From the Authors
You may wish to substitute something you have created, found, or a music special. There is no specific theme in these sketches, as I desire for you to have flexibility in your programming.
These are not given in any specific order, you may arrange them in your program as you desire. Read more Read less. Product description Product Description These are designed for small casts — 1 to 5 people and can be used individually as part of something you have created or can be used as an entire unit. Not Enabled. He had a huge statue of himself erected near the palace.
And now, if a traveler should pass through that part of the world, he would find almost nothing to remind him of the once mighty Ozymandias. All the buildings and monuments have been swept away and the once awesome statue is smashed. The remaining bits are almost buried in the sand.
Shelley says:. Round the decay Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare The lone and level sands stretch far away. In their primes, they may appear to be almost immortal. Yet, once they are gone, their influence wanes. Eventually they are forgotten. How the mighty can sometimes fall into paradoxical oblivion!
And something like this can happen with philosophers, too. In his prime, a great figure in philosophy may have power and glory and a named chair and droves of adoring and terrified followers. Special issues may be devoted to his thoughts. Dissertations may be written in which the trembling authors attempt to explore the question whether the great one was influenced by Schleiermacher, or whether Schleiermacher was influenced by him. Or whether perhaps he and Schleiermacher were both influenced by the later Webelweiss. Students heatedly discuss even the most trivial details of the great one's personal life.
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Did he once have dinner with Dewey? On which side does he butter his toast? New heroes emerge. Books are sold off at tag sales. Course descriptions are rewritten.
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The great one, like Ozymandias, is forgotten in the sands of time. The natural approach to this question is through his works. Just as one might have thought that Ozymandias would be remembered by the great stone monuments he erected, so one might think that Chisholm will be remembered by the great paper monuments he erected. What are these monuments, and how likely is it that they will remain upright? Let us consider some of these works.
Banquets in Castles
His first book was Perceiving, which was written in the mid-fifties, before Gettier had set pen to paper napkin. But our question is whether there will be any such people. In that work, Chisholm gave a balanced exposition of various views concerning the objects of perception, the foundations of knowledge, the possibility of a priori knowledge, the analysis of the concept of knowledge, and several other central questions. The book has gone through many editions and an extraordinary number of printings.
It is a classic. A critic might say that some of the issues and doctrines discussed in that book are beginning to lose some of their luster. Thus, for example, you will not find any mention of epistemic internalism and externalism, nor a discussion of contextualist theories of knowledge. Some of us think of Chisholm primarily as a metaphysician.
He wrote dozens of papers and several books in metaphysics. In these works Chisholm persistently Chisholmed away at a collection of metaphysical issues: the nature of the person, the possibility of any sort of meaningful metaphysical freedom, the nature of the psychological, problems of intentionality, the existence and nature of properties, propositions, and other abstract objects, identity through time, mereological essentialism, the analysis of the counterfactual conditional.
These are important works that deserve to be studied by any serious metaphysician. Some great philosophers consistently maintained certain distinctive views. But Chisholm is a moving target. He steadily refined and revised his views. Sometimes he came to adopt perhaps tentatively a view that he had previously rejected.
For example, what shall we say about the view that the self is a microscopic physical object located somewhere in the innards of the brain? In some places he seems to defend this view. But in other places he seems to reject it in favor of a more soulful alternative. Rather, at different times he has defended different views.
Similar things happened with respect to a number of other central metaphysical doctrines. So, though Chisholm wrote important works in metaphysics, it is possible that the time will come when those works are no longer viewed in quite the way they were viewed around the time of their publication. Perhaps they will come to be thought of primarily as expressions of views tentatively and temporarily held. He wrote quite a few important papers and edited a book in ethics.
However, he wrote only one real book — Brentano and Intrinsic Value — that is centrally in ethics. I think BIV is a great book. A person could construct a pleasant-enough career mainly by commenting upon, criticizing, and expanding the views and arguments expressed there. Come to think of it, I believe I know someone who has done approximately that.
But the book has an odd feature: throughout Chisholm keeps himself in the background. He persists in telling us what Brentano thought, or might have thought, about various issues in ethics and metaethics. So though Chisholm made valuable contributions to ethics, future historians of philosophy may debate whether he deserves a prominent place in the history of philosophy primarily in virtue of the original doctrines he defended in moral philosophy. We of course think of Chisholm primarily as a philosopher, he was at the same time quite an accomplished amateur artist.
His best known works are drawings, some of which have been displayed and published. The drawing is impressive and moving in its own right, and is fully deserving of our admiring contemplation. Let us therefore take a moment to admiringly contemplate it. I think that reflection on some of the history behind the drawing may also be enlightening in other ways. Let us see what insight we may glean. On the advice of John Dewey, Dr. Barnes had originally invited Bertrand Russell to be the philosopher in residence at the Barnes Foundation.
After a very short period, Barnes and Russell came into conflict and Russell was fired. Barnes asked Dewey if Chisholm would be a satisfactory replacement for Russell. Dewey then interviewed Chisholm. Dewey began the interview by asking Chisholm whether he agrees with Dewey's view that art is experience. Chisholm expresses bewilderment. Dewey then asked what Chisholm thought about the idea knowledge is freedom? Perhaps it was a banquet requiring black ties and tuxedos for the men and gowns for the women. But everyone loves a feast.
In the US the most popular holiday of the year is Thanksgiving, a veritable banquet in many homes. We read that it was an event initiated by the Pilgrims to thank God and the Indians that they were still alive. Tradition has it the feast included, among other items, wild turkey, pumpkin and corn. The women were of course cooking and doing most of the work. Coupled with this folk history is the fact that today in the US Thanksgiving is the busiest travel day of the year, a family affair with a large feast involved.
Growing up on a farm in Northeast Pennsylvania, Thanksgiving was an event where relatives got together and feasted. But should we classify it as a banquet? A banquet includes feasting and it may also honor some individual, so there is a program as well. Let me give you another example of a banquet that took place in Oklahoma. In my wife and I were asked to represent Wycliffe at a ceremony in Oklahoma City that honored several inductees into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame. The occasion took place in a large convention center and was attended by over people.
We were told what to wear, what time to arrive at the function, where to sit and how to meet our friend after the ceremonies. Banquets are like that—there is no room or food for imposters. Suppose that we wanted to wear T-shirts, jeans and running shoes—would we have been left in? No, because there is a protocol for banquets. Consider now two banquet scenes from the Gospels—one from Matthew 22 and the other from Luke In both cases Jesus was using a banquet story to make the point that not everyone who is invited into the Kingdom of God and its banquet will get to taste the food.
Matthew relates the story in Chapter 22 of his Gospel and it is one of many attempts by Jesus to help his disciples understand what the Kingdom of heaven is like. In both instances Jesus tells the story in relation to a discussion with the Scribes and Pharisees. In Matthew the story follows one about the tenants who were to keep watch over a vineyard while the landowner went on a trip. But the tenants are unscrupulous and beat up the servants who had been sent by the owner to collect his profit.
And Jesus makes it plain that God is the owner of the vineyard and the religious leaders are treating him cruelly. He had told them to humble themselves, sit in the worst place and, further more, he told the host to invite people who could not pay back his hospitality—like the poor, the crippled, the lame and the blind. From the banquet story that followed, it seems clear that the Pharisees did not get the point. This was not unusual. Often the hearers—Pharisees, religious leaders, even the disciples—did not understand what the Kingdom of God was about.
Jesus once compared it with old and new wineskins Mk. He also compares the Kingdom of God in leaven with leaven in bread Mk. In the account in Matthew, a king had a banquet prepared to honor his son.
Two New Testament Banquet Stories
Such feasts were a way of showing how proud the father was of his son and introducing him to those who would perhaps some day be his subjects. Preparing a feast is an elaborate affair: food, wine, tables, and servants were involved and it took some time for it to be ready. There were many important people invited to the banquet. Once everything was in place, the servants were sent out to tell the invited guests that it was time to come and join the king and his son.
However, the invited guests did not respond; instead they continued with their businesses, farms, and their stores. Focus for a minute on the excuses and convert them into some of you own: instead of a place of worship, the church has made the banquet into a business: an on-line store, with a shopping cart, a book store, a school, a business; instead of oxen we have cars—we visited a church once where the walls in the halls and some of the offices were lined with pictures of antique cars. Not works of art from the masters, but antique cars.
We can now drive to the banquet; not farms now, but our entertainment; not work, but leisure and retirement. Sports fans will wait all night for the ticket windows to open the next day, although they would find it hard to sit for an hour in church. In fact, some of the invited guests were so mad they were interrupted from their activities that they grabbed the servants, beat them up and killed them.