Follow the performance with a post-concert party that includes a glass of champagne, a live performance and dancing all the way to the midnight countdown and beyond!
ORG 1 1. Johann Sebastian is the mighty trunk, where every single growth ring — like the robust flute, violin and harpsichord — is perfectly balanced and aligned. This duo has a proven partnership, having recorded much-lauded albums together on Sony Classical and Decca Classics. Pianist Jonathan Biss asked young New Yorker Caroline Shaw to compose a concerto as a response to Beethoven, an endeavor that calls for a healthy balance of sanctity and whimsy. The lighthearted program mixes Italian Baroque arias with jazz ballads and songs from the Great American Songbook, and features a versatile ensemble of piano, drums, bass and trumpet seamlessly connecting the improvisational spirit of Baroque ornamentation with the free-spirited charm of American popular music.
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In his Symphony No. Ludovic Morlot, conductor Jocelyn B. The Seattle Symphony, in contrast, has enthusiastically embraced its role as a catalyst for change. No British composer cast his sights further than Holst with his rich-hued, mystical view of The Planets. Seattle Symphony Chorale. This program is generously underwritten by The Nesholm Family Foundation. Fong Music Directors Fund.
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Benjamin Britten : Piano Concerto, Op. Felix Mendelssohn : Octet 1st mvt, arranged for string orchestra. Benjamin Britten: Les Illuminations, Op. Josef Haydn : Symphony No. Tchaikovsky : Symphony No. Athens : Berceuse Mystique Mystical Lullaby world premiere with conmposer conducting. Peter Fahey : Through and Through, a fairy tale for female voice and ensemble with Judith Kellock world premiere. Jesse Jones : Threshold with Zach Finkelstein world premiere. Pavel Haas : String Quarter No. Cornell Symphony Orchestra each movement conducted by participants of the conducting masterclass with Larry Rachleff.
Beethoven: Symphony No. Athens and Chris Younghoon Kim world premiere. Robert Schumann : String Quartet No. Beethoven : Piano Concerto No. Part of the Cornell Concert Series. Among recordings from the s, it is common to hear the opening bars of the G minor Sonata as notated in Ex. The citation is from pp. In other words, Bach notates the ideal length of notes, but in practice these may not sound for their full value.
Editors sometimes indicate the sounding value making the score look cluttered. Proper interpretation depends on analysis of the context and developing suitable bowing techniques, which may be assisted by an awareness of the characteristics of various baroque bows. Its weight distribution naturally distinguishes between up-stroke and down-stroke, highlighting the metrical divisions of bars and other units. Its shorter length makes legato playing of extended sections impractical; its peculiar characteristic of sounding louder in the middle makes dynamic nuances easy to produce.
The basic difference between an early and a modern bow-stroke can be clearly seen in the spectral view of sound files. The contrast between the typically even and sustained stroke of Menuhin Fig. Note also the limited use of vibrato e.
What is perhaps less well known is that already during the baroque there existed a difference between the short French bowing style and longer Italian style that was more suitable for melodic or cantabile interpretation. It is hard to know for sure towards which style Bach was inclined. Although the French orchestral style was much admired at the time, Italian virtuosos were also in high demand at German courts where Bach was employed while composing the pieces. Considering the differences between bow types should also be related to differences among the national aesthetic ideals.
Although French, Italian and German baroque sources all drew analogies between music and speech, there are fundamental differences between what they actually meant — mostly because the specific focus of attention differed from country to country. For the Italians a singing melody was paramount. The French refined the art of distinguishing between long and short syllables. The Germans favoured a more general approach that emphasized rhetorical expression based on minute differences between stressed and unstressed notes, as associated with poetic metre and achieved through the subtle differences between up- and down-strokes.
Although sustained legato playing is common on Bach recordings from the ss, these present a greater variety of bow strokes, especially in the dance movements, than those from the s to s period.
Heifetz and Szigeti , for instance, produce seamless legatos for particular phrases, yet they also play closely articulated groups, utilize light staccato, marcato, thrown bow-strokes; 35 Melkus: Gedanken zur Interpretationsgeschichte pp. Apart from Grumiaux, and to a lesser extent Szeryng, violinists of the next generation and beyond tend to have a more uniform approach to bowing. The exaggerated articulation of the smallest units, too many stresses and too much dynamic nuancing can quickly lead to mannerism; tone quality suffers and the flow of the music is disturbed as can be observed in certain movements on the recordings of van Deal, Wallfisch and Huggett, among others.
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The messa di voce is an expressive device; it is better to use it only selectively. The perception of structure and harmonic implications in movements like the Preludio of the E Major Partita or the Allegro Assai of the C Major Sonata can also be much enhanced when the hidden or implied polyphony is brought to the fore through rhythmical stress, rubato and a feeling of improvisation38 compare, for instance Mintz with Zehetmair in the Allegro assai or Sarasate or Ehnes with Podger in the Preludio.
The baroque violin and bow allows for the exploitation of low positions and the use of the sonorous open gut strings. Players can easily skip strings because they use the middle of the bow much more than 37 Szigeti: Szigeti on the Violin, p. Journal of the Violin Society of America 3 , pp. These period techniques as well as the judicious use of rhythmic flexibility and metric stresses contribute substantially to the vitality of rhythm, clarity of harmonic-polyphonic detail and variety of musical character witnessed on recordings of Luca, Zehetmair, Tetzlaff, Huggett, van Deal, Wallfisch, Podger and Szenthelyi.
Portato-bowing, terraced dynamics and long-range crescendos and diminuendos create an essentially different effect: more even tone, projection of large-scale structure, authoritative command of intonation, and a generally homogenous delivery of the various movement types e. Dance Movements The above already implies that bowing plays a crucial part in projecting the character of the dance movements. Here it needs to be informed by an awareness of the historical meaning of time signatures and their significance for the distribution of metric stresses within the bar. Apart from Zehetmair, only historically informed violinists perform a loure.
Even Tetzlaff plays it slow and lyrical, although with perceptible pulse. Others, in particular Hahn, Suk, Milstein, Szigeti, Enesco and Menuhin play the movement either too slowly, or too legato, with little sense of metre and focusing on the melody. There is no emphasis of the characteristic rhythmic groups; in fact accents are often misplaced due to a trill or double stop. Expanded edition. Heifetz, Zehetmair, Tetzlaff, Wallfisch, etc.
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In the latter case the pairs of quavers are sometimes rendered with a long—short lilt or dotting Tetzlaff, Podger, van Dael, Kuijken. The Sarabanda of the D minor Partita also warrants a few words. The saraband is a slow, stately dance in triple metre with an accent on the second beat. Recordings from the first half of the century play it legato, in a sustained style, rhythmically even and literal.
Without wanting to deprecate the significance of tempo in musical performance, it seems important to stress that the emphasis researchers have put on the issue of tempo is not always warranted. First of all, there are the statements of Harnoncourt and Schroeder which claim that more clearly articulated music often sounds faster than an under-articulated one.
Then there is the growing evidence that, contrary to general assumptions promoted by certain publications,43 performance tempo has not changed as radically as other aspects of the interpretative vocabulary. Stevens, D. Burnham, G. McPherson, E. Schubert, J. Renwick Eds. Although the tempi are obviously varied, more recently issued versions are not necessarily faster than earlier ones and most fit within a standard range of tempi. Broadly speaking, tempo choice seems to fluctuate more in the Partitas, especially in terms of degree.
What is also noteworthy is that apart from the extremes, overall trends seem to be similar in earlier and more recent times e. The Giga of the same work is also taken slower by current players cf. Finally, when one compares performances on period instruments with other interpretations the picture remains fairly mixed: in some cases the former are faster than the latter, in others it is the other way round, and quite often there is no difference.
In the Sonatas there is a trend for historically informed violinists to play the fugues and final movements slower whilst the opening movements faster than other violinists. A negative number means a tempo that is slower than standard. Tempo can, of course, be approached from the point of view of flexibility. How steady it is in certain interpretations or how much it fluctuates and when or for what purpose in others? During the last ten years or so researchers of musical performance have experimented with various techniques to account for tempo flexibilities.
A preliminary overview indicates that fast and fugue movements have a steadier tempo than dance and slow movements.