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Through TV and internet ads as well as social media initiatives, FWD encouraged Americans to spread awareness about the crisis, support the humanitarian organizations that were conducting relief operations, and consult the Feed the Future global initiative for broader solutions. Many of the claims in this section, both of praise and criticism, have no references.

USAID has been criticized for the goals of some of its programs, for example, the choice of geopolitical influence over poverty alleviation in certain programs. Debates of this kind are arbitrated in Washington by Congress and the Administration before budgets are decided and before USAID staff undertake detailed programming in the field.

State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts

Some feel that USAID overemphasizes technical assistance and should instead provide more financial assistance budget support, or debt relief. They argue that financial assistance allows recipients to spend as they like with less influence from donors. Others feel that financial assistance does not result in durable improvements and that person-to-person technical assistance has the advantage of sharing knowledge and experience, leading to permanent improvements. In practice, many USAID missions find that their counterparts appreciate having both forms of aid: an assistance package that includes some financial assistance for things that can simply be bought and some technical assistance to confront problems and issues whose solutions are not so clear.

USAID is frequently criticized for providing expensive expert services to counterparts. USAID uses competition to arrive at market rates for the staff it recruits, and has experimented with volunteer programs for expertise from high paid professions.


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USAID frequently contracts with private firms or individuals for specialist services lasting from a few weeks to several years. Government employees instead. USG staff directly performed technical assistance in the earliest days of the program in the s. However, it soon became necessary for the USG's technical experts to plan and manage larger assistance programs than they could perform by themselves.

The global expansion of TA in the early s reinforced the need to draw on outside experts, which was also accelerated by Congress's requirement of major reductions of USG staffing in By , observers commented on a perceived shift towards more use of shorter-term contracts rather than using employees with career-length contracts. In situations where the U. This might include USAID support for opposition political movements that seek to remove the government. Such "political aid" is criticized by some as being incompatible with USAID's role as an assistance or cooperation agency and as exposing USAID staff worldwide to the suspicion of being covertly engaged in subversion.

However, such political aid and joint civilian-military programs are supported by others as necessary to support U. Although USAID officially selects contractors on a competitive and objective basis, watch dog groups, politicians, foreign governments and corporations have occasionally accused the agency of allowing its bidding process to be unduly influenced by the political and financial interests of its current Presidential administration. Some critics [] [] [] [] say that the US government gives aid to reward political and military partners rather than to advance genuine social or humanitarian causes abroad.

Folha de S. Paulo , Brazil's largest newspaper, accused USAID of trying to influence political reform in Brazil in a way that would have purposely benefited right-wing parties. According to USAID papers acquired by Folha under the Freedom of Information Act , the seminar was planned to coincide with the eve of talks in that country's Congress on a broad political reform. The papers read that although the "pattern of weak party discipline is found across the political spectrum, it is somewhat less true of parties on the liberal left, such as the [ruling] Worker's Party.

Several studies [ which? A state's membership of the U. Security Council can give a considerable raise of U. In , Congress passed a law providing U. However, one of the conditions imposed by the law on grant recipients was a requirement to have "a policy explicitly opposing prostitution and sex trafficking". Supreme Court ruled in Agency for International Development v.

Alliance for Open Society International, Inc. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United States federal government agency that funds civilian foreign aid and foreign antipoverty efforts. International Cooperation Administration. Main article: Reconstruction of Iraq. See also: Bolivia—United States relations.

This subsection titled "Bolivia" needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Department of State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts

United States portal Hunger relief portal. Retrieved 22 December Page 3. Page Archived from the original on Retrieved Agency for International Development". Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 8 January Global Health Security Strategy". Development Experience Clearinghouse.

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January Retrieved 16 July To give a perspective of USAID's goals that is as general as possible, the list of goals in this article subsumes one of the goals from the White Paper, "Strengthen fragile states," whose emphasis as understood at the time was on Iraq and Afghanistan, into a more general goal, "U. On the other hand, the White Paper's goal, "Provide humanitarian relief," is divided in this article into two goals, both of which are humanitarian: "Disaster relief" which may assist victims at various income levels and "Poverty relief" which targets proverty that is chronic, not just the result of a disaster, and which does not necessarily have to be justified by developmental impact.

Section Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 13 June Retrieved September 19, Washington Post. May 1, Center for Global Development. February 16, Retrieved 21 July Global Development Lab". Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 15 June Department of State. Archived from the original PDF on 27 December See in particular the definitions of "Large mission" and "Office.

See Richardson.

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Partners in Development. Also Butterfield. Development Aid. Foreign Disaster Assistance". See full citations in "References," below. For a start, see Samuel Butterfield's U. Development Aid Also Badeau, John S. Bread from stones: fifty years of technical assistance. Englewood Cliffs, N. The story of the Rockefeller Foundation 1st ed. New York City: Harper. American Foreign Assistance. Washington, D. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved 17 April The Administration of Technical Assistance. The University of Chicago Press. Diplomatic History.

Retrieved 8 February See National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved 17 June Retrieved 25 April Act for International Development. Foreign Assistance Agencies, ". Retrieved 2 October The revised operating procedure was modeled on reforms that had been pioneered by IIAA in March March See Waring, Frank A. March 31, Washington D.

Government Printing Office. Retrieved 22 April The following month, in April , the U. The Hague: M. See Nowels , pp. Harry S. Truman and both houses of the 83rd Congress — under Pres. See Ekbladh June 1, The American Presidency Project. UC—Santa Barbara. Retrieved 26 April Government July 16, Section a. Retrieved 21 June Hubert Humphrey was a prominent supporter of the PL concept. Government Ira Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Field The American Political Science Review. See Ruttan , pp. May 21, UC-—Santa Barbara.

Retrieved 2 May January 29, Retrieved 16 September In Vietnam in the s, it was common to refer to A. Retrieved 22 May Congress and the Politics of U. Foreign Economic Policy — July Illinois Agricultural Economics. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library. Archived from the original PDF on The New York Times. May 28, Retrieved 2 March For the nature of the emergency and the U. Government response, see U. Government Accountability Office September Retrieved 6 March Appropriations typically replenish this account up to a congressionally authorized level, and the executive branch must notify Congress when funds are used.

The Peace Corps sends U. The MCC provides large-scale, five-year development grants to foreign governments. Known as "compacts" and underpinned by bilateral agreements, these grants are intended to promote economic growth and to eliminate extreme poverty in countries chosen and determined to be eligible, in part, based on their demonstrated commitment to just and democratic governance; investment in health, education, and the environment; and support for economic freedom.

The IAF is a nonprofit corporation that finances small-scale enterprise and grassroots community self-help activities aimed at the social and economic development of poor people in Latin America, as originally set out in the Foreign Assistance Act of P. The USADF is a nonprofit corporation that finances small-scale enterprise and grassroots community self-help activities aimed at the social and economic development of poor people in Africa.

INCLE funds international counternarcotics activities; programs combatting human and wildlife trafficking; and rule of law activities, including support for judicial reform and law enforcement capacity building. DOD implements the activities. Funding through this account has in recent years been devoted almost entirely on the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa. Participants take courses at military education facilities in the United States or receive instruction from U. Funding generally may be used by recipient countries only to purchase U. The Department of Defense implements this program.


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  4. This account provides voluntary State Department-administered U. This is distinct from the CIO account under Title I, which funds assessed contributions dues to international organizations. Under this category, funds are provided through the Department of the Treasury to a wide range of multilateral financial institutions, which offer loans—both "soft" i.

    Not all international financial institutions require or receive U. In the case of concessional lending or grant-making institutions, U. Nonconcessional bank institutions typically require new financial commitments only in order to increase the institution's capitalization, as in the ongoing capital increase for the African Development Bank see below. As the World Bank's "soft loan" window, IDA provides concessional loans, grants, and debt relief to the lowest-income countries in the world. AsDF ceased issuing concessional loans in AsDB now finances and issues all concessional loans directly through its capital reserves.

    The AfDB lends at near-market rates to public and private entities, with special emphasis on agriculture, infrastructure, and industrial development. To support a general capital increase, legislative provisions include both paid-in capital and callable capital subscriptions. IFAD is a UN-system financial institution that issues grants and low-interest loans to developing countries to increase rural incomes, improve nutritional levels, and advance food security.

    Ex-Im Bank issues direct loans, loan guarantees, and export credit insurance to support U. It aims to support U. Ex-Im Bank program and administrative expenses are financed by collections such as loan interest, risk premia, and other fees, for which congressional appropriations establish a ceiling. Congress also provides an appropriation for the agency's Office of Inspector General. OPIC offers political risk insurance, guarantees, and investment financing to encourage U.

    Although the agency funds itself in full with loan receipts, appropriations set ceilings on administrative expenses to carry out the insurance programs and denotes a level of support for credit financing. It also adds new authorities to this entity. TDA funds project preparation services such as feasibility studies and other activities to link U.

    For example, TDA funds reverse trade missions which bring foreign decision-makers to the United States. General Provisions set out limitations and prohibitions on assistance; administrative, notification, and reporting requirements; and more detailed funding requirements for specific accounts in other titles of the legislation. This title specifies also allocations for various aid sectors, including education, democracy promotion, water and sanitation, and food security, as well as cross-cutting issues such as gender equality.

    In addition, Title VII provides more detail about aid to certain countries and regions. Since FY, executive branch budget requests have distinguished between "core" or "enduring" international affairs funding and funding to support "overseas contingency operations" OCO. The OCO designation was described initially in budget documents as reflecting "the extraordinary costs of Department [of State] and U.

    Appendix A. Code References. Table A Title V of P. Title III of P. Title VI of P. Division F of P. Notes: Many of these acts have been amended multiple times. International affairs, designated "the Account," also contains several subfunctions. For example, subfunction encompasses international development and humanitarian assistance. However, some of the account restructuring proposed in that budget narrative was not adopted in FY appropriations, resulting in important differences between this report's structure, which follows enacted accounts, and the President's Budget.


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    Congress may make these changes at its own initiative or at the President's request. The Democracy Fund account was established in FY In addition to comprehensive authorizations, Congress may grant new authorities in standalone legislation. Conversely, while Congress has funded innovation programs of the U.

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    For example, Congress originally established the Fulbright program under the Fulbright Act of , P. Congress expanded the program in the Information and Educational Exchange Act of , and the Fulbright-Hays Act superseded both of these acts in Congress appropriates representation expenses for other agencies, such as Peace Corps and USAID, but includes it as a subcomponent of their accounts. It received appropriations under its prior name in FY, but the President's FY request did not include it.

    The FAA also includes certain priorities under this account for this region. Congress funds refugee expenses after initial settlement in the United States under the Department of Health and Human Services' Refugee and Entrant Assistance account. Among those that sometimes receive funding but for which there was no appropriation in FY are the following:. The IBRD is the World Bank window that provides loans on near-market terms to promote economic development primarily in middle-income countries, based largely on bond sales.

    Appropriated funds support the "general capital increase" at the IBRD. The IDB promotes economic and social development in Latin America and the Caribbean by providing near-market rate loans through its ordinary capital account and concessional loans to the poorest nations through its Fund for Special Operations FSO. Appropriated funds support the "general capital increase" at the IDB. IFC, another World Bank window, makes loans and equity investments to promote growth of productive private enterprise in developing nations. Volume of Terrorism: Commentary on Security Documents, Assessing President Obama's National Security Strategy extends the previous volumes on the Administration's national security policy by highlighting its specific strategies.

    The volume provides an assessment of the Quadrennial Defense Review and the Obama Administration's strategy on preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons. It also includes assessments of the Administration's position on states' rights in controlling illegal aliens, the Department of State's foreign operations, and the Afghanistan strategy.