Are you looking forward to touring the show? What do you hope audiences will take from the piece? What message or effects are you hoping to convey? In the tour was short so I always felt I needed to take it around more.
We had a very successful run at the Edinburgh Fringe this year and that confirmed to me that the piece is important. Having taken Border Tales to Edinburgh Fringe Festival and toured the show in the autumn last year, we are really looking forward to start again in spring, visiting UK and international venues. For more information and tickets click here. Home News April 10 Minutes with Luca Silves….
For all media enquiries please visit our Press Office. Back to Top. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of what is today Pakistan and evolved into the Indo-Aryan civilization; the Vedic civilisation flourished along the length of the Indus River. This civilization shaped subsequent cultures in South Afghanistan. Although the archaeological site at Harappa was damaged in when engineers constructing the Lahore-Multan railroad used brick from the Harappa ruins for track ballast , an abundance of artefacts have been found.
Punjab was part of the great ancient empires including the Gandhara Mahajanapadas , Macedonians , Kushans and Hin.
Country A country is a region, identified as a distinct entity in political geography. A country may be an independent sovereign state or part of a larger state, as a non-sovereign or sovereign political division, or a geographic region associated with sets of independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics. Regardless of the physical geography, in the modern internationally accepted legal definition as defined by the League of Nations in and reaffirmed by the United Nations in , a resident of a country is subject to the independent exercise of legal jurisdiction.
There is no fast definition of what regions are countries and which are not. Countries can refer both to sovereign states and to other political entities, while other times it can refer only to states. For example, the CIA World Factbook uses the word in its "Country name" field to refer to "a wide variety of dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, other entities in addition to the traditional countries or independent states".
It most entered the English language after the Franco-Norman invasion during the 11th century. In English the word has become associated with political divisions, so that one sense, associated with the indefinite article — "a country" — through misuse and subsequent conflation is now a synonym for state, or a former sovereign state, in the sense of sovereign territory or "district, native land".
Areas much smaller than a political state may be called by names such as the West Country in England , the Black Country , " Constable Country ", the "big country", "coal country" and many other terms; the equivalent terms in French and other Romance languages have not carried the process of being identified with political sovereign states as far as the English "country", instead derived from, which designated the territory controlled by a medieval count, a title granted by the Roman Church.
France has many "pays" that are recognised at some level, are either natural regions, like the Pays de Bray , or reflect old political or economic entities, like the Pays de la Loire.
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The term "country" can refer to a sovereign state. There is no universal agreement on the number of "countries" in the world since a number of states have disputed sovereignty status. There are sovereign states , of which states are members of the United Nations, two states have observer status at the U. All are defined as states by declarative theory of constitutive theory of statehood. The latest proclaimed state is South Sudan in The degree of autonomy of non-sovereign countries varies widely; some are possessions of sovereign states, as several states have overseas territories, with citizenry at times identical and at times distinct from their own.
Such territories, with the exception of distinct dependent territories, are listed together with sovereign states on lists of countries, but may nonetheless be treated as a separate "country of origin" in international trade, as Hong Kong is; the Kingdom of Denmark , a sovereign state, comprises Denmark proper and two autonomous countries—the Faroe Islands , Greenland—which are autonomous. Although not sovereign states, England and Wales are countries and Northern Ireland is a province, which collectively form the United Kingdom—a sovereign state, commonly referred to as a country; the United Kingdom is a Union of four separate countries brought about by a series of international treaties and legislated for by several Acts of Union.
These include the Acts of Union in both the English and Scottish parliaments, although by England and Wales had united. While a political Union was created and England retained distinct churches, legal systems and education systems, as a result, the issue of sovereignty is different in the two countries: in Scotland sovereignty lies with the people, whereas in England sovereignty lies with Parliament and the Monarch. Lord President stated that "the principle of the unlimited sovereignty of Parliament is a distinctively English principle which has no counterpart in Scottish Constitutional Law ", that legislation contrary to the Act of Union would not be regarded as constitutionally valid; the Crown Dependencies , which are each internally self-governing but in a relationship of suzerainty with the United Kingdom, are sometimes referred to as countries.
City network Constituent state List of sovere. Agriculture Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities; the history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least , years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11, years ago.
Pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10, years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first. Modern agronomy , plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, technological developments have increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage.
Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers , antibiotic resistance, growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are used, although some are banned in certain countries; the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Food classes include cereals, fruits, meat, milk and eggs. While agriculture refers to human activities, certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle cultivate crops. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops, their related services".
Thus defined, it includes arable farming, animal husbandry and forestry , but horticulture and forestry are in practice excluded. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, included a diverse range of taxa , in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Wild grains were eaten from at least , years ago. From around 11, years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat , hulled barley , lentils , bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant.
Rice was domesticated in China between 11, and 6, BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5, BC, followed by mung and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11, years ago. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10, years ago. Pig production emerged in Eurasia , including Europe , East Asia and Southwest Asia , where wild boar were first domesticated about 10, years ago.
In the Andes of South America , the potato was domesticated between 10, and 7, years ago, along with beans, llamas and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9, years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7, years ago.
Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5, years ago, was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica , wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6, years ago. Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism. Wild stands, harvested started to be planted, came to be domesticated.
In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8, BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3, BC. Farmers grew wheat, vegetables such as lentils and onions, fruits including dates and figs. Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic , after 10, BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus.
In India , wheat and jujube were domesticated by 9, BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. Cattle and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,—6, BC. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium BC. Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2, BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use followed by irrigation.
By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron mouldboards; these spread westwards across Eurasia. Asian rice was domesticated 8,—13, years ago — depending on the molecular clock estimate, used — on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon. Geographic coordinate system A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.
The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene , who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC.
A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles , off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands , measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes ' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before In , the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference , attended by representatives from twenty-five nations.
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Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich , England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping.
They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre.
Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age , but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0. These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used.
Kharana Pir Ghazi
Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System , the default datum used for the Global Positioning System , the International Terrestrial Reference Frame , used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space.
In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation. Darat al Funun.
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