Quiet place within our house but independent. Furnished kitchen Air Conditioner, cooking place, dishwasher.. Nice access 15mn by car and 10mn for the airport.
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Very quiet neighborhood though near heart of main cities of french riviera Nice, Antibes, Cannes. Small residence near the sea. The apartment is located in the heart of nice, 2 minutes from train station, 10minutes from the sea and old Town. It is not very big, but it has everything you need to enjoy a short vacation in nice. Close of all conveniences: 10 min on foot of the sea, 2 min on foot of the train station, nearby the public transportation, near the old town.
Building is secured with guard on the same floor. Maximum capacity 2 persons. Animals not accepted. Thank you. Perfect place for your next vacation in family or friend, The flat was in an interior design website "Houzz" and I m very happy to share that experience with you. The place look like a suite hotel and offer the possibility to relax in the heart of the historical city, walking distance to the sand beaches, the harbor, the restaurants and pub!
Lovely loft you will fall in love with the history of the place One big bedroom with a King size bed and a mezzanine for 2 children's or a sofa bed in the living room Full equipped kitchen with a huge veranda in a quiet street of the historical town A walking distance from all the shops, restaurants and the sand beaches. In the heart of the unique historical city of Antibes, you won't need your car to enjoy the neighborhood and his quiet and charming streets! Walking distance to the sand beaches, the harbor and the restaurant or train station to visit Cannes, Nice or Monaco Fanstastic loft heart of the old town beach walk!
This apartment, entirely renovated in , is situated on the 1st floor of a residence located in one of the most beautiful and quiet areas of Nice, the Quartier des Musiciens, only 2 minutes from the central train station and a couple of minutes from the beach. This cute studio, decorated with taste and refinement, is fully equipped: - double bed with linen - bath towels Fully furnished kitchenette modern fridge, microwave, ceramic cooking plate, tea-kettle, plates, cutlery Situated in the center of Nice at: - 8 minutes by foot to the beach.
I am available to assist you in any way so that you will have the most enjoyable stay. This quiet and airy apartment is perfectly situated to access all the services you might need in terms of equipment, location and nearby public transport. The tram, bus stops and central train station are only a few minutes away by foot.
The apartment is close to the central train station of Nice, where a bus connection will take you to the airport, perfect for a seamless transfer. There are also long term parking options if you plan on arriving by car. Taxis are easily found around the central train station. It is a small loft in downtown. Flooring, high ceiling, a magical place designed to disconnect, enjoy their holiday and feel good.
The garden can take meals or last rays of sun pets are welcome. It is a small loft designed by an architect and everything is in place. For people who love decorating, it is a place full of nice surprises. The apartment is in the golden square. It's the beautiful downtown district with the nicer architecture and streets quiet. The street is 10 minutes from all the important places in Nice.
Little loft in the center. Localisation exceptionnelle. Magnificent waterfront home with direct access to 2 private beaches, swimming pool and jacuzzi, also private. The appartment is composed of 1 large bedroom, living room with kitchen, 1 single bedroom and 1 big terrace furnished with dining and living room. The propriety is totally made safe especially for childrens and the pool has shallow water for little children.
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At mt there's a little supermarket and at 50 mt there's a sandy beach with all water sports and numerous restaurants and pizzerias. A short walk from the house and you will find the charming Port de la Figueirette and in just 20 minutes by car you can reach Cannes, luxury capital, famous for the film festival. If you need something for a meal at home or for breakfast, there is a small supermarket at just 5 minutes walking from the house direction St.
Waterfront house - Private beach and swimming pool. A perfectly located studio in the heart of Cannes bordering the charming old village of the Suquet that while it has a central location still offers a peaceful and tranquil setting.
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The studio is available for short term rentals for periods ranging from 3 to 6 months. Ideal for studients, interns or those visiting the region. It has recently been completely renovated offering an equipped kitchen with hob, microwave and Nespresso coffee machine. The bathroom includes a spacious shower with 2 heads including one with rain effect, a lighted mirror above the basin and a sany-macerator compact toilet.
The cm single bed of the mezzanine is located above the kitchen and bathroom and is easily accessible by a secure ladder. Once in bed, the orthopedic mattress and suspended lighting make for a very comfortable sleeping experience. At the bottom of the bed is a large storage space. The studio is very bright airy and spacious with a ceiling height of more than 3 m and a large 2 m high window overlooking the lovely private courtyard.
So this studio is ideal for someone without a car. The Suquet area of Cannes is known for its historic charm as well as its central location. On the edge of Cannes, access to the best sandy beaches and the main road to Mandelieu is just around the corner. You will also find day to day amentities in the quarter, such as laundrettes, grocery stores, gyms, an end of week 3 day market and public parking lots. A m de la plage, et plein Centre chic, mignon Studio de 9m2 dans bel immeuble Art-Deco, ascenseur ancien.
Plaque de cuisson induction. Modern and air-conditioned loft, on the 2nd floor of a bourgeois building, with elevator. Located behind the Massena square, in a pedestrian street in front of the beach, it offers breathtaking views of the sea and the Georges Pompidou garden. Completely renovated 4 years ago, and decorated with taste, this apartment has very large windows overlooking the sea, facing south, full of light. Very unusual, this is a single large volume with an impressive high ceiling.
Everything is designed to feel like home. The kitchen is open on the other parts of the apartment. The bedroom is on duplex and the open bathroom can be closed by large curtains. The toilets are separated. On request we can provide you 2 beds for baby baby cot for children years. Dear travelers can you please send me a note inquiring about availability before to book. Very nice studio flat entirely renovated and furnished, located in the heart of Cannes, Rue Chabaud. The apartment offer the following advantages and conveniences : - Air Conditioning - Free parking spots at only 5 minutes walk of the apartment or secured parking at 5min walk for 7,00EUR per day - Fast Internet Wifi connection - Bedding and towels are furnished.
The flat gets a spacious living room with a sofa bed for two persons with a good mattress of 54"x80" width xcm , an open kitchen all equipped refrigerator, cafetiere, toaster, washing machine, ceramic glass cooktop , a separated bedroom space with a small double size bed of 48" width cm , an all new bathroom equipped with towel drying heater and a shower.
The flat provides perfect accommodation for 2 persons and is very bright all day long with its 3 large windows. During your stay a cleaning service is available on request. Design Flat 2min of the Beach!!! Piscine et jardin accessible. Nous vous proposons le petit. A 30 minutes de cannes et des plages. Bas de plafond. En rez de jardin. Appartement atypique et plein de charme. Lovely, two-room apartment located near the Port of Nice.
It is modern and bright and only two minutes from many shops, beaches, and the Old City. Equipped with a mobile air-conditioning unit, Wi-Fi, and a bathroom with bathtub. Joint parking lot. Public transportation nearby. London: Arrow Books, A House like a Lotus. Noew York: Bantam Doubleday, Dragons in the Waters. New York: Vanguard Press, The Other Side of the Sun. Greenwich CT: Fawcett Crest, The Rock that is Higher.
The Summer of the Great Grandmother. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Walking on Water. Tring: Lion Publishing, Notes on my Family and Recollections of my Early Days. New York: The Knickerbocker Press, Lewis, C. Of This and Other Worlds. London: Collins, Marcus, Leonard S.
Mitchell, Margaret. Gone with the Wind. New York. Scribner, Niewiadomska-Flis, Urszula. Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL, Pace, Robert F.
Parker, Susan. Pick, Robert. Pirandello, Luigi. The Pleasure of Honesty. William Murray, Act 1. Rausen , Ruth. Roberts, Diane. Charles Reagan Wilson. Roberts, William. The Portraiture of a Christian Gentleman. London: Adam Matthew Publications, Scaperlanda, Maria Ruiz.
Seidel, Kathryn L. Douglas B. Jackson: The University of Mississippi Press, Silber, Nina. The Romance of Reunion: Northerners and the South, Singal, Daniel J. William Faulkner: The Making of a Modernist. Watson, Ritchie D. Joseph M. Wyatt-Brown, Bertram. Honor and Violence in the Old South. Macpherson furnishes a dominant note of lyric melancholy or "Wettschmerz"; Mallet supplies themes of rude heroic life, "couleur barbare.
This applies particularly to Ragnar's Dying Ode, in which precursors of Romanticism thought they found the typical Northern Hero.. The details and ramifications of Ragnar's triumphal reception in pre-Romantic Europe are presented in the second volume of my NorthernAntiquities, from which 1 also g! According to the saga and tradition the Danish scald and viking, Ragnar Lodbrok, was captured by King Ella of Northumbria and thrown into a serpents' den, where, just before being bitten to death, he chanted a swan song in twenty-nine stanzas, known as the Lodbrokarkvida or the.
In this death song Ragnar recounts his notable deeds and expresses his joy at the splendid welcome awaiting him in Odin's Valhalla.
OM and Literature. The Icelandic text in the Bjarka Saga bas "Hneig Agnarr nidr, hlaejandi a jord ok do sidan," that is, "Agnar drops with a laugh and then dies. This incident is the direct prototype of Parny's hero, Elvin, "who was stabbed, fell, laughed and died. It is imitated by Millevoye in his Alfred, also of There "the Dane laughs and dies," with a note explaining that "to die with a laugh was a sort of point d'honneur with the Danes. The Biar Legend was naturally quoted together, in most cases, with Lodbrok's identical Ridens Moriar, but Tressan added further interest to the theme by comparing Ragnar's death song with war-songs of "the savages of Canada.
It is a tendency which prepares the way for Chateaubriand's Atala. It meets the popular hankering for a return to the primitive, as advocated by Rousseau. It helps to explain the favor of Ossian and the coincident revelation of ancient Scandinavian literature. As Macpherson's melancholy Ossian was lamentably lacking in this respect, Ragnar's defiant energy and utter lack of morbid sentimentality, though not of tragic melancholy, formed, with other renowned specimens of Icelandic poetry, a significant counterpoise to one-sided influence from Ossian.
If Ragnar had the fortitude to die with a smile in spite of tortures by venomous snakes, the ever-wailing Ossian would be a pitiful parallel. A different type of Primitive Man was needed- and the Canadian Indians filled the need. Two mistranslations, with resulting misconceptions, of Ragnar's Ode helped its popularity. Yet Wormius left it out and thereby necessarily added to the heroic effect. Modern research confirms the part played by enemy skulls in the life of primitive peoples of Europe, including the Celts, with whom the Scandinavians were confused.
We must therefore assume that the skull-incident in Ragnar's Ode has in many minds served as corroboration of current ideas of these "Celts" or "Scythians. One result of this "ethnographic mediey" was to despoil the revelation of Ragnar of some of his genuine novelty, for he was, after all, a "Celt" like the other Scandinavians! Despite this delusion, the skull-incident of the Ode is presented as intrinsically curious and is recorded by about sixty French writers.
Wormius and Mallet are the usual sources, but Scandinavian and German seventeenth and eighteenth-century antiquarians contributed to the misconception. Pelloutier had substantiated his point about the Celtic skull-drinking with a reference to Ragnar's ancient Ode as exemplifying some of the Scandinavian "plaisirs d'une autre vie. His remarks suggest the correct understanding. The comparatively recent custom among IndoGermanic peoples of using enemy skulls as drinking vessels may in part account for the frequency in Indo-Germanic languages of names for drinking cups side by side with root-resembling terms for "head" and "skuM.
However this may be, no one seemed to question Ragnar's Ode as a perfect sample of primitive poetry. But was that sort of blood-dripping story not altogether too savage, too "cannibalistic" for refined, though romantically groping minds? Pelloutier had endeavored to exonerate the ancient Celts from having been maneaters, even if he admitted that they drank from human skulls and perhaps occasionally feasted on a fallen enemy or the body of a decrepit old relative stewed with other meats.
He had argued, obviously from Montaigne's Des Cannibales, that eating slain enemies or dead relatives, was in reality not nearly so bad as torturing persons to death, as was done in the so-called civilized nations. He had thereby stirred up the age-old question of humanity's "golden age," and had anticipated the discussions arising from Rousseau's "nature-gospel. Both knew the horrors of the Revolution and had had time to reflect. Here the hall of the Revolutionary Constituent Assembly and the Convention is likened to an Olympus reminding of "fierce Odin in his bloody paradise, dispensing to his chosen ones the drink of immortality in human skulls.
The FrancoScandinavian historian, Calleville, had pictured the ancient Danes as "ferocious, restless men, who blush at peace, who will only die on the field of battle, and whose supreme bliss consists in drinking mead from the skulls of their enemies. MaHet's and Tressan's popular theory of locating the birth of Chivalry! He admits that women are freest in the North, but finds that Courage there is an "aimost detestable" picture of "the most odious ferocity" in "this strange paradise, where the heroes slash themselves for fun, and where mead-drinking from the skulls of their enemies offers true enjoyments of cannibals.
If Lesser had only known that the "cannibalistic" enjoyments merely derived from a mistranslation! The ensuing public discussion is significant, but it was not till that the deserving Franco-German historian Depping, delivered the philological and historical proofs of Wormius' mistranslation and the resulting misconception of ancient Scandinavia. Enlightened publicists henceforth have the correct version of Ragnar's Ode.
In self-defense they refer to the only two cases in Icelandic literature that support the idea of Wormius. This book had a remarkable run in France and was probably known to Victor Hugo. Tomemos por ejemplo el conocidisimo cantar:.
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Es una estrofa recitable y cantable. Cuando se canta, si. Hay, sin embargo, una especie de verso en castellano, que se puede medir por pies, o grupos rftmicos, nombre que me parece mas apropiado. Es el verso que nuestros antepasados llamaron el verso de Arte Mayor.
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Ya hemos visto que Nebrija niega que existan en espanol silabas largas y breves. II, libro I, cap. Bello, op. Este sistema de pies acentuales esta todav! Sobran ejemplos: el Poema del Cid, muchos de los versos de Juan Ruiz, los romances antiguos, etc. Esta es la pura verdad, y en vez de temerla, debemos afrontarla valientemente tratando de Ilegar a comprender su verdadero ritmo sin tratar de corregir a los poetas que la escribieron. Por ejemplo, son perfectamente rftmicos estos famosos versos de Tennyson:.
El contar escueta y Ilanamente las silabas puede pasar en una lengua como la francesa, donde todas las silabas tienen aproximadamente el mismo valor cuantitativo y acentual, pero no en lenguas, como la espanota y la inglesa, que son esencialmente acentuales. Veamos los siguientes endecasilabos:. De su asercion se deduce por rigurosa logica que una pausa al principio del verso equivale a una silaba, lo que es absurdo, pues todos los versos tienen pausa al principio.
Sobre estos dos supuestos fenomenos ha escrito estensamente el Sr. Lo anterior prueba que no se pueden escribir versos en espanol por el simple procedimiento de contar las sflabas. He aqu! Knapp, Madrid, ; Garcilaso, Works, edic. Los versos que cito, a pesar de tener once silabas, son en realidad versos de Arte Mayor por sus acentos.
Garcilaso, op. Que ser por vuestra causa padecidos? He escogido versos de Garcilaso porque es un poeta a quien no se le puede acusar de tener mal oMo. Martmez de la Rosa. Benot, op. De la Barra op, cit. En los asonantes se ve palpablemente que el acento es el todo al final de verso: co vale tanto como eotMco. Sin embargo, el primero tiene dos sHabas mas que el segundo. Urena escribe: El verso de cuatro silabas, fluctuando a menudo entre seis y dos," etc. Muero de fambre, senor poderoso!
Esta es una verdad inconclusa, y para comprender el ritmo de los versos de Arte Mayor no hay que recurrir a la anacrusis ni a la catalexis ni a otros artificios por el estilo. Los espanoles comprenden su ritmo y esto es todo! Lo mismo pasa con los quebrados. Y no hay dificultad alguna en comprender el ritmo de los siguientes versos:. B Arte Mayor de Juan de Mena. Este artfculo lo tradujo D. Adolfo Bonilla y San Mart! Tampoco pueden explicarse estos versos por la teorfa del isosilabismo diciendo que no existen los quebrados, y si s6!
No se engane nadie, no,. Por ejemplo: Agosto. La sotucion del. El hecho de que el simple cuento de las silabas no hace versos espanoies. El testimonio mismo de los poetas que imitaron metros franceses. En el Libro de Apolonio se llama al alejandrino nueva? No estamos de acuerdo con el Sr. El Sr. Esto solo puede explicarse porque el contar las silabas no era cosa natural en Espana. Urena dice: A menudo el poeta Berceo obtiene la regularidad mediante el empleo del hiato en forma artificial, que no se halla a mi juicio en ningun otro poeta.
Peter, Constable of Portugal, edic. Urena, op. Lo mismo asegura la Sra. Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos en su resena del articule del Sr. Agrega que se podrfan eliminar con enmendaciones faciles. Es indiscutible que en los romances viejos la sinalefa es to corriente, y el hiato la excepci6n. Y esto mismo se puede afirmar sin vacilaciones de toda la poesfa ind! En conclusion: en espafiol hay dos sistemas diferentes de versificaci6n anteriores al siglo XVI: el indigena, que no cuenta las s! Iabas, emplea la sinalefa con preferencia al hiato, y no admite la cesura contra sentido; y el extranjero, que cuenta las sflabas, 34 Ibid.
Como dice el Sr. Espinosa " Versif. Si damos al acento la importancia que realmente debe tener en una lengua tan acentual como o es la castellana, habremos encontrado el secreto de su ritmo. In this extensive volume Dr. Baillot bas undertaken to determine the exact nature of Schopenhauer's influence upon French thought and letters. As a literary and emotional philosopher Schopenhauer has appealed more to reflective authors than to technical and systematic philosophers, and this study of his ascendency had to become in the main a survey of "pessimism" in modern letters, especially in such poets as Mme Ackerman, Jean Lahor, or Sully Prudhomme.
Among the more specific metaphysicians only Renouvier and Bergson show traces of contact with the thought of the German pseudo-Buddhist, from whom they took some color, although they rejected his main tenets. Baillot has contributed valuable data about the infiltration of Schopenhauer's thought in France after ; he has traced it with care in some nineteenth-century philosophers and mainly in the Parnassian authors, but the volume suffers from the vagueness of the term "pessimism. But the author has not resisted the temptation of prefacing his study by an outline of Pessimism in the Nineteenth Century—and "pessimism" is, unhappily, a chameleon-word of many hues and shades of meaning.
Baillot distinguishes several forms of it: "pessimisme irrationaliste, individualiste, misantropique, scientifique," as well as several emotional and sentimentally romantic ones, but their differentiation is difficult and their compass too att-inctusive. These various "aspects" even tend to increase the number of mental attitudes and more or less fluctuating doctrines that can be classified as "pessimism.
Since the field remains thus weakly outlined "aux contours vagues" free play is given to a tendency towards generalization. Goethe, Byron, Leopardi. The essence of Revolutionary doctrine is an exalted trust in the "goodness of human nature" and the "righteousness of reason,convictions or illusions that are not at all "pessimistic. If the Revolution "renewed pessimism," how did it happen that the countries where no revolution took place—England, Germany, Italy—could surround France by with a "pessimism" that did "not dare" to cross the frontier as if it were an allied army kept out by Napoleon's superior generalship?
If so, this would not be substantiated by fact: Pessimism in its several forms,-perennial or historical,-was long before the Revolution part and parcel of general European pre-Romanticism. It continued its course unmodified even by the French Terreur. Werther dates from ; The Man of Feeling appeared in ; Mrs. Radcliffe published her first "gothic" novel in ; Young's Night Thoughts were imitated in France decades before the Revolution; etc.
Moreover, several hundred English novels were translated into French in the eighteenth century-and many of them were pessimistically tearful. Pessimism, understood as various forms of melancholy, nihilism or somber revolt, was a psychological or a literary attitude both in France and in Europe before, during, and after the Revolution, before and after Napoleon. The Conqueror did not "keep it out of France," nor did he introduce it. It seems dangerous to draw pseudo-historical parallels between political events and literature at the expense of fact and because of the vague theory that "literature mirrors the life of the times.
Le front d'Adolphe [Benjamin Constant] se rembrunit, et Senancour devint sinistre. The investigations of the last two decades on the origins or the evolution of Romanticism are here neglected in order to present a striking historic-literary tableau. But it may be regretted that its approach to literary history is too vaguely ideological, and occasionally too ornated with the tinsel of eloquent generalities. Moreover, I regret that Dr. Baillot is out of sympathy with part of his subject,—with certain modernist poets. He even loses sometimes his critical balance to indulge in invective against them-although this aversion bas nothing to do either with Schopenhauer or with his influence.
Let us take, for instance, his violent diatribe against Rimbaud, whose spontaneous art he fails to appreciate. He disapproves of the personal life of this "precocious outlaw," and he believes that he was never a fullfledged poet. It is strange to find such abuse in a study on Schopenhauer's influence, the more that Dr. Baillot stresses at once that Schopenhauer had no influence whatever on Rimbaud. Why devote a page of invective to his poetry, his manners, his life and his death, when he falls entirely outside the scope of this study?
And if Schopenhauer did not influence him, it is because Rimbaud disdained his "renunciation of life" and wanted to live it out flamingly and in its fullest intensity. These thunderbolts of destruction launched at a non-conformist genius betray, I believe, that the philosopher-critic failed to find in his verse the neat formulation of abstract theories in verse, which to him seem to be the essence of poetry.
It is due to this didactic approach that he can prefer Sully Prudhomme, a far more consistent thinker, of irreproachable manners,-but whose poetry remains evidently far inferior to Rimbaud's. On the other hand, it is somewhat astonishing to note that whereas a number of slight or dubious, or even negative "influences" of Schopenhauer are discussed, some. His moment of Messianism, when he resolved to go out "pieds nus" to the clamorous cities to preach the doctrine of universal renunciation and universal suicide, could be styled "a crisis of active Schopenhauerism.
And this influence was still increased indirectly when Laforgue later came under the spell of von Hartmann's Philosophie des Unbewussten. The book ends with an apology for pessimism. On this issue we may be, allowed to "suspend judgement," but, if strong doses of despair and nihilism could produce this noble self-perfection, they would be vastly more tolerable than they are.
A study of the two novels of Juan de Flores, Grisel y Mirabella and Grimalte y Gradissa, leads one immediately into some fascinating problems of literary history. How intricately complicated and widely ramified are these problems Miss Matulka has made apparent for the first time in her exhaustive study of the Spanish romancer and his work.
The book is a monument to her scholarly industry and thoroughness. She discusses each of de Flores' romances in detail, including sources, analogues, translations, and imitations; she also includes an edition of the earliest text of each, an appendix on the works attributed to Juan de Flores, an essay on the dating of Grisel and Grimalte, and a bibliography of editions of the former.
Moreover, the book is illustrated by reproductions of the quaint title pages from early editions of the romance. The volume is attractive as well as useful. This is the story of a Princess of Scotland who is tried with her lover before her own father the King, according to an ancient law which stated that the guiltier of the two parties in such a case should be put to death.
There ensued a combat of generosity in which each lover claimed to be the guiltier, in order to save the other. The trial became a debate on the general subject of the relative guilt of Man and Woman; in. The jea! The debate on the relative merits of man and woman makes this romance a document in the so-called feminist controversy which had raged in literature for several centuries, a controversy to which Christine de Pisan and many others had contributed. The use of a man named Torrellas-a contemporary author-as an advocate for the cause of men connects the romance with a curious chapter of Spanish literary history, to which Miss Matulka makes a significant contribution.
Finally, the main theme, the combat of generosity, led to a whole series of imitations in later literature. Despite its connection with the Fiammetta of Boccaccio and the Eurialus and Lucretia of Aeneas Silvius, it offers fewer opportunities for comparative study. One of the best contributions in this section is Miss Matulka's study of the mad lover in the wilderness and his resemblance to the hairy anchorite of saintly legend.
A study of this kind is particularly instructive because it illustrates the necessity of journeying far afield when one is working on any problem of comparative literature. If Miss Matulka had not known the romances of the Middle Ages as well as those of the Renaissance, or if she had confined herself to the Spanish language alone, her work would have had but a limited significance in the history of culture.
As it is, her methods may well serve as a model to other students. In some details there might have been improvement-repetitions might have been avoided, and space savedbut the work as a whole is admirable in plan and scope. Poliarchus, who is not favored by the King, is forced to visit the Princess in disguise, but their meetings and correspondence are betrayed by her maid Selinissa. In the end, however, Poliarchus wins Argenis, who, in this political aIlegory, personifies Succession to the Crown.
These are but details, to be sure, but the connection is interesting; and it is possible, I should think, that John Barclay also knew the work of Juan de Flores. With a note of sadness in his Introduction, this eminent Italian scholar seems to bid farewell to his studies, and to the scholarly dreams that spurred him on in the passionate research of his earlier days; he now calls upon others to continue this labor of love to which he has devoted his life.
With his vast erudition and his indefatigable investigations, he is one of the leading exponents of comparative literature from the Spanish point of view, a field in which relatively little work is now being done. In these two comprehensive volumes he has gathered some of the most substantial of his many contributions to Spanish-Italian literary relations. They form a collection of his early articles published in previous years, but revised and completed with pertinent new material and copious annotations which mainly embody the results of recent research.
In this way these annotated studies give a complete survey of the latest studies on certain interesting subjects such as, for instance, feminism in fifteenth century Spain, to which he contributes a number of important documents. He has, for example, devoted about a dozen pages to an extensive discussion of the relations of Pedro Torrellas, the Catalan poet, to the feminist movement of his period; and, from his footnotes and numerous other references to Torrellas dispersed ail through the first volume, a substantial study, both biographical and literary, can be deduced.
MM de Zaragoza or to the well-known studies of Masse Torrents, to reconstitute the interesting polemics that raged around this Spanish imitator of Boccaccio. He has treated with the same thoroughness and detail many other points of Italian-Spanish literary relations, and the abundant clues in his numerous footnotes are precious because of the vistas they open up on subjects in which much investigation remains to be done. The way in which these studies grew explains why some of the most interesting material is hidden in a footnote. It also explains why the work ranges over all the important fields of Italian-Spanish literary and cultural relations.
Volume 1 discusses at length the influence of Petrarch in Spain in the Middle Ages, and more exhaustively still, that of Boccaccio up to the age of Cervantes and Lope de Vega. It also includes an account of Farinelli's journey in Spain in , during which he came in contact with the leading Spanish scholars. If one bears this object in mind, these volumes will be found invaluable. Being largely pioneer work, they gather the scattered materials on several vital problems in comparative literature; they clear up many details and, in general, take stock of the existing problems and.
As such, they should be looked upon largelyas the groundwork, the bausteine, of an extensive history in this comparative field, as an indispensable point of departure for aIl future studies. Many may regret that Farinelli did not write a synthetic study of the Italian literature in Spain, especially since he was so supremely qualified to do this,-but he bas proved too patient, too minute, too honest a scholar, ever to cover gaps in his documentation with synthetic generalities. It is mainly this profound honesty in research that bas made him accumulate this infinite and precious detail of which others than he, perhaps, will make the fullest use.
His many discoveries, however, are a substantiation of his fame as an investigator. Each problem that he bas touched he bas changed and illuminated. For example, he studies Boccaccio's influence in Spain not only through the Decameron, but his other works as well, and demonstrates that rather than his masterpiece, his other works were the object of admiration in Spain, were translated and commented -upon, especially in the earlier decades.
The last three especially set him in the very midst of the feminist debate in fifteenth-century Spain. Not only were his arguments repeated both for and against women, but he himself was represented as a wise master of morals, warning unsuspecting youths against the dangers of mundane love. But if 1 may be allowed a difference of opinion, one might have indicated that Juan de Flores did not merely imitate this elegy of love's deception, but wrote a reply and expostulation, bringing it sternly to its fatal conclusion on this earth and carrying the feud on to the beyond, to the perdition of a soul through ail eternity.
As to Petrarch, Farinelli indicates a similar phenomenon. His study on Tasso in Spain is a reworking of an earlier article of which dealt only with an unknown Spanish translation of Jerusalem Delivered. All of the subjects of which Farinelli treats are of a simi! L the future investigations which their wealth of suggestions will undoubtedly inspire. Ludwig Pfandl, Johanna die Wahnsinnige. Ihre Zeit. The poets and the historians have never agreed in their estimates of Juana la Loca.
The poets have always pictured her as the tragic victim of her husband's infidelities and her father's political machinations. To the historians she is at best a shadowy, incompetent figure in a brief interregnum of confusion and civil war. Pfandl approaches his subject as an historian and as a psychiatrist. From contemporary sources-letters, ambassadorial reports, descriptions of public occasions and other documents of state-he brings evidence to show that the unfortunate queen suffered from dementia praecox, a malady with which her grandmother, Isabel of Portugal, had been afflicted during the last years of her life.
The dormant tendency to the disease was, he admits, in Juana's case aggravated by emotional excitement. The first unmistakable symptoms of her illness appeared when she was detained against her will in Castile after her husband had left for Flanders. A second outbreak occurred during a fit of jealous rage when she attacked one of her ladies-in-waiting with a pair of scissors and disfigured the pretty face which she believed had aroused Philip's admiration. Pfandl believes, however, that Juana's excessive jealousy was a form of the persecution mania, a result, therefore, and a symptom, rather than a cause of her disease.
The marital infidelities of the handsome Philip were, he thinks, no more than were to be expected from a man of his position in his time. Promiscuity, for a prince, was no heinous crime. Isabella might with as much reason have complained of Ferdinand, who had populated the court with bastards, but she, being of sound mind, had accepted the situation as natural and inevitable.
The symptoms of Juana's disorder seem to have grown more pronounced after her mother's death. At least there was more cause to observe them after she had succeeded to the throne. She became a prey to abulia, refused to accept responsibility or to make decisions, and insisted, with pathological intensity, on the performance of certain acts characteristic of dementia, such as the daily washing and rewashing of her hair. Then suddenly Philip died, and her behavior became so eccentric that the whole world knew that she was mad.
Many of the romantic incidents which have been woven into this part of her story Pfandl rejects as legendary. Philip had asked to be buried in Granada, but for a time the casket was kept in a monastery at Burgos, the city in which he had died, for Juana could not at first be reconciled to the fact that she had lost him. It is true that she went to the monastery every few days and insisted on looking at her husband's body to reassure herself that it had not been removed or dishonored, but the more sensational details which have been told concerning these visits must be dismissed as apocryphal.
Finally an epidemic broke out in Burgos, and the queen and her retinue left the city and went to the little town of Torquemada, making their way by torcMight, at night, carrying the king's body with them. Finally Juana's father had her brought to the lonely castle in Tordesillas where she spent the fortysix years of death-in-life that remained to her. The casket containing Philip's body was placed in a near-by church where she could see it from her apartments, but within a few years she had forgotten ail about it and she made no protest when Ferdinand removed it to its final resting place in Granada.
Thirty odd years pass and her great-grandson is born to a similar fate. The tragic inheritance falls to a rachitic, subnormal child. It is one of the supreme ironies of history that this imbecile youth lives for posterity transfigured as the inspiring hero of Schiller's Don Carlos.
Pfandl leaves no shred of Schiller's romantic picture intact. On the whole Pfandl's account is logical, well documented, and convincing. At certain points the reader makes mental reservations. Philip II, the "adored husband" of Isabel of Valois, the long-suffering father of the demented Carlos, the "innocent victim" of plotting traitors, is his hero. Montigny and William of Orange are "unprincipled scoundrels" and "common traitors"; the revolt in the Netherlands, "the work of treacherous disloyalty rather than the result of an intellectual movement.
It is to be regretted that he has not paid more consideration to these objections. Until they are impartially examined and refuted, poets will still insist that the complaint from which both Juana and Carlos suffered was, in part, "la locura de amor" and that their dementia was at times complicated with "herejia. It is to be hoped, however, that the editing of the other volumes may be on a higher level than that accorded the one under review. The editor has provided a prologue of twetve pages containing some inference concerning the author, notes on his style, suggestions as to sources and influences, a sketch of the narrative with practically a paraphrase of some portions, and a description of the three editions known.
Although he admits the imprudence of conjecture, Sr. It is true that the approbation and other preliminaries imply that the book was the first work of a young man, but in the absence of documentation it is futile to guess at the date of his birth. Not everyone will agree with the editor in his observations on the style of the author, which he finds to be quevedesco and at the same time "puro y sin afectaciones gongorinas.
While it certainly does not represent the extreme of the type, yet the novel reveals tendencies toward culturanismo and conceptismo, as well as a pedanticism to be expected in a work of its period. Ticknor considered the style gongoristic cf. History of Spanish Literature, N. The opening words of the narrative seem to bear out this opinion:.
It is doubtful, too, whether most scholars would agree that the Desengano del hombre is the best imitation "la imitacion mas feliz" that we have of Quevedo's Suenos. The editor states that he bas spent several years searching in libraries and archives for mention of the author and, since his efforts have been fruitless in this regard, we might expect a more detailed study than he gives us of sources and of influences upon the work itself.
His suggestions are, for the most part, stated without indicating precise evidences of relationship. The space that is given to tracing the thread of the narrative would have been more happily filled by a scholarly treatment of the references mentioned above, which are listed so vaguely. The discussion of women is presented in some detail, selections quoted or paraphrased from the novel being interspersed with comments of the editor until at times one is confused as to the author of some of the statements.
There is, of course, no doubt as to the responsibility for one quotation which seems rather more than superfluous. This note, as well as the editor's personal sentiments about satirical attacks on women, has little place in a critical study of this kind. In describing the preceding editions of the Desengano del hombre, Sr. Astrana Marin gives the wording of the title-page of the original Even in this detail, however, there are several inaccuracies.
Such faults, although slight, are sufficiently misleading to nullify any usefulness for identification purposes. A facsimile reproduction would have been much better. The final statement of the prologue is that the present edition follows the text of the original, being modified only in orthography and in that which was absolutely necessary to facilitate reading. Here the reviewer is frankly skeptical. With the. Additional evidence exists that the edition was the basis for the modern one. For example, where the older editions read mirais , f. The form mirais is proper in this place.
The explanation for the variance of the edition in this account is, apparently, that its editor failed to understand the rather loose construction of the original, and attempted to clarify it by suppressing the names whose significance he did not see and supplying the same name throughout. The editor of the present edition calls attention to the reading of the undated edition as a variant and suggests a reason for the change, an explanation which could scarcely be expected to be plausible, since the chronology of the two readings is reversed.
The incident related is historical, but the identification of the hero as Caligula's horse is evidently a confusion of names. That at least one of the earlier editions was used to some extent is apparent not only in the reference to the undated edition, but also in the fact that there is included the full text of the diatribe upon women, about ten pages of which were omitted in the edition.
In a footnote attention is called to this omission. The text of this section might have been taken from either the undated or the version. In spite of the shortcomings noted it is a real satisfaction to have accessible this late example of Spanish allegory, an example combining characteristics of its own seventeenth-century period with some that belong to the earlier development of the type. As a contribution toward the understanding of a little known picaresque novel dealing with the beginnings of the decadent period, this monograph is to be commended.
The author deserves credit for bringing to light again a neglected work, about which erroneous ideas are still to be found in the manuals of Spanish literature, and of whose importance critics have never formed a satisfactory opinion. Professor Jones' work is an excerpt from his doctoral dissertation Chicago University which won the.
A line by line commentary, including notation of some seven hundred errors in the B. The author of the novel was a soldier-vagabond whose later days were spent in the service of General Octavo Piccolomini, prominent in the Thirty Years' War. The narrative itself is an account of Estevanillo's picaresque life as soldier, camp follower, despatch bearer and court jester from about to Jones establishes the Brussels, edition as the princeps, and lists other Spanish editions, to which might be added that of Barcelona, , cited by Palau y Dulcet Manual, Vol.
Since the publication of the thesis a reprint has appeared: Madrid, Aguilar, Coleccibn de autores regocijados. There follows a. Jones proves that some of the borrowings were likewise used in Gil Blas. He has, however, omitted several editions and translations which show the influence of the novel. The plotless, meandering construction, the slangy and at times ungrammatical style, the wealth of minor incident and color ail point to the account of an eye witness such as the clownish, semi-educated, rough and ready camp follower. The fact remains, though, that we do not have definitive proof of the existence of a real Estevanillo Gonzalez.
This name might easily be a pseudonyme Since documentary evidence is absent in this study, one wonders to what extent the archives of the Piccolomini campaign have been searched for historical information. The third chapter is concerned with the question: Was Estevanillo a Jew? This rather lengthy discussion seems a bit strained. There are arguments on both sides which very nearly balance. Estevanillo states that his father moved the family to Rome at a time when the Jews were being persecuted. Moreover he seems to show Jewish traits in his bargainings, yet the fact that much of the story is the fabrication of a jester would nullify this.
Furthermore we have at least one flat denial of Jewish blood by the writer himself. All of which forces Dr. Jones to leave the question standing. In the fourth chapter the author has taken considerable pains to prove the exact date of Estevanillo's birth. The key to this whole procedure is to be found, however, in a footnote of the previously mentioned work of Gossart p.
It is regrettable that Dr. Jones did not utilize his line by line commentary in a comparison of historical documents and Estevanillo's narrative instead of enlarging on the facts as stated by Gossart. As it is, he devotes his last chapter to a chronological summary of Estevanillo's life. X, Amsterdam, Besides, there were Russian translations in and ; a Danish translation, Copenhagen, ; an Italian translation, Venice, Another early English translation was made for J. Woodward, London, The following is taken from an account of the year which coincides with the activities of Estevanillo: "Unos echaban la culpa de la tardanza de Picolomini a lo mal que habia corrido la posta Gamarra.
Les Espagnoles en Flandre, Paris, , p. Rausse has discussed a possible connection with Grimmelshausen cf. The Literature of Roguery, I, Yet another angle of interest lies in the importance of Estevanillo's portrayal of soldier life in the period of Spain's decadence. Jones' study will attract and interest students of the siglo de oro, which is a service of merit, since this period presents many problems worthy of investigation.
The transient literature of the magazines when so reviewed over a period of thirty-five years shows in a striking fashion how spontaneous is the ever recurring interest in the personality of Jeanne d'Arc. Any event of current interest such as the unveiling of a statue or monument, a celebration in her honor, the performance of a play or motion picture, the publication of a book is quick to call forth aIl sorts of information about the well known events of her life as well as much interesting and significant speculation about such facts as are still disputable or conjecturable.
To a certain extent, at least, this bibliography is a mirror of the times for, in its very approach to the subject, each succeeding period reveals its own predominating interests and ideas. Although the author says that the work is neither selective nor exhaustive, it covers a surprisely large and varied field of current periodical literature including both general and provincial French magazines, English, American, German, Dutch, Scandinavian, Spanish, Cuban and Italian periodicals, ranging from the popular to the most technical variety.
Among the latter are journals of art, archaeology, medicine, psychology, theosophy, spiritualism, law, politics, the drama, ecctesiasticat questions, etc. The interest centers about the beatification, the canbnization, the important celebrations early in the century and since the war and Jeanne d'Arc's place in contemporary art, poetry, fiction and the theater. In a general section are treated all such personal matters as,-the ennobling of her family, their coat of arms, her relatives and descendants, her home, her name, her province, her childhood, the voices, certain companions of her career, her importance in the Great War, etc.
In art, the chief interest is in Anne Vaughn Hyatt's statue and some of the French monuments. To produce so well organized a work in a field as difficult to handle as that of periodical literature is no small achievement and surely all those interested in this and related subjects feel greatly indebted to Miss Terry for the skill and untiring patience which produced this valuable and most interesting bibliography. Moreover, like many of his coevals, he had experienced the disagreeable consequences of ill-considered publications.
A few months in prison had chastened not a little his daring. Copies were made of this or that work, for Grimm or Mlle Volland, with and without the author's permission. Thus at the time of his death, manuscripts and copies of Diderot's works were fairly common. But there were three large and important collections of such works.
First, Naigeon's, whom Diderot had appointed his literary executor before leaving for Russia; secondly, the copies sent to Catherine with Diderot's library; and, finally, the manuscripts and copies inherited by Diderot's daughter, Mme Vandeul.