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Meaning of "Short Story" in the German dictionary
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Synonyms and antonyms of Short Story in the German dictionary of synonyms
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Seller Inventory RO Published by Hansi Benfeld About this Item: Hansi Benfeld, Published by AV Akademikerverlag About this Item: AV Akademikerverlag , Print on Demand. Item added to your basket View basket. Proceed to Basket. View basket. Continue shopping. United Kingdom. He felt an absence of an intermediate variety for social contact between different segments of the population. Due to its belated overall industrialization, Austria still has a more pronounced class structure than Germany, and social class and educational background are indicated through the variety of Austrian German dialect or Standard used.
As the lower sociolects of Austrian German are the ones most distant from GSG, the distinctiveness of Austrian German represents a conflict between national and social loyalty Hans Moser Vienna is the political and cultural centre and 3. Graz, Linz, Salzburg, Innsbruck, see e. Moosmuller , though there is some tension between the eastern and western varieties, and Standard German in Austria certainly varies regionally, as in Germany see Wolf Viennese influence is weakest in Vorarlberg, which, linguistically and culturally, has much in common with neighbouring areas of Switzerland, and has been making bids for increased political autonomy.
Because of longstanding cultural links dating back to the AustroHungarian Empire, ASG is enjoying considerable currency in the neighbouring Central European countries, such as Hungary, Slovenia and Slovakia. This is partly due to cognate vocabulary. The motivation to use ASG words is decreased because North Germans often do not understand them or consider them non-standard.
Austrian variants are mentioned in the German pronunciation handbooks, Siebs and Duden-Ausspracheworterbuch, in the Duden-Grammatik, and in the German dictionaries such as Wahrig, DudenUniversalworterbuch, and Klappenbach and Steinitz. There is an Osterreischisches Beiblatt of Siebs which Pollak demonstrates to be inadequate in his argument for a codification of ASG pronunciation.
Now that the Duden-Ausspracheworterbuch has accepted a broader set of pronunciation options, some characteristically Austrian norms especially those rules also applied in parts of Germany have been included, something that was not the case prior to It is the official listing of the lexicon of.
Standard German in Austria, with some treatment of grammar, published under the auspices of the Ministry of Education and the Arts. In contrast to earlier editions which attempted to provide an inventory of standard 'common German language', the 35th edition exercised a solidarizing and separatist function Dressier and Wodak a , accentuating the distinctiveness of Austrian Standard German in a climate of increased national consciousness and progressive social reform.
At least one third of the items in this edition had not appeared in previous editions.
Some were neologisms but most were characteristically Austrian words, among them dialect expressions employed in Austrian literature written in Standard German. They were marked 'tnda mundartlich, dialectal ot'ldscW landschaftlich, regional. Samstag, also GSG except in the North. The dictionary also reflected the flexibility in gender usage in ASG see below, 2.
Duden Vol. The 36th edition of the OWB retreated from some of these reforms, largely in response to criticisms of the controversial previous edition from some linguists and lay people. This may also be symptomatic of a general return to conservatism and regionalism in Austria. It was claimed variously that standards had been lowered by the acceptance of non-standard forms and a disregard for stylistic levels, that the international unity of the German language was being damaged Wiesinger a , that there was a 'reactionary' overstating of the Austrian element Reiffenstein , and that the dictionary was Vienna-centric and oblivious to usage in the western part ofAustria Wiesinger a, b, b, Dressier and Wodak a.
Some of these points were also made in letters to the editor of newspapers, see Clyne Many of the evaluations also contained praise for some aspects of the initiatives of the dictionary which gave ASG its due place. Any suggestions received are taken into account by the dictionary editors Fussy Thus, for instance, Aprikose, Quark cottage 5 The earlier term for such items would have been 'reichsdeutsch' Imperial German , which was no longer appropriate. See e. Wiesinger b, Wolf The stylistic level received more attention, with some Austrian items now being designated 'Ugs' umgangssprachlich, colloquial.
However, Pollak levels criticism at the tendency in the 36th Edition to relegate items to dialect or colloquial too quickly. The problem is where to establish the threshold of Standard German Pollak Some multiple gender assignments e. In the case of Meter, reinstated in The addition of 'w wienerisch , together with the adoption of Vorarlberg items marked V was intended to appease the western Austrians. Grammatical rules now followed the more conservative pattern statt and wegen with the dative, and the Austrian contraction of aujdem to am being described as 'ugs' without detracting from the essentials of ASG grammar, such as the use of sein as the only auxiliary for liegen, sitzen and stehen, which Duden lists as regional South German.
The 37th edition takes a position between the 35th and the 36th, being more prescriptive than the former and less so than the latter. There is again a declaration of national distinctiveness in its self-description: Ein Worterbuch der deutschen Standardsprache in ihrer osterreichischen Auspragung A dictionary of the German standard language in its Austrian expression It is again an inciter of language reform, but in a more subtle way than the 35th edition.
The distinction between national and regional differences is clarified. Regional variants are not only indicated but marked very precisely e. East Styrian, East Tyrolean. In a sample of entries, Rogerson found that 78 changes had been made in the entries between the 36th and 37th editions, largely due to markings, such as ugs or idsch. Only The 37th edition represents a more balanced, theoretically well founded but progressive, account of the Austrian German norms. Its direction is now probably irreversible. The 38th edition, to appear during , will be greatly expanded with a total of 60, items.
In all three cases, the diphthongal character is slight and the second element lower than in GSG Wodak-Leodolter and Dressier The distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants is subject to assimilation rules, e. Initial [st] corresponds to GSG [Jt] in loanwords, e.
Stil, Strategie. Initial [k] corresponds to GSG [c] in loanwords, e. Chemie, China. Evangelium, November, Vizeprdsident. Voiceless initial [s], as in [sausn] sausen. There is no glottal stop [? Stylistic variation takes place between final [ik] and [iq] in words spelt -ig, e.
The sequence [rjk] is found in words such as [arjkst] Angst, [laqksam] langsam Wodak-Leodolter and Dressier The short vowel in Kucken is reflected in the spelling, which 6. There is a long vowel, e. Some words e. Kaffee and Motor are stressed on the final syllable not the initial one as in GSG.
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Others e. GSG stress on final syllable. On the other hand, some adjectives are stressed on the final syllable in ASG whereas the stress occurs on the first syllable in GSG, e. Many of the distinctive words in ASG reflect the separate cultural and political development of Austria. They include words in the following fields: Food e. Jause morning and afternoon tea, GSG Kaffee.
Institutions e. The months e. Transferred from neighbouring languages, e. Italian, Slovenian. Purism and integration of lexical transfers were never as marked in Austria as in Germany Fenske Another speciality of Austrian Standard German is the preposition auf used with vergessen cf. GSG direct object. Kaffee retains its stress on the final syllable in contrast to GSG, where the stress has transferred to the initial syllable.
Some words are umlauted in ASG, e. Mochte from mogen 'to like' is employed for'would' GSG wurde. The letter j is [je:], not [jot] as in Germany. ASG ['ko:pJ3] copy has been replaced by GSG [ko'pi:] by some younger people for whom the word relates only to photocopying and not to carbon copies cf. Wiesinger Some morphemes are particularly productive in word formation in ASG, e.
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Rizzo-Baur , Wiesinger The distinctively Austrian word Wissenschafter academic is used in free variation with Wissenschafiler. Hans Moser 26 suggests that the former may have arisen in Austria because the -ler is sometimes associated there with words expressing social inferiority. Kragen and Wagen take a " plural cf. GSG zero plural. Austrian German tends to prefer the weak forms of verbs such as senden to send and wenden to turn sendete, gesendet; wendete, gewendet.
Past participles of diirfen, konnen and mogen are not used as main verbs but replaced by the infinitive, e. Spoken Austrian Standard as well as Austrian dialects like many German ones generally lack a preterite simple past and pluperfect. They are replaced by the perfect. The preterite is sometimes used in Austrian Standard by some people wishing to shift to a higher register stylistic level of language chosen according to 'what is actually taking place, who is taking part, and what part the language is playing' Halliday 31 , regardless of its applicability according to German grammatical rules of aspect.
For instance, single events in the past are therefore sometimes expressed in the preterite instead of the perfect Kufner The half-heartedly conducted referendum in which the Serbian government had allowed the people to vote. Die Presse, 14 October , p. Ich bin iiberzeugt, daB wir bis dahin die Vermogensaufteilung abgeschlossen haben werden. I am convinced that by then we will have completed the distribution of assets.
Die Presse 14 October , p. Denn wenn das sein hatte konnen, hatte er es ganz betrieben. For if that had been the case, he would have carried it out completely. Osterreichbericht 95,, p. Robert Lichel ist viel zu intelligent, nicht auch zu wissen, daB er das fruher oder spater zugeben wird mtissen. Robert Lichel is far too intelligent not to know that he would have to admit this sooner or later.
Stubkjaer , who cites numerous examples from ASG, points out that this construction brings the main verb closer to the connected nominal than is the case in GSG. It would appear from the above section that the attitudes to Austrian Standard German have fluctuated with the swing of the political pendulum as Austriafindsits place in the new world order. Pollak's closing sentence points the way to a recognition of both unity and diversity: Erst mit dem Bekenntnis zum osterreichischen Deutsch werden wir sprachlich zu vollwertigen Mitgliedern der deutschen Kommunikationsgemeinschaft.
Only with a commitment to Austrian German will we become linguistically full members of the German communication community. The position of Swiss Standard German can be seen only in contrast with that of the 'national dialect' Swiss German Schwyzertutsch , which has, in most aspects of its structure, remained more conservative than Swiss Standard German. Swiss German could be developed into an independent language. One of the reasons why it is not regarded as a language Kloss terms it an 'Ausbaudialekf is that it exists only in the form of different local and regional varieties. It is, as it were, a pluricentric national dialect.
Apart from some recommendations on spelling in Swiss German Dieth , no standardization has taken place. In addition, the Swiss-Germans see themselves as part of the German literary and cultural tradition and do not wish to break with this Sieber and Sitta , von Polenz Communication at the inter-regional level is based on slightly adapting.
Zurich, Basel, Bern German to that of your speech partner, often by taking over lexemes and other features from Swiss Standard German. Dialect mixture in individuals results from internal mobility Christen In contrast to Germans and Austrians, German-speaking Swiss have no intermediate variety between dialect and Standard comparable with Umgangssprache see 4.
Urban dialects are far more prestigious than rural ones. Wolfsberger has shown that, owing to geographical mobility and the effects of the media, there is some levelling-out of dialects, especially in the direction of the standard language. This is particularly so among the younger and the more geographically mobile. The Swiss identify basically as citizens of a particular local or regional entity e.
Zurich, Interlaken, St Gallen. Within this region or locality in the German-language part, the dialect is spoken as the native language and sole language of informal discourse by all classes and sections of society, i. Keller , Ris , Kropf It is the primary linguistic marker of identity, for, as Watts 92 points out, the Swiss have a mistrust of central authority and central concentration of power. Competence in Swiss Standard German and not dialect identifies people socially Ris ,57 , while dialect indicates their regional cantonal origins, and this diglossia identifies them as Swiss.
A uniform national dialect might, among other things, destroy the social unity guaranteed by the local and regional dialect. Standard German is primarily the written language, as its Swiss name Schriftdeutsch suggests. The norms are better defined and more consciously observed in this Swiss variety of Standard German than in dialects R. Many German-speaking Swiss resent Standard German because of difficulties encountered with it at school or because it is the symbol of anxiety, frustration and suppression within a very prescriptive approach at school Schlapfer, Gutzweiler and Schmid , Sieber and Sitta , There being no intermediate variety, Standard German is often rather stilted in style.
It has been claimed frequently e. This is not simply a symbolic rejection, for Swiss-Germans have an inferiority complex about their Standard German Albrecht and Mathis a. However, young Swiss do have the opportunity of being exposed to it from an early age through German TV Watts , Sieber and Sitta and are able to mimic it well Hacki Buhofer and Burger Standard German is employed in the National Parliament along with French and Italian ,9 in secondary and tertiary education, radio and television, formal church services liturgy and sermons , the press, worldwide fiction literature the most important contemporary Swiss exponents of which are Frisch and Durrenmatt and non-fiction literature.
Whether a variety is used for the latter function is regarded by Kloss as a litmus test as to whether the variety is now a language in its own right. Dialect is used in some cantonal parliaments, early primary education and somefictionliterature. Further uses of dialect are in weddings and informal evening church services, secondary and tertiary education explanations, colloquia, working groups, practical classes, non-academic school subjects , the military less formal situations , advertising, and even some formal speeches Schwarzenbach , Ris ,Meili ,L6ffler , Sieber and Sitta , In other words, dialect is making inroads into informal speech informal domains, and even into formal speech, such as addresses given on the National Day, which are closely linked with national identity Schlapfer, Gutzweiler and Schmid As a result, new words are transferred from Standard German and integrated into dialect, e.
Raumfahrt space travel becomes Rumfort, and Marktforschung market research becomes Marktforschig e. It appears that diglossia based on domains is no longer an appropriate means of depicting the relation between Standard and dialect in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. The division is more between speaking mode, which is unmarked and in dialect, and reading mode, which is marked and in Standard. The 'speaking mode' expresses spontaneity, intimacy and interaction; the 'reading mode' expresses authority, distance and formality.
Sieber and Sitta , designate this 'medial diglossia', i.
By way of illustration, news broadcasts are in Standard German on national radio 9. By reading the news in Standard German, broadcasters stress that they are not taking responsibility for the content. The name of the editor, not that of the news-reader as in English-speaking countries is given. On many local stations, the Standard German news is followed by the weather report in dialect.
This is presented in a more casual way, and the tempo is faster. Most announcements on railway stations are in Standard; this is the variety in which tram stops are called out by the Zurich tram driver. Thus, the 'reading mode' is associated with truth value as well as authoritativeness, with the 'speaking mode' being a narrative one. In addition, 'dialect' is starting to move into H see 1. These are seen to be part of interaction. The dialect is the vehicle of personal identity and in-group communication. Spoken Standard German is imparted at school to reinforce the written Standard of essay work Sieber and Sitta Some writers lament the large amount of dialect spoken in class, which, it is claimed, is resulting in lower Standard German competence and the danger of'Hollandization' i.
News and news-like programmes are in Standard German. Swiss German is not usually employed in translations from foreign languages. Quotations are repeated in the variety in which they were heard or read. Swiss German does not occur in written form on TV It is used in informal situations or where the moderator comments as well as conveys information. Interviews with Swiss-Germans are in dialect. There is no codeswitching between interlocutors or within the same speaker. Swiss German is used exclusively in local content. On the basis of an analysis of Swiss TV commercials, Lee establishes that Standard voices are used to express elegance, sophistication, seriousness and technology.
Dialect voices are employed to denote identity, humour, informality, homeliness and intimacy. German- Swiss schools are charged with the responsibility of teaching oral and written Standard. However, pupils can effect a code-switch to Standard in class, something that teachers do not consider a breach of rules Kropf A sample of nearly 34, army recruits, all males aged about twenty, and almost 1, women of the same age and range of backgrounds were surveyed by Schlapfer, Gutzweiler and Schmid This means that the school has become a Standard German 'relic area'.
While Standard German was regarded as more objective, precise and exalted. Opposition to increased use of dialects comes from French speakers and from the cultural elite of the German speakers, who feel that it is undermining the proficiency level in Standard German Schlapfer, Gutzweiler and Schmid Dialect is a 'protection' from the 'outside world' and the identity marker to distinguish German-speaking Swiss from their powerful neighbours, the Germans Kropf The Swiss vote against entry into the European Economic Region in December due to German-Swiss opposition is a major reflection of this desire for insulation.
Another manifestation of isolationism is a 24million-franc cut in October in the funding of Pro Helvetia, the Swiss cultural body corresponding to the Goethe Institute. The non-German-speaking Swiss, especially the French speakers, resent the increased use of Swiss-German dialects.
They feel excluded from communication by the largest group even though they learn its Standard language at school Frei , Watts , , Sieber and Sitta , Ludi In the survey of year-olds mentioned above Schlapfer, Gutzweiler and Schmid , Diirmuller English emerged as the preferred language to learn at school, French and German both being unpopular.
But note that the methodology of this study has been criticized by Watts and Andres At present, French is the more usual language of inter-cultural communication between German and French speakers and between French and Italian speakers, while Standard German is employed between German and Italian speakers see also Chini In the federal public service, to an increasing extent the inter-ethnic communication mode is for each person to speak their own language Hauck While English is the 'neutral language', it is not yet favoured as the official language of Switzerland.
However, about one-third of the informants regard this development as 'conceivable' Diirmuller Stevenson attributes these problems not only to the dynamic nature of Swiss multilingualism but also to 'Helevetic malaise' - 'a growing sense of self-doubt, dissatisfaction with the status quo acccompanying a shift of attention from solidarity against the outside world to internal divisions' p. Keller points out that lexical pairing between Standard German and dialect leads to convergence, e.
The same process has led to grammatical confusion and simplification, e. As there is a discontinuum i. The independent position of Swiss Standard German has been strengthened by Swiss neutrality and the recent German past. But while there are norms for Swiss Standard German, the Swiss generally experience a feeling of inferiority as to their proficiency in it Boesch Boesch et al.
The Swiss follow the Duden as the norm of the written language Miiller-Marzohl Most of the specifically Swiss items included are transfers from French or words from the culinary or institutional domains. There is also a Swiss Schulerduden for late primary and early secondary classes, which follows the norms of written Swiss Standard German see Schlapfer and a Swiss dictionary for primary schools Reichert , which is drawn from the lexicon of Swiss Standard German.
Short-vowel forms have been accepted in the edition of the authoritative Duden-Ausspracheworterbuch. Couplet, Budget Keller Moulton points out that Swiss Standard German never uses a glottal stop and that final consonants may be voiced e. See also Meyer Chemie, China, Chronik. As in other German-language countries, there is regional variation in Swiss Standard German pronunciation Siebenhaar Nachtessen dinner , aper snow-free , Zntini morning tea at about 9. Words bearing a meaning different to that in other national varieties, e.
Word-formation devices employed differently in SSG than in other varieties, e. Specifically Swiss gender assignment in some cases of transference from French, closer to the source language , e. Incidentally, das Mami contrasts with der Papi, e. Ob is still used for oberhalb above , which is archaic in other standard varieties, as are Mietzins rent , Wittfrau widow , einhellig anonymous , hierorts here and hinfort in future Russ Redacteur editor , transferred from French, is integrated as Redaktor.
The fi has been generally replaced by ss. Liegen to lie , sitzen to sit , stehen to stand , hocken to crouch and kauern to squat are employed resultatively with an adverbial adjunct, e. Liegen, setzen, and stehen usually take sein as an auxiliary although they are sometimes used with haben. Hocken always forms its perfect with sein Meyer An important aspect of Swiss Standard German is the large component of transfers from another national language, French.
The Germanlanguage part of Switzerland has historically not imposed its 'Germanness' on anyone else, the way Prussia Germany and Austria did on their nonGerman colonial populations. The German loan-creations and loantranslations employed in Germany in place of French transfers Anschrift for Adresse, Bahnsteig for Perron , have, for the Swiss, an unpleasantly 'unSwiss' Prussian? A few examples of French transfers: Bahnhofbujfet station restaurant , Camion truck , Glace ice cream , Occasion bargain, sale , Petition petition ,prdsidieren to chair , Retourbillet return ticket , Velo bicycle ;geht dir das?
As far as I am aware, no study of the diglossic situation in Liechtenstein has as yet been undertaken. It is, on the whole, similar to that in the German-speaking parts of Switzerland. Standard German in Liechtenstein has not been codified. However, it is used more than Swiss Standard German. Also there is a large degree of similarity and some convergence, Banzer between the Liechtenstein dialects, and the capital, Vaduz, houses the headquarters of many foreign businesses run by Standard German speakers, with whom a Standard German similar to that of Switzerland is spoken.
In December there were 1, Germans and 2, Austrians living in Liechtenstein on residence permits Roland Biichel, personal communication. The language of administration is Standard German. It is the official language of the court, though dialect is sometimes employed in simple cases where both parties are Liechtensteiners. Standard is also generally used in the Landtag Parliament.
Dialect is also permitted but is used by few parliamentarians. While the liturgical part of church services is in Standard, sermons tend to be preached in dialect Roland Biichel, Presse- und Informationsamtsleiter, personal communication, 27 July In schools, the dialect is used as a medium of instruction officially only in the first weeks of Grade 1 sixyear-olds.
Its use is permitted in class where the pupils are experiencing difficulties in comprehension or expression Lehrplan der Realschule, , cited in G. Wolfinger, personal communication, 15 February , and there is variation in the use and tolerance of dialect by individual teachers. The reading of dialect texts is discouraged, and it is claimed that facility in dialect reading is increased by the reading of Standard German.
Lehrplan fur die Primarschulen im Furstentum Liechtenstein, n. Wolfinger, head of Liechtenstein's Schulamt, referring to the use of Standard in writing and dialect in oral communication, stresses that the unequivocal emphasis in education is placed on the acquisition of Standard German although the use of dialect is increasing personal communication, 15 February Banzer points out that, because of the medial diglossia see 2. Letzebuergesch is the mother tongue, home language and language of informal spoken discourse of all the Luxembourgians, which is manifested in Middle Franconian dialects grouped into a northern, an eastern, a western and a southern division.
Letzebuergesch dialects described, however, as Deitsch are spoken in and around Arlon and St Vith in Belgium see 2. There is also a supraregional Letzebuergesch koine, based on the dialect of the Alzette Valley in the South, or on a compromise dialect, and transmitted through the capital, where people from all over Luxembourg have gathered and worked together F. Hoffmann Although it is not given any superior status Newton 62 it has become the mother tongue of some sections of the upper and middle classes Fernand Hoffmann, personal communication. Because of the koine, Standard German is not used as a medium of inter-regional communication.
The planned development of Letzebuergesch towards a sort of Ausbauspmche has been going on since with the removal of its Frenchspeaking territory Luxembourg became a purely German Letzebuergesch- speaking state in , but it was precipitated by German invasions in the two world wars and a reaction against the Germanization policy of the Nazis. It is the independent status of Letzebuergesch, together with trilingualism and diglossia see 2. Up to , postwar Luxembourg had no 'official languages' although Letzebuergesch was the declared 'national language' language used by all the population F.
Hoffmann , and French, German and Letzebuergesch all fulfilled some of the functions of official languages. In , these three languages were declared official languages. This measure was promoted by lobbying from the Enroles de Force an organization of those forced to recruit in the German army in the Second World War with the support of Aktioun Letzebuergesch, which had been founded to promote Letzebuergesch Gerold Newton, personal communication.
More codification has taken place of Letzebuergesch than of Schwyzertiitsch see above, 2. There is both a dictionary and a grammar of the 'national dialect', both descriptive, but the orthography is based on that of Standard German. The parameters established for diglossia in the German-language part of Switzerland 2. For that reason I would describe the Luxembourg situation as 'diglossia' rather than 'triglossia', with the two H languages, French and German, designated as HI and H2 respectively, with the functions described below.
Letzebuergesch is the medium of the 'speaking mode'- of intimacy, spontaneity and interaction. German and French are the mediums of the 'reading mode' - expressing authority, distance and formality. However, there is a little more overlap between the functions of the L and the H languages than in Switzerland because of the official status of Letzebuergesch.
For instance, the bureaucracy is required to respond in Letzebuergesch where possible dans la mesure du possible to any letters received in that language. Berg makes the point that Luxembourgians want their mother tongue to be a written language rather than to replace the languages of wider communication. And probably, he would have been content with it since he is not presented as a highly ambitioned person in the novel. Trina on the other hand comes from a Swiss-German family. Right on from the beginning it is mentioned that she is very good and accurate in caring for the household and that she is able to deal well with money.
This is also heritage from the family. It is also in her genes and it was foreseeable that one day she would become what she actually became in the course of the story. Concerning the influence of the environment, I would like to start with talking about Social Darwinism. Characters in the naturalistic novels are often compared to animals as it can best be seen in Mac and in his physical description.
That means that people just like Mac and Trina are defined by the society and the environment they live in. Mac often sits in his dental parlors watching the life in Polk Street, and this is described in detail by Frank Norris. So the reader gets a clear picture of how the world Mac lives in looks like. There are many shops and people walking around, following their everyday habits while Mac is sitting in his dentist chair, having his beloved steam beer or playing in his concertina.
Only sometimes does he go out and become a part of all the other society members. In town, there is another dentist who is not named in the novel. He is just described by Mac as the one the shop girls prefer to go to because he is younger and better looking. There is some striking evidence for that. First, Mac was competition for him and in the struggle for the fittest there is only place for one good dentist so the other —in this case Mac- has to be smoothed out.
How should he know that Mac has none? So it can be seen that Mac has no chance to survive in this society because there are a lot of people who are smarter, better and more successful than him and Mac is determined to fail. He is weaker and has to be removed. What happened to the story of McTeague? S B Steffanie Bauer Author. Add to cart. Table of content 1.
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Introduction 2. Conclusion 4. Works cited 1.