemy submarines operating in surface mode, when traditionally they would not engage, other than to communicate their mutual respect through this expression. Ack Robert Stael Von Holstein Others possible origins are suggested: That GMY was a greeting between German Wolfpack submarines during WWII who used the mixture of German and English words to confuse the allies; it was a traditional greeting between commercial ships; it stems from old unofficial telegraph code; is was an invention of a Swedish naval officer.

Ack Pieter Kuiper. Greatest Of All Time. An acronym from the sporting commentators' book of superlatives, and transferable to all. Everyone can be GOAT at what they do and who they are. General Body Crumble. ODSA Healthcare acronym to describe an elderly person with no specific diagnosis, but just generally deteriorating.

Government Owned, Contractor Operated. An admission by government that they have the expertise to run the country supposedly but not anything as practical as a hot-dog stall. Genial Old Farts Enjoying Retirement. Super demographics acronym, allegedly originally seen on the back of a caravan touring Australia; now much used at retirement parties. Ack LA. God Only Knows. Such patients not infrequently later had an ERCP.

Gentlemen Only, Ladies Forbidden. For chauvinists everywhere. Especially at the golf club. Ack C Judd. Get Out of My Emergency Room. Goals, Objectives, Strategies, Plans, Activities. A simple blueprint and order of thinking for business planning of any sort, even for large complex challenges and entire businesses. Thanks Chris Starke.

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Any connection is purely coincidental, as the saying goes. The acronym seems to have originated in the US military. Thanks M Grasso. Good for Parts Only. Not the most optimistic diagnosis. Also thanks J Fobian used in similar deathly fashion in the automotive industry. Three little letters Graduate s Renting, Employed, No Deposit. Group, Range, Indication, Type of fire. In the military, the acronym teaches and reminds how to give fire control orders, but the key points relate with a little adaptation to all sorts of engagements with a 'target' audience:.

Use with care if you must use is at all, and whilst not necessarily recommended, there is a potential application for explaining the more technical aspects of customer profiling. Goals, Reality, Options, Will. A maxim from the life-coaching industry, which makes a lot of sense, and is relevant to any situation that requires realistic objectives to be established, and then the planning and determination to achieve them. Grotesque, Unbelievable, Bizarre, and Unprecedented. Ack S Doherty. Goes When Ready. As such GWR is a novel way to describe or present a personality or system which cannot be moved or changed without suitable preparation and patience.

GWR people tend to be process and detail oriented. GWR situations tend to be big complex systems or networks large old organizations and institutions with lots of entrenched practices and attitudes. Obvious examples of HAHO misadventures are military interventions in far away territories, government interference in local services education, health, policing, etc , and corporate takeovers motivated for the enrichment of the predators.

Checklist system popular in private pilot licence training for stall recovery and also used prior to aerobatics. Human Capital Management. Arguably the same as HRM Human Resources Management , although many especially in the HCM field would disagree, pointing to various 'new' HCM components linked to such terms as 'new economy', but which strictly speaking could be covered simply by a modern view of HRM.

If are studying modern HR practices and methods then again you will tend to find such ideas being presented under the HCM heading. But don't be kidded that the label itself changes anything. The use of a new title doesn't automatically ensure a successful initiative or implementation. On a more specific point, you will see the word 'Reporting' commonly appended to the Human Capital term, which indicates the additional emphasis on analysis and accountability that perhaps most distinguishes HCM from the traditional HRM in practice, although there is nothing to prevent well run Human Resources activities enabling and generating just the same reporting needs and outputs.

What these things are called is not the issue - it's what actually goes on that matters. Cynics would say that HCM is not so much a different field, it's more a different way to sell more services, books, training, and the like. The HCM term has arisen in recent years, as new buzzwords and abbreviations tend to, when sufficient people embrace the idea that a new approach is warranted or opportune, in which case a new brand or packaging usually happens.

How long the HCM expression lasts, and the notion that it is very different really from modern Human Resources Management, remains to be seen. As ever, it's not the label, but the precise definition and practice that counts. High Earning Worker. Honesty, Integrity, Plain-dealing. The UK House of Commons i. Diamond didn't know them. Assuming the stated principles are indeed the founding ethos of Barclays Bank established by quaker John Freame and Thomas Gould, in London, then obviously Diamond should have known them. Incidentally Diamond resigned from his post as CEO the day before appearing in front of the committee.

HIPs lasted a few short years before the legislation was put into reverse and information requirements were greatly reduced. This is a term for a product which requires a high amount of thought by the customer before purchase, such as cars, holidays, pension plans, houses, etc. Hair Is Vanishing.

Text messaging ain't got nothing on it Another poignant demographics acronym. Could be a great name for the next governement initiative on pensions Human Remains. Hope This Helps. Email abbreviation when replying to requests. Potentially counter-productive if the recipient doesn't understand what it means Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol. Destined to become one of those abbreviations which nobody knows the origin of in thirty years time, and here mainly lest we forget. How To Make Love. Alternative created and contributed by writer by S McCarthy, thanks.

Not a good place for one's head to be and arguably a lot worse than up in the clouds. Ack P Farrant. It's About Me Stupid. Elegant and wonderful acronym for many and various situations, especially explaining and understanding human relationships and communications. A great reference point for explaining the 'emotional contract' and the false notion that people will do what you say just because you tell them so.

Informal disclaimer, usually followed by "but Thanks D Rudloff. I Blame Microsoft. A 'backronym' with different applications, aside from having a dig at MS, for example to highlight where a person finds it difficult to accept responsibility for their own actions, or more usually, inactivity. Ack to Dr Neale Roney. In Case of A Balls Up. A wonderfully funny, memorable, and very meaningful acronym for project management and all kinds of planning or forward-thinking activities. Origins uncertain. No doubt someone will tell me if they know. Thanks J Hudson. In Case of Emergency.

While the acronym has had this meaning for a while, in recent times the termonology has assumed additional significance: apparently modern practice is increasingly to identify a special 'ICE number' within one's mobile telephone 'phone book' listing, so that in case of suffering a debilitating accident or emergency, a person assisting anyone in their moment of need is able immediately to contact the nominated friend, spouse, parent, etc.

Ack D Kugler. Not an acronym obviously but worthy of inclusion. The 'ID Ten T' code has been used by technical service people for years, and probably explains very well a large proportion of user-reported faults and queries. Identify, Design, Execute, Augment.

Process for changing anything. Identify the issues, priorities, constraints, resources; Design the plan; Execute the plan; Augment, refine, adjust and improve activies to consolidate change. Dean Whitehead. Identify, Define, Explore, Action, Lookback. Investors In People. The UK system of human resources quality and development accreditation system.

Just About Managing. Most commonly referring to a demographic group of people and families whose earnings hardly allow a standard of living above poverty, that is 'poverty' according modern western definitions and standards. JAM and 'just about managing' might also be applied to any individual or situation where the main focus and peak achievement is survival or averting complete disaster. Not a lot of people know that. Thanks SJ for the spelling correction. Mantra for self-determination and reinforcing self-confidence. Thanks B Heyn.

Variation on the above theme. The procrastinator's motto. Instead: sit down, think, write down some ideas or aims, and then you will get good results. Identify, Manage, Change, Improve, Show. Acknowledgments to John Oakland. In My Humble Opinion. We don't list many acronyms and abbreviations used in web-messaging, emails and texting, etc, because there are millions of them and other sites do it better; however the IMHO acronym has a certain resonance for life and communications generally, and it's been around for ages, so it is worthy of inclusion here.

Thanks DH. In-Service Education and Training. On-the-job training in other words, just sounds a bit more technical. For all those executives who haven't got a clue what's really going on in their companies, and think that a quick stroll among the workers will boost morale and uncover some great idea how to save or make the next million.

Ack Tom Calvert. Intellectual Property. A common term meaning copyrighted or trademarked or otherwise protected work, owned by the originator unless sold or transferred. Most international law recognises the originator's rights in any type of original work or idea - in whatever media. If you doodle on a napkin or take a photo or write a poem this is all automatically your intellectual property.

If you write a book or a play or a training programme or you design a better mousetrap, this would all automatically be your intellectual property unless of course it replicates intellectual property already belonging to someone else. IP is a widely used abbreviation referring to any work of original creation. It's a complex area however. Many employers quite reasonably insist that any IP developed by their employees relating to their paid employment automatically belongs to the employer since the employer has paid for it.

Some employers seek to extend this to employees' ideas and creations that are not related to the work, which is less reasonable. For more detail relating to IP issues attached to important or potentially significant personal or organisational liabilities, licensing, etc. A less than ideal customer service process for dealing with complaints and dissatisfied customers - widely exhibited, especially by large organizations in the finance, insurance and telecoms sectors.

The acronym is useful to remind all exponents of poor customer service how not to do it Identify, Predict, Decide, Execute. Long-established mnemonic thanks P Goldstein, recalling this from s USA for risk analysis and responsive action. The acronym strictly it's an abbreviation is widely used in vehicle driving training and offers a very specific process-based method for all sorts of situations where chaotic circumstances can produce risks requiring reactive decisions and actions: Identify and analyze a situation; predict possibilities and risks arising; decide appropriate response or action; then execute or apply action.

I welcome suggestions as to the origins of the IPDE framework. Initial Public Offering. A stock exchange term and acronym widely preferred instead of the full term by media and corporate folk, referring to the first 'Initial' sale 'Offering' of privately owned equity stock or shares in a company, though the issue of shares to the public and other investing institutions 'Public'. While an IPO is technically the first sale of stock by a private company to the general public, in some cases the sale is effectively exclusively to investing institutions, such as pension funds and banks.

Sometimes it's good that the general public are denied the opportunity to acquire lots of shares in IPOs because the risks are big and often the launch turns out to be a big loss for investors. While IPOs are most commonly small young companies raising capital to finance growth, IPOs can also be very big indeed, such as recently established technology corporations like Google and Facebook. IPOs are risky for investors as it is especially difficult to predict the value of the stock or shares in a relatively unknown company when they open for trading and in the short-term thereafter.

An IPO equates to the expressions 'going public' or 'taking a company public'. It is not unusual for IPOs to fail to attract buyers for all the stock available, in which case the bank underwriting the offering is left with the stock. Setting the IPO share price is a tricky challenge for the company offering itself for sale, as is the assessment of the attraction of the investment by investors, since both are hugely influenced by demand, in turn driven by PR hype and often highly debatable interpretations of market conditions and future performance of company.

I wonder if an acronym ever had a more serious fundamental meaning than this one? Full convergence between computers and TV is fast approaching, and its effects will be wide and deep. Nick Negroponte saw something like this coming nearly twenty years ago they called it the 'Negroponti Switch'. Now it's almost upon us, bigger and scarier than he ever imagined.

Just as VOIP Voice Over Internet Protocol is revolutionizing the phone and mobile communications markets, so TV over the web will do the same for TV, and the incredible implications of combining unlimited on-demand content, a high-speed virtually free internet, and mobile communications. Look out especially for Joost, being pioneered by Zennstrom and Friis, who have already succeeded with two sector-rattling developments - Kazaa and Skype - now safely launched and divested.

Other modern age entrepreneurs are now emerging alongside Joost to challenge the traditional 'old economy' media giants, who will all have their work cut out to keep pace with their quicker more efficient rivals in the battle for a share in this unimaginably dynamic market. If you want to try imagining the possibilities, consider combining all types of TV and video content, computer games, virtual reality, web 2. And that's just for starters I'd Rather Be In Ambridge. You've seen people with that 'IRBIA' look on their face, when the real world is getting to be too much. When they'd rather be somewhere else, far away from the pressures of a particularly tedious meeting or training course.

Innovations Subscribers Don't Need. Ack D McNally. International Standards Organization. The words 'International Standards Organization' are, fascinatingly, a retrospectively applied meaning - ISO was not originally an acronym. The word derives from the Greek 'isos', meaning equal as in 'isobar' - meaning a line on a weather map denoting the same atmospheric pressure, 'isometric' - meaning equal measure, and 'isosceles' as in an 'isosceles triangle', which you will remember from your school-days is a triangle with two equal sides.

I Trust And Love You. Wartime back-of-envelope lovers code. Just Another Flipping Observer. A prominent acronym from the days leading up to 'Y2K' computing and business term for the year when everywhere large tense business meetings grappled with measures to avert catastrophic computer problems associated with the date change. Anyone unable to contribute to the meeting typically introduced themselves as 'Just here as an observer..

The acronym is a fitting term for non-participants, hangers-on, etc. Ack T Smith The term however pre-dates Y2K by some years; for example, it appears in the film 'Blue Thunder', in which the character Richard 'JAFO' Lymngood actor Daniel Stern is presented with a hat bearing the acronym then spends most of the film trying to find out what it means.

That the subject matter of the film is US military and flying perhaps provides indication as to the true origins of the term. Ack Keith Young. Jump And Pump All Night. Australian origins apparently. Various applications. Presumably something to do with bicycles and trampolining. Ack R Knight. Just Flipping Do It. The polite version. Pronounced 'Jifdi', this acronym is the antidote to procrastination, and a reminder that simply getting on with it is often the best answer to most moments of self-doubt or hesitation.

JFDI is a must for management training, time management and a maxim for self-reliance and empowerment. The body which established and runs the ABC social grades classification system, much used by media and marketing folk. Just In Time. JIT normally describes operational or production methods based on minimizing stock levels, the aim of which is to reduce capital employed in stock, which also has knock-on benefits to reducing storage space, decreasing dependence on logistics, easier supply chain management, and better overall quality. That's the theory anyway.

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JIT is a lot trickier than it sounds. Certain industries and technologies are far more amenable than others to Just In Time management, and the concept is typically most useful when viewed as a benefit or flexibility arising from strategic improvement within a business operation, than a cause of improvement itself, which it is not. Introducing Just In Time methods without creating the required efficiencies and reliabilities beforehand is not a viable change. There is no room for errors when employing Just In Time management methods, so where an operation is incapable of accommodating JIT methods the description 'disaster waiting to happen' is more apt.

Be mindful of this risk whenever you see such examples or suggestions. JIT management requires total commitment to quality and efficiency or the supply chain breaks down and operations come to a halt. The Japanese original terminology is 'kanban', and it is a vital part of the 'lean production' process methodology. The aim of kanban is actually zero inventory. JIT was and is used successfully by highly efficient manufacturing corporations, notably the Japanese, and has been enabled by computerization especially to analyse and manage timings rather than stock levels.

More generally, similar Just In Time principles can be applied to other functions besides manufacturing and stock and materials management; really any activity where cost and resource can be saved by minimizing leeway and contingencies relating to supply deadlines. Just Over Broke. Acronym for economic and financial life-change. A useful spur if you are contemplating self-employment, starting your own business, buying a franchise, becoming a consultant, plumber, etc. Ack P Gosling. Knowledge, Attitude, Skills. The constituents required for people to succeed at what they do, individually and collectively.

Knowledge and Skills can largely be trained; Attitude can't - it's a factor of personality, emotion, personal circumstances, and the organizational environment - accountants and bosses can't measure it, so it's often overlooked, and then the boss and the accountant wonder why people aren't performing. Knowledge, Attitude, Skills, Habits. Another useful acronym for trainers to explain different aspects of learning. Generally skills and knowledge are easier to develop and change than attitude and habits. Key Ethical Value. Keep Extending Yourself.

Coaching and motivational maxim. A reminder of the importance of striving to improve yourself, and always to be seeking new challenges. See also SKI-ing for the antidote. D Rowland. Keep It Simple Stupid. One of the all time great acronyms, and so true. A motto and reminder that simplicity works - in communications, design, philosophy, relationships, decision-making, meetings, management and life generally.

Apply and promote KISS to any situation to deter unnecessary complication, excuses, bureaucracy, red-tape, and to encourage practical positive outcomes, no-nonsense communications, integrity, truth, beauty, and honesty. Motivation at its most basic. In fact not motivation at all. Managers persisting with this idiocy will find that after a KITA session the recipient will be motivated to move only the small distance that Newton's Laws of Motion provide for them to do so, and then will do one or more probably a number of certain things:. Key Lines Of Enquiry. System much used now by the UK Audit Commission and no doubt by other highly centralised and high-control culture organizations to set down extremely specific criteria for inspectors assessing and reporting on local government services.

So much for empowerment Ack MC. Kit Off And Legs Akimbo. Various applications, most obviously referring to sexual readiness. Incidentally the word akimbo normally refers to arms not legs - hands on hips, with arms bent at the elbow. Please send them. A measure, target or standard, used to manage and gauge the performance of an activity, process or project. Establishing a series of KPI's or KSI's is a very useful way to manage, monitor and assess the effectiveness of any organizational activity or process Thanks for reminder Nick Whiteley.

For the youngest of audiences, or unruly adult ones. Originally a teachers' acronym but much too good to restrict to school assemblies. Perhaps one of the silliest and most wonderful reverse acronyms ever to have been devised. Ack M Rand. Motto for independence and self-determination, from the so-named activist group. Lower Academically-Minded Person. Euphemistic reference to an idiot, or someone who's behaviour resembles one. Lights Are Not On. For people who aren't concentrating or simple unable to do so.

The shorthand coded version of 'The wheel is turning but the hamster is dead'. Ack MG.

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Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The word laser was originally a scientific acronym, devised in the s. The originators wisely based the abbreviation on the key words only, ignoring the connecting words. Thanks KBS. Listen, Advise, Solve, Thank. A good aid for training customer service and complaints handling. In , the nation boasted a population of almost a hundred million people.

A third of them were immigrants, or had parents who had been born abroad. And one out of three Americans lived on farms. Women could vote, but only in twelve states of the union. In the South, African Americans had virtually no political rights at all. Europe was a one-week steamship voyage away. Kennedy, Historian: In the United States was the largest producer of steel. It had the biggest transportation network. It had more energy resources.

It had the second biggest population in the western world saving only Russia. But the American people as a whole were quite ambivalent about whether or not they actually wanted to become one of the great powers that arbitrated the destinies of the world at large. Adriane Lentz-Smith, Historian: I think that Wilson had, even in this vision of America as a moral beacon in the world, as a city upon a hill, this sense that Americans had something to give to the world. Germany was led by a kaiser, Russia a tsar. Great Britain and France, two democracies, jealously guarded far-flung colonial empires.

The assassination of an obscure Austro-Hungarian aristocrat by a Serbian nationalist had provided a pretext to unleash imperial rivalries that were breaking the continent apart. Germany and its ally, Austria Hungary, declared war on Serbia and her ally, Russia. Germany then invaded France — through neutral Belgium — and Russia. Britain came to the aid of, the French and the Belgians and suddenly, millions of men were fighting a war whose very purpose seemed hard to comprehend.

Margaret MacMillan, Historian: What were they thinking? They had so much going for them. Europe was the most prosperous part of the world, the most powerful part of the world. It had had extraordinary progress. It had a century of almost unbroken peace, and suddenly they blundered into this war.

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Scott Berg, Writer: Almost from the outset of the war, Woodrow Wilson was trying to find diplomatic solutions. He believed if all the heads of state could sit at a table and confer, they could probably have ended this war. Narrator: As he faced the greatest international crisis of his presidency, Woodrow Wilson was falling apart.

In a small bedroom on the second floor of the White House, his wife Ellen lay dying. They had been married for 29 years, and she had borne him three daughters, standing by him during his dramatic rise to the White House. Two days after war broke out, at five in the afternoon, she died. Scott Berg, Writer: Here is the president of the United States who is so bereft he is actually contemplating giving up the office.

He does not know how he can go on without this woman, who really sacrificed everything she could for him. He sat next to the casket during a sleepless train ride back to her family home in Georgia. For the first time in decades, Woodrow Wilson was facing the future alone. The son of a Scottish Presbyterian minister from Virginia, he was a bookish young man with a delicate constitution who became a successful lawyer and scholar of American government.

Richard Rubin, Writer: He was a former professor, a former college president and the governor of New Jersey. He had a meteoric rise in politics and in an age of oratory, he was a very fine speaker. Scott Berg, Writer: Woodrow Wilson was the most religious president we ever had. Woodrow Wilson is a man who got on his knees twice a day and prayed. He read scripture every night. He said grace before every meal. His faith informed everything he ever said, everything he ever thought, everything he ever did. Narrator: An idealistic Democratic crusader, Wilson had spent his first two years in office driving through Congress a historic set of progressive reforms.

His penchant for soaring rhetoric masked a pragmatic, and often ruthless, politician. He was also the first Democrat from the South to be elected president since Reconstruction. Almost overnight, thousands of promising civil service jobs that had been a path of upward mobility for African Americans were now open to whites only.

Adriane Lentz-Smith, Historian: Wilson felt that forward thinking white people were really best positioned to see to the well being of African Americans. And I think he felt confident that at some point African Americans would be able to be incorporated into the larger civic and democratic body in some way. Christopher Capozzola, Historian: He makes almost no effort to bring African Americans into any role in the government and in fact takes so many steps to alienate them that many African Americans who thought he would be a progressive on race become bitterly disappointed in him.

He remembered the He carried that with him. He believes in democratic values, liberal values, he believes in peace. Narrator: On August 18 th , Wilson emerged from his grieving long enough to issue a proclamation. Richard Rubin, Writer: America is not a monolith. America is composed of a great many different communities. Take New York City.

You had Irish who had no desire to go over and fight for the British king. You had Russian Jews who had no desire to go over and fight for the Tsar. You had German-American immigrants and Austrian-American immigrants who had no desire to go over and fight against their country. He thinks America has something to teach everyone.

Part of it is ego. Wilson believes himself able to deliver these democratic practices to the global stage. He sees himself as well equipped to be this person. Narrator: Ambassador Page saw little chance that America could stay detached from the great conflict that was shaking the world to its foundations.

Narrator: The day war broke out, the impeccably tailored American war correspondent Richard Harding Davis settled into his first class cabin on board a ship bound for France, and enjoyed a cold glass of champagne. Davis was perhaps the most famous journalist of his day, and the war promised to be the biggest story of his already legendary career.

He had made a name for himself reporting for the newspapers owned by Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst, filing dispatches from war zones around the world. His vivid reports of the exploits of the Rough Riders in Cuba had helped catapult the young Theodore Roosevelt to national renown. Now Americans were counting on Davis to bring them news of the shocking developments in Europe. While he was crossing the Atlantic in the first week of August, , German troops continued their invasion of neutral Belgium, rushing to encircle Paris and defeat the French and the British before the huge Russian armies to the east could mobilize.

Dan Carlin, Podcast Producer: The German war plans called for them to defeat France first, within a short period of time, and then turn those armies on the Russians. Jay Winter, Historian: The German army was well aware that its task was to arrive in Paris 42 days…not 43 days…42 days exactly after the invasion of Belgium. And the population in Belgium and northern France was not going to stand in the way. Narrator: By August 17th, as hundreds of thousands of Belgian refugees were streaming away from the advancing German army, Davis had commandeered a motorcar and was headed in the opposite direction.

He managed to find his way to Brussels to witness German forces entering the Belgian capital. No longer was it regiments of men marching but something uncanny, inhuman, a force of nature. This was a machine, endless, tireless, with the delicate organization of a watch and the brute power of a steam roller. For three days and three nights the column of gray, with 50, thousand bayonets and 50, lances, with gray transport wagons, … gray cannon, like a river of steel, cut Brussels in two.

Dan Carlin, Podcast Producer: He described the columns going on for days marching in perfect step with each other. And I think it was jaw-dropping. But the news from Belgium turned more disturbing with each passing day. Racing to keep to their invasion timetable, the Germans ruthlessly put down any resistance. Civilians were mowed down with machine guns; 14, buildings were deliberately destroyed. Fifteen days into the invasion, German soldiers arrived at the Belgian city of Louvain, a center of culture for centuries.

Then, they burned it to the ground. Voice: Richard Harding Davis: At Louvain it was war upon the defenceless, war upon churches, colleges, shops of milliners and lace-makers: war brought to the bedside and the fireside; against women harvesting in the fields, against children in wooden shoes playing in the streets. At Louvain that night the Germans were like men after an orgy. They also crossed a line for his editors. Jay Winter, Historian: Six thousand Belgian civilians were killed.

The Belgians would say murdered, in the course of the war, not one of them was a combatant. That was the price the German high command knew that they had to pay in order to get to Paris in forty-two days. Narrator: In just a few short weeks, Richard Harding Davis had abandoned any pretense to neutrality.

Voice: Richard Harding Davis: Were the conflict in Europe a fair fight, the duty of every American would be to keep on the side-lines and preserve an open mind. But it is not a fair fight. A man who would now be neutral would be a coward. Narrator: On August 25 th , , a hastily organized group of American volunteers set off through the streets of Paris for the train station. The men had just enlisted in the French army. Still wearing their rumpled street clothes, they hardly looked like soldiers.

Christopher Capozzola, Historian: There is a generation of Americans, particularly elite Americans who believed that with this elite status came the obligation to take risks for humanity. Now this was a totally romantic notion, but it inspired thousands of Americans to drop out of college, to quit their jobs. They felt a personal responsibility to address what was the largest human crisis of their times. Narrator: Most of the well-heeled men were from elite colleges. Many of them had been drifting around Europe when the war broke out.

There were painters and professors, medical students and mining engineers, a big-game hunter, a chef and a race-car driver. Keene, Historian: There are those Americans who believe that we should make an impact on the battlefield and with the government reluctant to do so, individuals decide to do so. We have a river of people crossing the Atlantic to join the allied army, to serve as ambulance drivers as aid workers, as nurses, as doctors. Andrew Carroll, Writer: A lot of them truly loved France and they felt this was a war of civilization.

They were after a kind of glory, even immortality. A real sense of wanting to sacrifice yourself for a greater cause. Narrator: The French government was stunned by the wave of volunteers — more than 35,, from 49 different nations. The German army had swept through Belgium and was driving towards Paris.

Every able-bodied man who could handle a rifle had been rushed to the front, including 5, French reservists who arrived in taxi cabs. At its head was a year old Harvard graduate and aspiring poet named Alan Seeger, who had been living in Paris when war was declared. Jay Winter, Historian: The notion of military service as a kind of a test of character, a test of I am happy and full of excitement over the wonderful days that are ahead.

It was such a comfort to receive your letter and know that you approved of my action. Be sure that I shall play the part well for I was never in better health nor felt my manhood more keenly. Narrator: Seeger joined the French Foreign Legion, a brigade famous for its ferocity and for taking in anyone willing to fight, and die, for France. In its ranks he met men like Victor Chapman, a fellow Harvard graduate who had given up his architectural studies in Paris to volunteer, and Eugene Bullard, who had escaped the brutal racism of Georgia by stowing away for Europe when he was seventeen.

Once on the continent Bullard had worked as a panhandler, an actor in a traveling comedy troupe, and a boxer. The Legion put the Americans through a crash course in basic training, and they joined a war that now numbered millions of combatants on both sides. Just as the American volunteers were learning how to be soldiers, the nature of the war shifted.

After smashing their way through Belgium, the Germans were approaching the outskirts of Paris when their over-extended army gave out. Allied counter-attacks drove them back beyond the Marne river east of Paris. Both sides dug in for protection, and kept trying to outflank one another. Within weeks, an improvised network of trenches extended for more than miles from the English Channel to the Swiss border. The war that all sides assumed would be over in a matter of weeks, now stretched on with no end in sight. John Horne, Historian: The Germans realized that if they dig trenches and install their machine guns and artillery, the French and the British can't get much further forward.

And it's stalemate. The new fortifications provided protection from the murderous carnage of open warfare. But efforts to break out of the stand-off still sent hundreds of thousands of casualties flooding into hospitals just behind the lines. One of the nurses that struggled to cope with the onslaught was an American heiress from Chicago named Mary Borden. Voice: Mary Borden:. All day and often all night I am at work over dying and mutilated men. Narrator: Despite its horrors, Alan Seeger and his fellow volunteers could not get to the front fast enough. Voice: Alan Seeger: Dear Mother: we are actually going at last to the firing line.

By the time you receive this we shall already perhaps have had our baptism of fire. How thrilling it will be tomorrow and the following days, marching toward the front with the noise of battle growing continually louder before us. The whole regiment is going. You have no idea how beautiful it is to see the troops undulating along the road.

Song: I didn't raise my boy to be a soldier, I brought him up to be my pride and joy. Who dares to place a musket on his shoulder, To shoot some other mother's darling boy? It was sung in bars and dance-halls, in concerts, schools, and in homes all across the country. Richard Rubin, Writer: This was a time remember when in a city like New York, there were a great many daily newspapers being published. And they got their news from songs.

Songwriters would pick up a few newspapers on their way into the office in the morning. They would read stories and they would sit down and write a couple of songs about them before lunch. Song: Ten million soldiers to the war have gone, Who may never return again. Ten million mothers' hearts must break, For the ones who died in vain.

Known as Tin Pan Alley, it was home to one of the biggest industries in the country. Sitting around their upright pianos, songwriting duos were acutely conscious of the national mood. In August of , thousands of women, both black and white, had gathered together and marched down Fifth Avenue in silence. Michael Kazin, Historian: The march is very silent, very somber.

And this is really a sign that women are going to be in the forefront of opposition to the war. Jay Winter, Historian: Pacifism on the part of men was harder because it suggested cowardice. Nancy K. Bristow, Historian: We could be the arbiter of wars. We could be those that would stop the killing. We could be those that would help find the peace. In the first five months of the war, more than , Frenchmen were killed, 30, British soldiers, almost , Germans.

The WPP numbered more than 40, women nationwide, and their goal was the creation of an internationally sanctioned framework for an end to the war. The president was Jane Addams. She founded a settlement house in Chicago called Hull House that was a place where immigrants and poor people could go to get help, to get education.

She toured the country as a lecturer, in the name of peace. She was one of the most visible women in America at this time. More than a thousand women, from 12 different nations, attended the conference, including representatives from Germany and Austria-Hungary. Kimberly Jensen, Historian: Addams and women from many nations gathered to say war must end, and we must not engage in this conflict.

The world has come too far to allow a barbarous war like this to happen and to really destroy what we have built. She saw alliances among women across national boundaries to be a very important pathway to peace. And I think it clearly influences him by making him think that his instinct that America should have a leadership role in settling the peace is a correct one. Directly below the ad was a notice placed by the German Embassy. Travellers sailing in the war zone do so at their own risk. Christopher Capozzola, Historian: They were getting on the grandest ship of its day.

The cruise ship from the era of the Titanic. And they thought no civilized nation would attack such a ship. Narrator: What no one on board realized was how enmeshed in the war the Lusitania really was. The Germans saw the ship as part of a critical supply line supporting the British war effort. Richard Rubin, Writer: Part of American neutrality from the very beginning was that American companies were free to do business with any of the combatants, on paper.

Jay Winter, Historian: Neutrality is almost always a fiction. In this case, the fiction was that the United States was neutral in word and deed. The United States tilted towards the allies from the very beginning. Narrator: When war broke out, the U. A typical British division of 18, soldiers required a staggering nine million pounds of ammunition, fodder and food each month. There was a seemingly bottomless market for barrels of beef, tons of iron and steel, bushels of oats and wheat.

American companies also sold Britain and France massive quantities of bullets, artillery shells, and high explosives. The Germans desperately wanted to sink ships transporting these supplies. But since their Navy was no match for the British on the high seas, their only solution was to attack from under the surface. Western navies were unprepared to deal with it. They had no idea how to counter submarine warfare. It was unknown, it was unseen.

You never knew where an attack was going to come from. And it terrified people. Narrator: German submarines were technological wonders that were transforming the nature of warfare. The captain and crew of the Lusitania dismissed fears of submarines, and encouraged passengers to enjoy the elegant amenities on board the foot luxury liner.

From intercepted communications, the British knew the German submarine U was lurking in the path of the Lusitania. Yet they chose not to send destroyers out to meet the ship and escort it into Liverpool. Within the halls of the British Admiralty, some argued that if the Lusitania was lost, it might precipitate American entry into the war. Edward A. Right from the beginning there is a sense of, we need you here. Your shipping is [not] going to be enough, we are your brethren, you must support us.

The explosion ripped a huge gash in the Lusitania. It took only 18 minutes for the leviathan to slide beneath the waves. For months after the Lusitania went down, dead bodies washed ashore. Hundreds of others were pulled lifeless from the Irish Sea, their corpses stacked on the docks.

Many of the casualties could not be identified, and were buried in mass graves. In all, 1, men, women, and children were lost. John M. Cooper, Historian: What the Lusitania did was to bring the war home to Americans. Up to that time it was this awful thing that was happening to other people far away. Now the war had reached out and touched us. The American media had been covering the war for months and months now. We knew what it was like. Americans had been imagining their sons at the battlefront.

How do we maintain a position of neutrality? Christopher Capozzola, Historian: The Lusitania sinking creates a crisis within the Wilson administration, in part because it reveals that this public and official face of neutrality was actually no such thing. Narrator: Germany argued that the speed with which the Lusitania was sent to the bottom was proof that it was loaded with tons of ammunition for the Allies. Scott Berg, Writer: The Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan, who was a great pacifist, he said the one thing I want to know is, were there in fact arms on that ship?

And the truth of the matter is, there were arms on that ship. Adriane Lentz-Smith, Historian: Actually from the German side, not an irrational or indefensible act. In some ways you have these two visions of what is a legitimate act of violence, just sort of colliding and not being able to reconcile themselves. Jay Winter, Historian: How far can you tolerate the deaths of American citizens is a very legitimate question today, as it was a hundred years ago. And I think being the man who protects American lives on the one hand and on the other hand protecting American lives by not going into war, presented [Wilson] with a very difficult high wire act.

In protest, William Jennings Bryan resigned. The German government pledged to put limits on their submarine warfare. Alan Axelrod, Writer: For those who were strong advocates of neutrality it was too stern and for others such as Teddy Roosevelt, it was an ignominious, cowardly kind of weasely way out of avoiding a fight. And the Lusitania opens up that debate. What should we do about this? There is such a thing as a nation being so right that it does not need to convince others by force that it is right.

Voice: Edith Wharton: Since leaving Paris yesterday we have passed through streets and streets of such murdered houses, through town after town spread out in its last writhings. At worst they are like stone-yards, at best like Pompeii. But Ypres has been bombarded to death, and the outer walls of its houses are still standing, so that it presents the distant semblance of a living city, while near by it seems to be a disemboweled corpse. Every window-pane is smashed, nearly every building unroofed, and some house-fronts are sliced clean off, with the different stories exposed, as if for the stage-setting of a farce.

Michael Neiberg, Historian: Edith Wharton is symbolic of a lot of Americans who are living in France, already had a deep passion and interest in France, a deep love of France. Narrator: At the outset of the war, Wharton had organized a series of American hostels to shelter the wave of dislocated families pouring into Paris. In little more than a year, her relief organization had provided clothing and jobs for more than 9, refugees and served nearly a quarter of a million meals. She also begged Americans at home to help finance her efforts. The hospitals in Dunkirk were struggling to absorb the casualties from artillery, but they were also confronting the effects of a shocking new weapon that had just been introduced.

Soon the unsuspecting men were writhing in agony, choking to death as chlorine gas burned their throat and lungs. In a panic, the survivors abandoned their positions. More than a thousand soldiers were killed, most of them slowly drowning as their lungs filled with fluid. Helen Zoe Veit, Historian : World War I used a combination of really traditional fighting techniques with all these brand new technologies that turned traditional battle into slaughter or things like poisonous gas which seemed like this insidious and unpredictable new weapon that just killed indiscriminately, that had nothing to do with individuals fighting each other and that was really just about mass death.

Dan Carlin, Podcast Producer: Gas was something that was a new horror. And for people that already thought that the Germans were evil personified, it just played in to those sorts of attitudes. Richard Rubin, Writer: Gas in a way was as terrifying to people as the submarine. Gas could blind you, very quickly. It could make you cough up blood very quickly. It could break down your lungs very quickly. Dan Carlin, Podcast Producer: Eventually both sides would use gas. It would just be part of something that was a descent into 20th Century warfare.


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  6. And so gruesome. And truthfully to take things to a level that had never been seen before. No civilized race can remain neutral in feeling now. Andrew Carroll, Writer: Edith Wharton really wanted to create kind of a sympathetic character in the French people and in France itself and she was even accused by some of her fellow authors of being a propagandist.

    But she was writing in a way that I think she knew would have as powerful an effect as possible. I think she was changing the tide of how people viewed the war and whether America should at long last get involved. Dan Carlin, Podcast Producer: The way that German atrocities were played up in the media helped create a good guy-bad guy scenario.

    This is the idea of the Germans as Huns, as destroyers, as barbarians. Jay Winter, Historian: The moral depravity of German soldiers suggested a moral cause. It made it about the sons of light against the sons of darkness. It became a sacred bill of indictment against them for behavior of a kind that no one could justify. Morgan, Jr. In the ensuing struggle, the attacker was subdued, but not until he wounded Morgan twice in the thigh. The gunman turned out to be a former German teacher at Harvard, who had set off a bomb at the U.

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    Capitol the day before. Although no direct link to the German government was proven, the attack on Morgan appeared to be part of a larger effort by Germany to stop American support for the allies. Christopher Capozzola, Historian: If you sympathized with Germany then Morgan was your ultimate enemy. And because he was so powerful as an individual, it was actually possible to believe that assassinating him could actually stop the war. Narrator: As the conflict dragged on, the French and British had required larger and larger loans to keep themselves afloat.

    Morgan, a committed Anglophile, had been more than happy to oblige. He also served as a purchasing agent, helping to procure the millions of pounds of food and armaments the Allies required every month. President Wilson turned a blind eye to this financial lifeline to the Allies. Jay Winter, Historian: The war turned the United States into a creditor power, not a debtor power, for the first time in its history. Americans were working again, and nobody wanted to cut that off. Richard Rubin, Writer: Our economic support for the allies started out at the very beginning of the war and quickly became a vicious cycle.

    Because we could only sell to the allies, they became our main market. Because the allies could only buy from us, they quickly became indebted to us. And so it was in our best interest to send them more armaments so that they could win the war. Great Britain during the war spent fully half of its war budget in the United States of America.

    Narrator: The attack on J. Christopher Capozzola, Historian: German cultural life was everywhere. There were German churches, German language newspapers. German was the most commonly studied foreign language in American high schools. What we now call classical music was German music, Bach, Beethoven and Brahms played by symphonies, sung by ordinary people in choirs and in churches. They were particularly visible in certain parts of the country, particularly the Midwest, [and] they wielded enormous political power in some cities like St.

    Louis, Cincinnati, Milwaukee. Narrator: In response to what they saw as a hypocritical and blatantly one-sided neutrality policy, the National German-American Alliance — which boasted more than 2 million members and chapters in 44 states — held mass demonstrations calling for an arms embargo. In the first days of the war, the British had cut the transatlantic cables connecting America to the European continent. The only remaining cable was from London.

    Narrator: Increasingly frustrated by the one-sidedness of American neutrality, the German government began to fight back. They were shocked at what they found inside. The Germans were secretly supporting newspapers sympathetic to their side, paying corrupt union leaders to stage strikes, and setting up shadow companies to disrupt the munitions trade. They had even planned a coup in Mexico that would bring a pro-German strong-man to power.

    Soon, almost any accident or strange occurrence was attributed to Berlin. The mounting paranoia began to implicate German-Americans as well. Even the president took up the theme. Such creatures of passion, disloyalty, and anarchy must be crushed out. They are infinitely malignant, and the hand of our power should close over them at once.

    But if your loyalties are on the side of the Europeans, then we have a problem. Christopher Capozzola, Historian: This is a criticism of political radicals, anarchists and others. The island was a railroad yard and munitions depot where two million pounds of armaments, bound for the Allies, were being stored. The detonation shattered windows in downtown Manhattan, lodged shrapnel in the Statue of Liberty, and was heard as far away as Philadelphia.

    If it had been an earthquake, the blast would have measured 5. Voice: Victor Chapman: Dear Uncle: The state of filth I live in here is unbelievable, and the barest necessities are luxuries. I get down to the depot and kitchen about every two days for a face wash. Our heads get crusted with mud, — eyes and hair literally gluey with it. Narrator: After enlisting in the Foreign Legion, Victor Chapman had spent twelve months at the front. It was a long way from architecture school in Paris. Sanitation in the trenches was crude or non-existent. When it rained, the trenches became rivers of mud.

    The men yearned to test themselves in open battle — anything to interrupt the tedium, and the random visitation of death. All up and down the lines in the spring of , the great struggle that soldiers talked about was at Verdun. At that ancient fortress town the French had made a stand against a massive German offensive. The contest had descended into a sickening battle of attrition, grinding on, month after month, with no end in sight. Of course, to me it is a matter of great regret and I take it as a piece of hard luck. Bullard had been transferred to a new French unit that had seen heavy fighting, but he had never experienced anything like this.

    Voice: Eugene Bullard: Neither side knew where the lines were and there were no more trenches and everything was guesswork. In those hours every man at Verdun either got one more hole in him than he was born with or, if he was lucky, he ducked into a series of shallow shell holes as I did. Narrator: Bullard was manning a post with a machine gun as a mass of Germans came on.

    Voice: Eugene Bullard: It was like mowing grass. Every time the sergeant yelled, fire! I got sicker and sicker. And Bullard made a comment. He was surprised that anybody got out of it alive at all. Narrator: Bullard was wounded twice at Verdun. He would become one of the first Americans to receive the French military honor for exceptional bravery — the Croix De Guerre.

    Voice: Victor Chapman: Dear Papa: This flying is much too romantic to be real modern war with all its horrors.

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    There is something so unreal and fairy like about it, which ought to be told and described by Poets. Narrator: High above the blackened battlefield, Victor Chapman had escaped the trenches and found himself engaged in a new kind of war, one that had never been waged before. The planes were made of practically nothing. They would fall apart just almost you know at a whisper. But there was something very visceral about it, because you were in total control. You see the curve of the earth.

    You know humans had gone up in balloons before, but that was the extent of flight. This was really flying.