It follows the struggles of gods , heroes , and several mythical creatures over the eponymous magic ring that grants domination over the entire world. The music of the cycle is thick and richly textured, and grows in complexity as the cycle proceeds. Wagner wrote for an orchestra of gargantuan proportions, including a greatly enlarged brass section with new instruments such as the Wagner tuba , bass trumpet and contrabass trombone. He eventually had a purpose-built theatre constructed, the Bayreuth Festspielhaus , in which to perform this work. The theatre has a special stage that blends the huge orchestra with the singers' voices, allowing them to sing at a natural volume.
The result was that the singers did not have to strain themselves vocally during the long performances. The plot revolves around a magic ring that grants the power to rule the world, forged by the Nibelung dwarf Alberich from gold he stole from the Rhine maidens in the river Rhine.
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The Ring itself as described by Wagner is a Rune-magic taufr "tine", or "talisman" intended to rule the feminine multiplicative power by a fearful magical act termed as 'denial of love' "Liebesverzicht". With the assistance of the god Loge, Wotan — the chief of the gods — steals the ring from Alberich, but is forced to hand it over to the giants , Fafner and Fasolt in payment for building the home of the gods, Valhalla , or they will take Freia, who provides the gods with the golden apples that keep them young.
Wotan's schemes to regain the ring, spanning generations, drive much of the action in the story. His grandson, the mortal Siegfried, wins the ring by slaying Fafner who slew Fasolt for the ring — as Wotan intended — but is eventually betrayed and slain as a result of the intrigues of Alberich's son Hagen, who wants the ring for himself. Hagen is drowned as he attempts to recover the ring.
The Rhinegold & The Valkyrie by Richard Wagner - Free Ebook
In the process, the gods and Valhalla are destroyed. Wagner created the story of the Ring by fusing elements from many German and Scandinavian myths and folk tales. The Ring has been the subject of myriad interpretations. For example, George Bernard Shaw , in The Perfect Wagnerite , argues for a view of The Ring as an essentially socialist critique of industrial society and its abuses.
Robert Donington in Wagner's Ring And Its Symbols interprets it in terms of Jungian psychology , as an account of the development of unconscious archetypes in the mind, leading towards individuation. In his earlier operas up to and including Lohengrin Wagner's style had been based, rather than on the Italian style of opera, on the German style as developed by Carl Maria von Weber , with elements of the grand opera style of Giacomo Meyerbeer.
However he came to be dissatisfied with such a format as a means of artistic expression. He expressed this clearly in his essay ' A Communication to My Friends ', in which he condemned the majority of modern artists, in painting and in music, as "feminine The public, by their enthusiastic reception of Rienzi and their cooler welcome of the Flying Dutchman , had plainly shown me what I must set before them if I sought to please. I shall never write an Opera more.
As I have no wish to invent an arbitrary title for my works, I will call them Dramas I propose to produce my myth in three complete dramas, preceded by a lengthy Prelude Vorspiel. At a specially-appointed Festival, I propose, some future time, to produce those three Dramas with their Prelude, in the course of three days and a fore-evening. The object of this production I shall consider thoroughly attained, if I and my artistic comrades, the actual performers, shall within these four evenings succeed in artistically conveying my purpose to the true Emotional not the Critical Understanding of spectators who shall have gathered together expressly to learn it.
In accordance with the ideas expressed in his essays of the period —51 including the "Communication" but also " Opera and Drama " and " The Artwork of the Future " , the four parts of the Ring were originally conceived by Wagner to be free of the traditional operatic concepts of aria and operatic chorus. The Wagner scholar Curt von Westernhagen identified three important problems discussed in "Opera and Drama" which were particularly relevant to the Ring cycle: the problem of unifying verse stress with melody; the disjunctions caused by formal arias in dramatic structure, and the way in which opera music could be organised on a different basis of organic growth and modulation ; and the function of musical motifs in linking elements of the plot whose connections might otherwise be inexplicit.
This became known as the leitmotif technique see below , although Wagner himself did not use this word. However, Wagner relaxed some aspects of his self-imposed restrictions somewhat as the work progressed. And now, O Nibelungen Spectator, pluck up; for all allegories come to an end somewhere The rest of what you are going to see is opera, and nothing but opera.
Before many bars have been played, Siegfried and the wakened Brynhild, newly become tenor and soprano, will sing a concerted cadenza ; plunge on from that to a magnificent love duet As a significant element in the Ring and his subsequent works, Wagner adopted the use of leitmotifs , which are recurring themes or harmonic progressions. They musically denote an action, object, emotion, character, or other subject mentioned in the text or presented onstage. Wagner referred to them in "Opera and Drama" as "guides-to-feeling", describing how they could be used to inform the listener of a musical or dramatic subtext to the action onstage in the same way as a Greek chorus did for the theatre of ancient Greece.
Although other composers before Wagner had already used similar techniques, the Ring was a landmark in the extent to which they were employed, as well as in the ingenuity of their combination and development. Wagner made significant innovations in orchestration in this work. He wrote for a very large orchestra, using the whole range of instruments used singly or in combination to express the great range of emotion and events of the drama.
Wagner even commissioned the production of new instruments, including the Wagner tuba , invented to fill a gap he found between the tone qualities of the horn and the trombone , as well as variations of existing instruments, such as the bass trumpet and a contrabass trombone with a double slide. He also developed the "Wagner bell", enabling the bassoon to reach the low A-natural, whereas normally B-flat is the instrument's lowest note. If such a bell is not to be used, then a contrabassoon should be employed. All four parts have a very similar instrumentation.
The core ensemble of instruments are one piccolo , three flutes third doubling second piccolo , three oboes , cor anglais doubling fourth oboe , three soprano clarinets , one bass clarinet , three bassoons ; eight horns fifth through eight doubling Wagner tubas , three trumpets , one bass trumpet, three tenor trombones , one contrabass trombone doubling bass trombone , one contrabass tuba ; a percussion section with 4 timpani requiring two players , triangle , cymbals , glockenspiel ; six harps and a string section consisting of 16 first and second violins , 12 violas , 12 violoncellos , and 8 double basses.
Das Rheingold requires one bass drum , one tam-tam , one onstage harp and 18 onstage anvils. Siegfried requires one onstage cor anglais and one onstage horn. Much of the Ring , especially from Siegfried act 3 onwards, cannot be said to be in traditional, clearly defined keys for long stretches, but rather in 'key regions', each of which flows smoothly into the following.
This fluidity avoided the musical equivalent of clearly defined musical paragraphs, and assisted Wagner in building the work's huge structures. Tonal indeterminacy was heightened by the increased freedom with which he used dissonance and chromaticism. Chromatically altered chords are used very liberally in the Ring , and this feature, which is also prominent in Tristan und Isolde , is often cited as a milestone on the way to Arnold Schoenberg 's revolutionary break with the traditional concept of key and his dissolution of consonance as the basis of an organising principle in music.
In summer Wagner wrote The Nibelung Myth as Sketch for a Drama , combining the medieval sources previously mentioned into a single narrative, very similar to the plot of the eventual Ring cycle, but nevertheless with substantial differences. Later that year he began writing a libretto entitled Siegfrieds Tod "Siegfried's Death". Siegfrieds Tod dealt with the death of Siegfried, the central heroic figure of the Nibelungenlied.
By , Wagner had completed a musical sketch which he abandoned for Siegfrieds Tod. In November , Wagner began the composition draft of Das Rheingold. Unlike the verses, which were written as it were in reverse order, the music would be composed in the same order as the narrative. Composition proceeded until , when the final score up to the end of act 2 of Siegfried was completed. He returned to Siegfried , and, remarkably, was able to pick up where he left off. In October, he completed the final work in the cycle. In the completed work the gods are destroyed in accordance with the new pessimistic thrust of the cycle, not redeemed as in the more optimistic originally planned ending.
These changes resulted in some discrepancies in the cycle, but these do not diminish the value of the work. Wagner subsequently delayed announcing his completion of Siegfried to prevent this work also being premiered against his wishes. Wagner had long desired to have a special festival opera house, designed by himself, for the performance of the Ring. In , he decided on a location in the Bavarian town of Bayreuth. In , he moved to Bayreuth, and the foundation stone was laid.
Wagner would spend the next two years attempting to raise capital for the construction, with scant success; King Ludwig finally rescued the project in by donating the needed funds. The Bayreuth Festspielhaus opened in with the first complete performance of the Ring , which took place from 13 to 17 August. The first production of the Ring in Italy was in Venice the place where Wagner died , just two months after his death, at La Fenice. The Ring is a major undertaking for any opera company: staging four interlinked operas requires a huge commitment both artistically and financially; hence, in most opera houses, production of a new Ring cycle will happen over a number of years, with one or two operas in the cycle being added each year.
Early productions of the Ring cycle stayed close to Wagner's original Bayreuth staging.
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Trends set at Bayreuth have continued to be influential. Following the closure of the Festspielhaus during the Second World War , the s saw productions by Wagner's grandsons Wieland and Wolfgang Wagner known as the 'New Bayreuth' style , which emphasised the human aspects of the drama in a more abstract setting. This drew heavily on the reading of the Ring as a revolutionary drama and critique of the modern world, famously expounded by George Bernard Shaw in The Perfect Wagnerite.
Early performances were booed but the audience of gave it a minute ovation in its final year;   the production is now generally regarded as revolutionary and a classic. Although many Ring productions try to remain close to Wagner's original stage design and direction, others seek to re-interpret the Ring for modern audiences, often including decor and action that Wagner himself did not envisage.
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The production by Peter Hall , conducted by Georg Solti at Bayreuth in is an example of the former, while the production by Richard Jones at the Royal Opera House Covent Garden in —, conducted by Bernard Haitink , is an example of the latter. In the first production of the cycle in Russia in modern times was conducted by Valery Gergiev at the Mariinsky Opera , Saint Petersburg, designed by George Tsypin. The production drew parallels with Ossetian mythology. The upper part of the scene is filled with moving water, which ows restlessly from R. Towards the bottom, the water resolves itself into a fine mist, so that a space rising from the bottom of the river to a man's height seems free from the water which ows like a train of clouds over the gloomy depths.
Every where steep points of rock jut up from the depths, and form as it were a framework for the stage. The bottom is broken up into a wild chaos of jagged rock, so that no part of it is level.
Das Rheingold (the Rhinegold)
On all sides darker spots suggest deeper fissures. Round a rock in the centre of the stage, whence its peak rises high in the lighter water, one of the rhine daughters is seen swimming merrily. About the PublisherForgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.
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