The libretto also offers a different ending, in which Tosca does not die but instead goes mad. In the final scene, she cradles her lover's head in her lap and hallucinates that she and her Mario are on a gondola, and that she is asking the gondolier for silence. Puccini pressed his librettists hard, and Giacosa issued a series of melodramatic threats to abandon the work.
In August, Puccini removed several numbers from the opera, according to his biographer, Mary Jane Phillips-Matz , "cut[ting] Tosca to the bone, leaving three strong characters trapped in an airless, violent, tightly wound melodrama that had little room for lyricism".
Puccini asked clerical friends for words for the congregation to mutter at the start of the act 1 Te Deum ; when nothing they provided satisfied him, he supplied the words himself. Peter's Basilica ,   and was equally diligent when writing the music that opens act 3, in which Rome awakens to the sounds of church bells. In act 2, when Tosca sings offstage the cantata that celebrates the supposed defeat of Napoleon, Puccini was tempted to follow the text of Sardou's play and use the music of Giovanni Paisiello , before finally writing his own imitation of Paisello's style.
Despite the notation, there was additional work to be done,  such as the shepherd boy's song at the start of act 3. Puccini, who always sought to put local colour in his works, wanted that song to be in Roman dialect. In October , Ricordi realized that some of the music for Cavaradossi's act 3 aria, "O dolci mani" was borrowed from music Puccini had cut from his early opera, Edgar and demanded changes.
Puccini defended his music as expressive of what Cavaradossi must be feeling at that point, and offered to come to Milan to play and sing act 3 for the publisher. By December , Tosca was in rehearsal at the Teatro Costanzi. Leopoldo Mugnone was appointed to conduct. The young Enrico Caruso had hoped to create Cavaradossi, but was passed over in favour of the more experienced Emilio De Marchi.
At the time of the premiere, Italy had experienced political and social unrest for several years. The start of the Holy Year in December attracted the religious to the city, but also brought threats from anarchists and other anticlericals. Police received warnings of an anarchist bombing of the theatre, and instructed Mugnone who had survived a theatre bombing in Barcelona ,  that in an emergency he was to strike up the royal march.
By , the premiere of a Puccini opera was a national event. Shortly after the curtain was raised there was a disturbance in the back of the theatre, caused by latecomers attempting to enter the auditorium, and a shout of "Bring down the curtain! The performance, while not quite the triumph that Puccini had hoped for, was generally successful, with numerous encores. In response, Illica condemned Puccini for treating his librettists "like stagehands" and reducing the text to a shadow of its original form. The opera was a great success at La Scala, and played to full houses. Puccini wrote that Tosca was "[a] complete triumph", and Ricordi's London representative quickly signed a contract to take Tosca to New York.
Puccini was delighted with the public's reception of the work in Paris, despite adverse comments from critics. The opera was subsequently premiered at venues throughout Europe, the Americas, Australia and the Far East;  by the outbreak of war in it had been performed in more than 50 cities worldwide. Among the prominent early Toscas was Emmy Destinn , who sang the role regularly in a long-standing partnership with the tenor Enrico Caruso.
This was a great success, and Jeritza sang the aria while on the floor thereafter. Among non-traditional productions, Luca Ronconi , in at La Scala, used distorted and fractured scenery to represent the twists of fate reflected in the plot. The iris opens and closes to reveal surreal scenes beyond the action.
This production updates the story to a modern Mafia scenario, with special effects "worthy of a Bond film". In a television version of the opera was filmed at the locations prescribed by Puccini, at the times of day at which each act takes place. Early Cavaradossis played the part as if the painter believed that he was reprieved, and would survive the "mock" execution. Beniamino Gigli , who performed the role many times in his forty-year operatic career, was one of the first to assume that the painter knows, or strongly suspects, that he will be shot.
Gigli wrote in his autobiography: "he is certain that these are their last moments together on earth, and that he is about to die". The enduring popularity of Tosca has not been matched by consistent critical enthusiasm. After the premiere, Ippolito Valetta of Nuova antologia wrote, "[Puccini] finds in his palette all colours, all shades; in his hands, the instrumental texture becomes completely supple, the gradations of sonority are innumerable, the blend unfailingly grateful to the ear.
A third called the opera "three hours of noise". The critics gave the work a generally kinder reception in London, where The Times called Puccini "a master in the art of poignant expression", and praised the "wonderful skill and sustained power" of the music. By the end of the 19th century the classic form of opera structure, in which arias , duets and other set-piece vocal numbers are interspersed with passages of recitative or dialogue, had been largely abandoned, even in Italy.
Operas were " through-composed ", with a continuous stream of music which in some cases eliminated all identifiable set-pieces.
In what critic Edward Greenfield calls the "Grand Tune" concept, Puccini retains a limited number of set-pieces, distinguished from their musical surroundings by their memorable melodies. Even in the passages linking these "Grand Tunes", Puccini maintains a strong degree of lyricism and only rarely resorts to recitative. Budden describes Tosca as the most Wagnerian of Puccini's scores, in its use of musical leitmotifs.
Unlike Wagner, Puccini does not develop or modify his motifs, nor weave them into the music symphonically, but uses them to refer to characters, objects and ideas, and as reminders within the narrative. The opera begins without any prelude; the opening chords of the Scarpia motif lead immediately to the agitated appearance of Angelotti and the enunciation of the "fugitive" motif. The sacristan's entry, accompanied by his sprightly buffo theme, lifts the mood, as does the generally light-hearted colloquy with Cavaradossi which follows after the latter's entrance.
This leads to the first of the "Grand Tunes", Cavaradossi's " Recondita armonia " with its sustained high B flat , accompanied by the sacristan's grumbling counter-melody. According to Budden, there is no contradiction: Tosca's jealousy is largely a matter of habit, which her lover does not take too seriously.
After Tosca's "Non la sospiri" and the subsequent argument inspired by her jealousy, the sensuous character of the love duet "Qual'occhio" provides what opera writer Burton Fisher describes as "an almost erotic lyricism that has been called pornophony". He joins with the chorus in the final statement "Te aeternum Patrem omnis terra veneratur" "Everlasting Father, all the earth worships thee" , before the act ends with a thunderous restatement of the Scarpia motif. In the second act of Tosca , according to Newman, Puccini rises to his greatest height as a master of the musical macabre.
For this music Puccini adapted a fifteen-year-old student exercise by his late brother, Michele, stating that in this way his brother could live again through him. Osborne describes the scenes that follow—Cavaradossi's interrogation, his torture, Scarpia's sadistic tormenting of Tosca—as Puccini's musical equivalent of grand guignol to which Cavaradossi's brief "Vittoria! A lyrical andante based on Tosca's act 1 motif, this is perhaps the opera's best-known aria, yet was regarded by Puccini as a mistake;  he considered eliminating it since it held up the action.
The third act's tranquil beginning provides a brief respite from the drama. An introductory bar theme for the horns will later be sung by Cavaradossi and Tosca in their final duet. The orchestral prelude which follows portrays the Roman dawn; the pastoral aura is accentuated by the shepherd boy's song, and the sounds of sheep bells and church bells, the authenticity of the latter validated by Puccini's early morning visits to Rome.
This is a farewell to love and life, "an anguished lament and grief built around the words 'muoio disperato' I die in despair ". Puccini justified his musical treatment by citing Tosca's preoccupation with teaching Cavaradossi to feign death. This choice of ending has been strongly criticised by analysts, mainly because of its specific association with Cavaradossi rather than Tosca. The first complete Tosca recording was made in , using the acoustic process.
The conductor, Carlo Sabajno , had been the Gramophone Company 's house conductor since ; he had made early complete recordings of several operas, including Verdi's La traviata and Rigoletto , before tackling Tosca with a largely unknown cast, featuring the Italian soprano Lya Remondini in the title role.
The next year, in , Sabajno recorded Tosca again, this time with more well-known singers, including Valentina Bartolomasi and Attilio Salvaneschi as Tosca and Cavaradossi. Ten years later, in , Sabajno returned to the opera for the third time, recording it, by the electrical process, with the orchestra and chorus of the Teatro alla Scala and with stars Carmen Melis and Apollo Granforte in the roles of Tosca and Scarpia. In the post-war period, following the invention of long-playing records , Tosca recordings were dominated by Maria Callas.
In , with conductor Victor de Sabata and the La Scala forces, she made the recording for EMI which for decades has been considered the best of all the recorded performances of the opera. A number of Callas's live stage performances of Tosca were also preserved. The earliest were two performances in Mexico City , in and , and the last was in London in The s and s saw a proliferation of recordings, many of live performances.
These include recent productions and remastered versions of historic performances. The orchestral score of Tosca was published in late by Casa Ricordi. Despite some dissatisfaction expressed by Ricordi concerning the final act, the score remained relatively unchanged in the edition. The score contains a number of minor changes from the autograph score.
Some are changes of phrase: Cavaradossi's reply to the sacristan when he asks if the painter is doing penance is changed from "Pranzai"  "I have eaten. Other changes are in the music; when Tosca demands the price for Cavaradossi's freedom "Il prezzo! To end like this? Ashbrook applauds Puccini for deleting the section from a point in the work where delay is almost unendurable as events rush to their conclusion, but points out that the orchestra's recalling "E lucevan le stelle" in the final notes would seem less incongruous if it was meant to underscore Tosca's and Cavaradossi's love for each other, rather than being simply a melody which Tosca never hears.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Tosca disambiguation. Luigi Illica Giuseppe Giacosa. Main article: La Tosca. How does law enforcement work in a place in constant crisis? March, Flint was once a place of promise, the birth town of General Motors, the U. Then G. Flint went broke and could no longer afford its police. To save money, the city shuttered its police academy and cut its police force in half. Crime, naturally, doubled. A Flint resident shows his scars from a recent shooting. The police found him asleep in his car, high on painkillers. July, A week later, a man was found frozen on a lawn, a bullet hole in his head.
It was the first homicide of the year. The crime, like too many in Flint, remains unsolved.
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The state Department of Public Safety sold over 1, guns between to , according to records obtained by Texas Standard and Reveal. The sales included handguns, subcompact. Fort Worth police, the same department disarming residents of their excess weapons over the summer, sold more than 1, weapons, including 40 submachine guns and over two dozen AR rifles.
As University of Texas System Chancellor William McRaven publicly protested the dangers of guns being carried on campus in , a number of university departments across the state sold their guns. The San Antonio Police Department faced a series of city audits for inadequate tracking of departmental guns.
When the attorney general forced the department to release information this year, it reported selling 2, handguns in the last decade. Alain Stephens produced this story as a Reveal Investigative Fellow. The fellowship, supported by the W. Kellogg Foundation and Democracy Fund, provides journalists of color support and training to create investigative reporting projects in partnership with their news outlets.
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