I agree with you in your thinking of crucifixions.. It was a good choice for you to make for your thesis, and thanks to minds like yours, more truths may be forthcoming. With that, I would like to purchase your thesis if it for sale. I a a fan of study and would love to read you work and enjoy the discovery of this subject.
Please contact me with how I can do this. That was a very interesting hypothesis. I guess you'll get a lot of feedback since it was featured on AOL today. I heard a similarly interesting theory about 40 years ago, and was wondering if you had ever run across it in your teachings. I should mention that I'm Jewish, and that my rabbi told this to our Sunday School class in the late sixties. It goes something like this:. Crucifixion was a form of punishment, but not always used to the point of execution.
When the Roman soldier pieced his abdomen, this was a primitive form of medicine, because it would be otherwise impossible to defecate in an upright position on a crucifix. Jesus was still alive but unconscious when removed from the cross. Medical science had not yet advanced to the point where breathing or blood circulation were indicators of life. As an aside, my wife had an uncle in the Philippines who was declared dead and then woke up in the middle of his funeral about 20 years ago.
As the rest of the theory goes, Jesus regained consciousness, recovered, and taught for many years after that. I applaud your courage to pursue and publish an unpopular hypothesis. Whether or not Jesus died on a cross or suffered a similar, torturous fate -- His death should not be not rendered meaningless. For Christians, the only reality that matters is that He died. I wish you well in your search for the real truth.
Thanks for your courtesy. I'm a year-old Baptist for the past 20 years. With your dissertation, you have made it matter even more to speak about the cross. As you well know, there are very many things that none of us will ever know with absolute certainty while on Earth; which is what I will tell her about your theory. Thank you for taking the time and effort to thoroughly research this matter. Your thesis is absolutely correct according to Scripture! Jesus did not die on a Roman crucifix and the Scripture tells us as much. But before confirming your thesis using Scripture, a Scriptural principle must be established using Scripture, of course.
How shall every matter in Scripture be established? In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every matter be established. This principle is so intertwined in Scripture as to be irrefutable. For example, how many dreams did Joseph have? Well, he had two Gen And how many dreams did Pharaoh have? He had two and Joseph tells us that the Lord will always give at least two witnesses if He is going to establish a matter Gen Deuteronomy picks up on t he subject when talking about putting someone to death Deut Paul mentions it in 2 Cor And where two or three are gathered in His name, there He is in the midst of them Math And when someone prophesies or gives a tongues in a local assembly, it shall be by two or three and then others will interpret 1Cor And what about the two witnesses in Revelation ?
Havilah [the region of sand], where there is gold; 12 And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the. Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Kas. And the fourth river is Euphrates. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. And he said unto the woman, naked 'arum , the man and his wife, and [knowing only good, 2. But the Nachash was more wise 'arum than any living being of the field which J ehovah Elohim had made, and [knowing evil, and not ashamed 2.
See note on 2. The Pallukat or Pison encircled the N. Indicated in Shur would be the E. Connected with Ophir in The modern Kerkhah, and ancient Khoaspes, rising in the mountains of the Kassi. Kas has been confused with the Heb, Cush. It is not the African Cush or Ethiopia, but the Accadian kas. Hashshur Asshur. This is not Assyria, but the city of Assur, the primitive capital of Assyria which lay E. Same Heb. Polyptoton Ap.
Here rightly marked by "freely". Toned down by Eve in ch. Note the three trees: "Knowledge" 2. See on " knowledge", v.
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Obedience proving what was "good" Deut. Polyptoton, for emph. J udg. See note on ch. Here marked by the word "surely", as in v. This certainty changed by Eve in 3. See ch. Heb 'ishah, fem, of 'ish Ap. The same spelling as word rendered "subtil" in 3. Nachash, a shining one. See note on Num. The old serpent 2 Cor.
Same as 2. If the Ellipsis Ap. Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat? Thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. God asks the serpent no question. There is no parley. Sentence at once pronounced. The words imply the utmost humiliation, as in Ps. The corruption of this in the Vulgate into "she" lies at the root of Mariolatry: the verb in sing.
Christ; see note on Gen No more literal than 1 Cor. They denote the temporary sufferings of the Seed, and the complete destruction of Satan and his works Heb.
This is the first great promise and prophecy. Note its position in the centre of Structure above. Preserved in word "greatly ". The Nachash: procuring mans death, in Adam. The Tree of knowledge. Partaking of it. Effect on both: the man and the woman. Human provision: man-made aprons. Gods enquiry of the man.
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Gods enquiry of the woman. Sentence on the Nachash. Promise of the Seed. Gods sentence on the woman. Gods sentence on the man. Divine provision: God-made coats. The Tree of Life. Expulsion from it. The Cherubim: Preserving mans life, in Christ. Not allegory: but literal history, emphasized by Figures of Speech. Not a Q. Opposition to God's Word is Satan's sphere of activity.
This is Satan's first utterance in Scripture. Misquoted from 2. This sentence is added. There is another word in this verse we need to consider, and it is the word "touch". God's command to Eve was; "neither shall ye touch it. The fruit of that tree was not to be taken; and we know that the "fruit" as the results of a sexual relationship between any man and woman is a child.
God's command was that Eve "not touch lay with Satan. Contradiction of God's Word in 2. This has become the foundation of Spiritism and Traditional belief as to death. This is the foundation of Satan's second lie: "The immanence of God in man. See 1 Tim. Therefore Adam present. Metonymy of Subj.
They knew before, but their knowledge now received a new meaning. Adam becomes "naked" by losing something of Elohim's glorious likeness. The man-made covering contrasted, in the structure, with the God-made clothing v. No "quest for God" in fallen man. Luke The 1st Q.
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Characteristic of fallen man J ob Thou gavest. Implying blame to Jehovah as well as to his wife. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the. Eve; because she was the mother of all who should live after her. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground. And the LORD had. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell. Antimetabole Ap. Erotesis for emph.
Childbearing was not brought into this for eating an apple. Nature affected. The sign of the curse. It was a crown of Thorns that drew the first blood from our Lord. Not the fruit of Paradise. Synecdoche of Part. Synecdoche of Species. This is literal. Note the emph. Showing that he believed God. The name "Eve" occ. Synecdoche of Genus. Omitted in the Codex "Severus" See Ap. Asterismos Ap.
Note the failure of man under every dispensation. Heb shakan, to place in a tabernacle, hence to dwell. The Cherubim placed later in the tents of Shem, 9. See note on Gen. Luke 2. The time as well as place and offering probably appointed. The product of the curse. Most religious, but his own "way" J ude 11 ; but not first-fruits as Abel's.
Heb, minchah. Note, the sacrifices both brought to J ehovah as the covenant God; not to Elohim, the Creator. Hendiadys, Ap. Nod, on the east of Eden. J ubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and pans pipe. Tubal-cain, an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubal- cain was Naamah. Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: I can kill a man for wounding me, And a young man for hurting me.
Accent Pashta puts the emphasis on the 1 st "well" and on this 2 nd "if", to mark the solemn and Important alternative. The word "offering" is actually added in Ex. Lieth is mase. Sin offering is fem. So that the Heb. Supply "is" instead. What Cain said is preserved in the Sam. Strength put for that which it produces. This is emphasized by the Heb. See also Ex. Cain's posterity vv. This seed was begotten after the slaying of Abel. A city has been discovered beneath the brick platform on which Nipur, in South Babylonia, was built.
This verse shows there were people on earth other than Adams children, or Cain married his full sister. The first polygamist. Supplied here by the italics. The well-known "Pan's pipe". Refers to Gen. Lamech was in greater danger than Adam.
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Adam had only one wife, Lamech had two. Hear my voice, emph. May be rendered thus: "I can kill a man for wounding me, And a young man for hurting me. Supply Ellipsis Ap. Sheth Seth. Sheth appointed. Metonymy of Cause. See notes on next page. Seth: "For God, said she, hath appointed me another son instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.
Enos: then began men [profanely] to call upon the name of the LORD. Enos: 7 And Seth lived after he begat Enos eight hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters: 8 And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years: and he died. Cainan: 10 And Enos lived after he begat Cainan eight hundred and fifteen years, and begat sons and daughters: 11 And all the days of Enos were nine hundred and five years: and he died. Mahalaleel: 13 And Cainan lived after he begat Mahalaleel eight hundred and forty years, and begat sons and daughters: 14 And all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and ten years: and he died.
J ared: 16 And Mahalaleel lived after he begat J ared eight hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters: 17 And all the days of Mahalaleel were eight hundred ninety and five years: and he died. Enoch: 19 And J ared lived after he begat Enoch eight hundred years, and begat sons and daughters: 20 And all the days of J ared were nine hundred sixty and two years: and he died. Methuselah: 22 And Enoch walked to and fro with God after he begat Methuselah three hundred years, and begat sons and daughters: 23 And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years: 24 And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him [without dying].
Not began to worship: for Abel worshipped, and others, doubtless, long before. But here : "began to call upon [their gods] by the name of J ehovah," or "began profanely to call upon the name of the Lord" see Ap. Enos, though the son of Seth, is included here because he went in "the way of Cain". Unfallen Adam : a son of God Luke 3: Fallen Adam, and his years. The total , and the first The progeny of Adam, and their deaths. Noah, and his promise of comfort.
The fallen angels: sons of God see Ap. Total , and the last The progeny of the fallen angels, and their threatened destruction. The Nephilim Ap. Noah, and his possession of grace. Only here and Matt. In the day. Adam and Eve, going back to 1. Adamcreated in God's likeness. All his descendants begotten in Adam's likeness, after his Fall. See Ps. Refers back to 4. None of these particulars are given of Cain's line. Not even of their deaths.
If Adambegat after Seth, so doubtless others after Cain and Abel. See 4. See Heb. Translated without dying : as Elijah was, 2 Kings 2. Enoch was "the seventh from Adam" J ude He prophesied "by faith". Therefore Divinely instructed, Rom. See 6. Hendiadys Ap. J ehovah. Lamech: 26 And Methuselah lived after he begat Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, and begat sons and daughters: 27 And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years: and he died.
Noah, saying, "This same shall give us rest from our works and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the LORD hath cursed. Shem, Ham, and J apheth. God [the Creator ] said unto Noah, "The end of all flesh is come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. J ehovah in ch. So in Ex. Heh kaphar, to cover: the only word for "atonement" in O. So that it is only atonement that can keep the waters of judgment fromus. The latest approximation gives But this is the "profane" cubit. The sacred cubit was probably about 25 inches.
See chronology of Patriarchs. Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Named in inverted order. J apheth was the elder Not "men"; if so, as well aswhat? Adam had become like the others. The B. There was another irruption, the result being like those "of old". See notes on The "heroes" of the Greek mythology. The remains of primitive truth, corrupted in transmission. Very emphatic. Noah before the flood. Noahs Family. The Earth corrupt.
The making of the Ark. Noah entering the Ark. Noah leaving the Ark. The building of the Altar. The Earth replenished. Noahs family. Noah after the Flood. All flesh corrupted but Noah's family. See vv. See note on 7. Same as ch. See 9. See note on 5. Noah's family the only exception. The Fig. Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he. Limited to this account of the Deluge, and Ps. The Babylonian tablets of the Epic of Gilgames are the traditional accounts of primitive truths, corrupted in transmission.
The inspired account here corrects the imaginary accretions which had gathered round it. Synecdoche of part , put here for every kind of being. First occurrence of the word. Note the Polysyndeton Ap. For preservation of species. In contrast with the "seven" 7. Hence here it is Elohim vv. See note on 6. Metonymy of subject. For sacrifice Lev. For propagation. The number of spiritual perfection Ap. All the Flood dates are Sabbaths except one 8. The number of probation Ap. Not challon, a small aperture 8. Here "floodgates".
Only here, and 8. And all flesh ceased to breathe that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man: 22 All in whose nostrils was the.
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Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark. The Flood universal. Epizeuxis greatly greatly. Many other examples in this narrative to emph. Heaps of animals and birds found together, mostly on hills. Bones not gnawed or exposed to the weather. There is also a breakand a fresh beginningin Egyptian monuments. See 1 Pet. Saturday, the Sabbath Day. The only day named that is not a Sabbath. Same as J osh. Another Sabbath, 18th day of 11th month. Saturday, 25th day of 11th month.
Six such important dates in Bible : 1 Here, the drying up of the waters 8. Completing one solar year from 7. Elohim, the Creator, speaking from without. But in ch. Elohim, speaking from without. The first mentioned in Scripture. Go forth of the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee. Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth.
Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things. Heh 'oldh. Gods covenant with the earth. Fruitfulness committed to man. Power committed to man. Change in Ordinance nourishment. Change in Ordinance punishment. Gods covenant with Noah. First occ. Anthropopatheia, in condescension, and for emphasis. J ehovah's covenant with Noah was unconditional in connection with the earth; as with Abraham, to give him the land ch. Eight things named in 4 pairs of opposites. Fig Synonymia. Epanadiplosis Ap.
Same word in Heb. Plural of Heb. Prosopopoeia Ap. Epizeuxis, for emphasis. Mentioned seven times in vv. So rendered in 1. Not then first seen as a phenomenon, but then first assigned as a token. See v. This expression occurs thirteen times in O. J apheth [the eldest]: and unto them were sons born after the flood. Phut, and Canaan. Mark Luke 3. Mark ll. See also Lev. See notes on 5. Paronomasia Ap. Yapht le-yephth. Gentiles to be blessed in Shem. The Eunuch Ham Acts 8. Saul Shem Acts 9. Cornelius J apheth Acts See note on The Nations divided in the Earth.
The Nations scattered abroad on the Earth. Hysterologia Ap. J apheth. The sons of J apheth. The sons of Ham. The sons of Shem. Note the Asyndeton Ap. This order in 5. Japheth, the eldest, 1 Chron. Ham, second, Gen. Shem, the youngest. Last here in Introversion because his history is to be continued. For these fourfold divisions cp. In Rev. The same divisions seen in Israel. In Gen. One Matsor was country of the Delta within the great wall of defence called "Shur"; the other was Egypt proper. See notes on Isa. Phut: cp. Canaan became a province of Egypt, as shown by the Tel el-Amarna tablets.
He may, therefore, have wished them to know of his doctrine before his arrival, especially as they had perhaps heard some false reports of it. In Galatians man is justified by believing, in Romans God gives his own righteousness to the believer for his justification. The Church at Rome. It was doubtless in a very prosperous condition the time of Paul's writing. It was perhaps organized by some Jews heard and believed while at Jerusalem, probably on the day of Pentecost.
While its membership included both Jews and Gentiles 13; , it was regarded by Paul as especially a Gentile church 7; Paul's Connection With the Church. He had never been there up to this time , 13, 15 and it is not likely that any other apostles had been there. For then Paul would have not have been planning to go since his rule was not to go where another had worked ; 2 Cor. This strikes a heavy blow at Catholicism, claiming that Peter was first bishop of Rome. If Paul would not have followed him, then Peter had not been there, and the most important test of papacy is overthrown.
Paul had, however, many intimate friends and acquaintances at Rome, many of whom were mentioned in chapter Among them were his old friends, Aquila and Priscilia. The Argument of the Book. The doctrines of the book are considered and discussed under four main propositions: 1 All men are guilty before God Jews and Gentiles alike.
The gift of the righteousness of God as our justification which is received through faith in Christ, or justification by faith. The believer's final redemption is thus guaranteed. For Study and Discussion. What does it reveal about, a The call, duty and standing of an apostle or preacher? Do we get more in Christ than we lost in Adam? Power, sin and unrighteousness, righteousness, justification, faith and belief, atonement, redemption, adoption, propitiation, election, predestination.
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