Labor unions came under tight government control. There were no elections. The independence of women was reversed, with an emphasis put on motherhood. Government agencies had to fire married women employees.
Conservative Catholics became prominent. The media were tightly controlled and stressed virulent anti-Semitism, and, after June , anti-Bolshevism. Hans Petter Graver says Vichy "is notorious for its enactment of anti-Semitic laws and decrees, and these were all loyally enforced by the judiciary". Vichy rhetoric exalted the skilled labourer and small businessman. In practice, however, the needs of artisans for raw materials were neglected in favour of large businesses.
In the government took direct control of all production, which was synchronised with the demands of the Germans. It replaced free trade unions with compulsory state unions that dictated labour policy without regard to the voice or needs of the workers. The centralised, bureaucratic control of the French economy was not a success, as German demands grew heavier and more unrealistic, passive resistance and inefficiencies multiplied, and Allied bombers hit the rail yards; however, Vichy made the first comprehensive long-range plans for the French economy.
The government had never before attempted a comprehensive overview. De Gaulle's Provisional Government in —45 quietly used the Vichy plans as a base for its own reconstruction program. The Monnet Plan of was closely based on Vichy plans. They added compulsory and volunteer workers from occupied nations, especially in metal factories. The shortage of volunteers led the Vichy government to pass a law in September that effectively deported workers to Germany, where they constituted fifteen percent of the labour force by August The largest number worked in the giant Krupp steel works in Essen.
Low pay, long hours, frequent bombings, and crowded air raid shelters added to the unpleasantness of poor housing, inadequate heating, limited food, and poor medical care, all compounded by harsh Nazi discipline. They finally returned home in the summer of Civilians suffered shortages of all varieties of consumer goods. The Germans seized about twenty percent of the French food production, causing severe disruption to the French household economy.
The government answered by rationing, but German officials set the policies and hunger prevailed, especially affecting youth in urban areas. The queues lengthened in front of shops. Some people—including German soldiers—benefited from the black market , where food was sold without tickets at very high prices. Farmers especially diverted meat to the black market, which meant that much less for the open market.
Counterfeit food tickets were also in circulation. Direct buying from farmers in the countryside and barter against cigarettes became common. These activities were strictly forbidden, however, and thus carried the risk of confiscation and fines. Food shortages were most acute in the large cities. In the more remote country villages, clandestine slaughtering, vegetable gardens and the availability of milk products permitted better survival. The official ration provided starvation level diets of one thousand thirteen or fewer calories a day, supplemented by home gardens and, especially, black market purchases.
The 2 million French soldiers held as POWs and forced labourers in Germany throughout the war were not at risk of death in combat but the anxieties of separation for their , wives were high. The government provided a modest allowance, but one in ten became prostitutes to support their families. Meanwhile, the Vichy regime promoted a highly traditional model of female roles. It gave women a key symbolic role to carry out the national regeneration. It used propaganda, women's organisations, and legislation to promote maternity, patriotic duty, and female submission to marriage, home, and children's education.
It introduced family allowances and opposed birth control and abortion. Conditions were very difficult for housewives, as food was short as well as most necessities. Divorce laws were made much more stringent, and restrictions were placed on the employment of married women. Family allowances that had begun in the s were continued, and became a vital lifeline for many families; it was a monthly cash bonus for having more children. In the birth rate started to rise, and by it was higher than it had been for a century.
On the other side women of the Resistance, many of whom were associated with combat groups linked to the French Communist Party PCF , broke the gender barrier by fighting side by side with men. After the war, their services were ignored, but France did give women the vote in Hitler ordered Case Anton to occupy Corsica and then the rest of the unoccupied southern zone in immediate reaction to the landing of the Allies in North Africa Operation Torch on 8 November Following the conclusion of the operation on 12 November, Vichy's remaining military forces were disbanded.
Vichy continued to exercise its remaining jurisdiction over almost all of metropolitan France, with the residual power devolved into the hands of Laval, until the gradual collapse of the regime following the Allied invasion in June On 7 September , following the Allied invasion of France, the remainders of the Vichy government cabinet fled to Germany and established a puppet government in exile in the so-called Sigmaringen enclave.
That rump government finally fell when the city was taken by the Allied French army in April Part of the residual legitimacy of the Vichy regime resulted from the continued ambivalence of U. Darlan was neutralised within 15 hours by a strong French resistance force. De Gaulle had not even been informed of the landing in North Africa.
Before that, the first return of democracy to Metropolitan France since had occurred with the declaration of the Free Republic of Vercors on 3 July , at the behest of the Free French government —but that act of resistance was quashed by an overwhelming German attack by the end of July. Under Darnand and his sub-commanders, such as Paul Touvier and Jacques de Bernonville , the Milice was responsible for helping the German forces and police in the repression of the French Resistance and Maquis.
There, Fernand de Brinon established a pseudo-government in exile at Sigmaringen. The first action of that government was to re-establish republican legality throughout metropolitan France. The provisional government considered the Vichy government to have been unconstitutional and all its actions therefore without legitimate authority.
All "constitutional acts, legislative or regulatory" taken by the Vichy government, as well as decrees taken to implement them, were declared null and void by the Order of 9 August Inasmuch as blanket rescission of all acts taken by Vichy i. Many acts were explicitly repealed, including all acts that Vichy had called "constitutional acts", all acts that discriminated against Jews, all acts related to so-called "secret societies" e. The provisional government also took steps to replace local governments, including governments that had been suppressed by the Vichy regime, through new elections or by extending the terms of those who had been elected not later than After the liberation, France was swept for a short period with a wave of executions of Collaborationists.
Women who were suspected of having romantic liaisons with Germans, or more often [ citation needed ] of being prostitutes who had entertained German customers, were publicly humiliated by having their heads shaved. Those who had engaged in the black market were also stigmatised as "war profiteers" profiteurs de guerre , and popularly called "BOF" Beurre Oeuf Fromage , or Butter Eggs Cheese, because of the products sold at outrageous prices during the Occupation. Many convicted Collaborationists were then given amnesty under the Fourth Republic — He was convicted and sentenced to death by firing squad, but Charles de Gaulle commuted the sentence to life imprisonment.
In the police, some collaborators soon resumed official responsibilities. This continuity of the administration was pointed out, [ citation needed ] in particular concerning the events of the Paris massacre of , executed under the orders of head of the Parisian police Maurice Papon when Charles de Gaulle was head of state. Papon was tried and convicted for crimes against humanity in Some of the more prominent officers were executed, while the rank-and-file were given prison terms; some of them were given the option of doing time in Indochina —54 with the Foreign Legion instead of prison.
Among artists, singer Tino Rossi was detained in Fresnes prison , where, according to Combat newspaper, prison guards asked him for autographs. Pierre Benoit and Arletty were also detained. The writer and Jewish internee Robert Aron estimated the popular executions to a number of 40, in This surprised de Gaulle, who estimated the number to be around 10,, which is also the figure accepted today by mainstream historians.
Approximately 9, of these 10, refer to summary executions in the whole of the country, which occurred during battle. Some imply that France did too little to deal with collaborators at this stage, by selectively pointing out that in absolute value numbers , there were fewer legal executions in France than in its smaller neighbour Belgium, and fewer internments than in Norway or the Netherlands.
The proportion of collaborators was also higher in Norway, and collaboration occurred on a larger scale in the Netherlands as in Flanders based partly on linguistic and cultural commonality with Germany. The internments in Norway and Netherlands, meanwhile, were highly temporary and were rather indiscriminate; there was a brief internment peak in these countries as internment was used partly for the purpose of separating Collaborationists from non-Collaborationists.
Bousquet and Leguay were both convicted for their responsibilities in the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup of July Among others, Nazi hunters Serge and Beate Klarsfeld spent part of their post-war effort trying to bring them before the courts. A fair number of collaborationists then joined the OAS terrorist movement during the Algerian War — Jacques de Bernonville escaped to Quebec, then Brazil. Maurice Papon was likewise convicted in , released three years later due to ill health, and died in Until Jacques Chirac 's presidency, the official point of view of the French government was that the Vichy regime was an illegal government distinct from the French Republic, established by traitors under foreign influence.
While the criminal behaviour of Vichy France was consistently acknowledged, this point of view denied any responsibility of the state of France, alleging that acts committed between and were unconstitutional acts devoid of legitimacy. In later years, de Gaulle's position was reiterated by president Mitterrand.
The Republic had nothing to do with this. I do not believe France is responsible," he said in September The first President to accept responsibility for the arrest and deportation of Jews from France was Jacques Chirac, in a 16 July speech. The July Vel' d'Hiv Roundup is a tragic example of how the French police did the Nazi work, going even further than what military orders demanded by sending children to Drancy internment camp, last stop before the extermination camps.
President Macron's statement on 16 July was even more specific, stating clearly that the Vichy regime was certainly the French State during WW II, and played a role in the Holocaust. Earlier that year, speeches made by Marine Le Pen had made the headlines by claiming that the Vichy Government was "not France. As historian Henry Rousso has put it in The Vichy Syndrome , Vichy and the state collaboration of France remains a "past that doesn't pass away".
Historiographical debates are still, today, passionate, opposing conflictual views on the nature and legitimacy of Vichy's collaborationism with Germany in the implementation of the Holocaust. The trial of Papon did not only concern an individual itinerary, but the French administration's collective responsibility in the deportation of the Jews. Critics contend that this itinerary, shared by others although few had such public roles , demonstrates France's collective amnesia, while others point out that the perception of the war and of the state collaboration has evolved during these years.
Papon's career was considered more scandalous as he had been responsible, during his function as prefect of police of Paris, for the Paris massacre of Algerians during the war, and was forced to resign from this position after the "disappearance", in Paris in , of the Moroccan anti-colonialist leader Mehdi Ben Barka. While it is certain that the Vichy government and a large number of its high administration collaborated in the implementation of the Holocaust, the exact level of such co-operation is still debated.
Compared with the Jewish communities established in other countries invaded by Germany, French Jews suffered proportionately lighter losses see Jewish death toll section above ; although, starting in , repression and deportations struck French Jews as well as foreign Jews. One of these rules, for example, stated that:. The contractors shall make the following statements: they are of French nationality, are not Jewish, nor married to Jewish in the sense of the laws and ordinances in force [under Vichy, ed.
Thus, even if the tenants or coowners had signed or otherwise agreed to these rules after , any such agreement would be null and void caduque under French law, as were the rules. Rewriting or eliminating the obsolete rules would have had to be done at the occupants' expense, including notary fees of to EUR per building. Munholland reports a widespread consensus among historians regarding the authoritarian character of the Vichy regime and its:.
Although this claim is rejected by the rest of the French population and by the state itself, another myth remains more widespread than this one. This other myth refers to the alleged "protection" by Vichy of French Jews by "accepting" to collaborate in the deportation — and, ultimately, in the extermination — of foreign Jews. However, this argument has been rejected by several historians who are specialists of the subject, among them US historian Robert Paxton , who is widely recognised, and historian of the French police Maurice Rajsfus.
Both were called on as experts during the Papon trial in the s. Robert Paxton thus declared, before the court, on 31 October , that "Vichy took initiatives The armistice allowed it a breathing space. After naming the alleged causes of the defeat "democracy, parliamentarism, cosmopolitanism, the left wing, foreigners, Jews, From then on, Jewish people were considered "second-zone citizens  ".
Internationally, France "believed the war to be finished". Thus, by July , Vichy was eagerly negotiating with the German authorities in an attempt to gain a place for France in the Third Reich's "New Order". But "Hitler never forgot the defeat. He always said no. It even, at first, opposed German plans. Their idea was not to make of France an antisemitic country. On the contrary, they wanted to send there the Jews that they expelled" from the Reich. The historic change came in —, with the pending German defeat on the Eastern Front. The war then became "total", and in August , Hitler decided on the "global extermination of all European Jews".
This new policy was officially formulated during the January Wannsee Conference , and implemented in all European occupied countries by spring [ when? France, praising itself for having remained an independent state as opposed to other occupied countries "decided to cooperate. This is the second Vichy. They always complained about the lack of staff.
Although the American historian recognised during the trial that the "civil behavior of certain individuals" had permitted many Jews to escape deportation, he stated that:. The French state, itself, participated in the policy of extermination of the Jews How can one claim the reverse when such technical and administrative resources were made available to them? Pointing to the French police's registering of Jews, as well as Laval's decision, taken completely autonomously in August , to deport children along with their parents, Paxton added:. Contrary to preconceived ideas, Vichy did not sacrifice foreign Jews in the hope of protecting French Jews.
At the hierarchy summit, it knew, from the start, that the deportation of French Jews was unavoidable. Despite Paxton's assertion about Vichy knowledge "from the start", deportations from France did not start until summer , several months after mass deportation from other countries started. Part of the population housed at the Dachau concentration camp , opened in , was Jewish, and major death camps in Poland and Germany were opened in and early Paxton then referred to the case of Italy, where deportation of Jewish people had started only after the German occupation.
Italy surrendered to the Allies in mid but was then invaded by Germany. Fighting continued there through In particular, in Nice, "Italians had protected the Jews. And the French authorities complained about it to the Germans. In fact, the rise of Benito Mussolini and Italian fascism had drastically curtailed Jewish immigration during the inter-war period, and Italy had passed drastic anti-Semitic laws in that stripped Jews of their citizenship.
Ultimately, a similar proportion of Jews from Italy as from France were deported. More recent work by the historian Susan Zuccotti finds that, in general, the Vichy government facilitated the deportation of foreign Jews rather than French ones, until at least Vichy officials [had] hoped to deport foreign Jews throughout France in order to ease pressure on native Jews. Pierre Laval himself expressed the official Vichy position In the early months of , the terror [Adam] Munz and [Alfred] Feldman described in German-occupied France was still experienced by foreign Jews like themselves.
It is difficult to know exactly how many French Jews were arrested, usually for specific or alleged offences, but on 21 January , Helmut Knochen informed Eichmann in Berlin that there were 2, French citizens among the 3, prisoners at Drancy. Many had been at Drancy for several months. They had not been deported because, until January , there had usually been enough foreigners and their children to fill the forty-three trains that had carried about 41, people to the east By January , however, foreign Jews were increasingly aware of the danger and difficult to find. Nazi pressure for the arrest of French Jews and the deportation of those already at Drancy increased accordingly.
Thus, when Knochen reported that there were 2, French citizens among the 3, prisoners at Drancy on 21 January , he also asked Eichmann for permission to deport them. Despite Vichy officials' past disapproval and Eichmann's own prior discouragement of such a step, permission for the deportation of the French Jews at Drancy, except for those in mixed marriages , was granted from Berlin on 25 January.
More Jews lived in France at the end of the Vichy regime than had approximately ten years earlier. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Les mouvements de libre pensée en France pendant la Troisième République (1870-1940)
For other uses, see Vichy disambiguation. French State, German military occupation zone. French protectorates.
The gradual loss of all Vichy territory to Free France and the Allied powers. Client state of Germany — Puppet government of Germany — Government-in-exile — Vichy de facto Paris a de jure. Paris remained the formal capital of the French State, although the Vichy government never operated from there.
Although the French Republic's institutions were officially maintained, the word "Republic" never occurred in any official document of the Vichy government. Part of a series on the. Early Middle Ages. Middle Ages. Direct Capetians — Valois — Early modern. Long 19th century. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Vichy French Air Force. Further information: Foreign relations of Vichy France. Main article: Free France.
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This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. May Map of French Somaliland, Main article: Vel' d'Hiv Roundup. Further information: Round up of Marseille. August See also: Sigmaringen enclave. Main article: Provisional Government of the French Republic. See also: Category:French collaborators with Nazi Germany. Pierre Pucheu in , who was executed in This " see also " section may contain an excessive number of suggestions. Please ensure that only the most relevant links are given, that they are not red links , and that any links are not already in this article.
March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved 21 October Article 1: The form of the government of France is and remains the Republic. By law, it has not ceased to exist. Article 2: The following are therefore null and void: all legislative or regulatory acts as well as all actions of any description whatsoever taken to execute them, promulgated in Metropolitan France after 16 June and until the restoration of the Provisional Government of the French Republic.
This nullification is hereby expressly declared and must be noted. Article 3. The following acts are hereby expressly nullified and held invalid: The so-called "Constitutional Law of 10 July ; as well as any laws called 'Constitutional Law'; La vie musicale sous Vichy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. French Studies, University of Birmingham. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 18 June Wartime administration, economy, and manpower resources — Oxford University Press. Nord Princeton U. Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 1 July Payne Fascism: A Reader's Guide.
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Die "Arisierung" der Wirtschaft in Frankreich — Thorbecke, Ostfildern , Beiheft der Francia Nr. Lamb In two different competing schools coexisted within Art Deco: the traditionalists, who had founded the Society of Decorative Artists; included the furniture designer Emile-Jacques Ruhlmann, Jean Dunard, the sculptor Antoine Bourdelle, and designer Paul Poiret; they combined modern forms with traditional craftsmanship and expensive materials. On the other side were the modernists, who increasingly rejected the past and wanted a style based upon advances in new technologies, simplicity, a lack of decoration, inexpensive materials, and mass production.
They fiercely attacked the traditional art deco style, which they said was created only for the wealthy, and insisted that well-constructed buildings should be available to everyone, and that form should follow function. The beauty of an object or building resided in whether it was perfectly fit to fulfill its function. Modern industrial methods meant that furniture and buildings could be mass-produced, not made by hand.
The Art Deco interior designer Paul Follot defended Art Deco in this way: "We know that man is never content with the indispensable and that the superfluous is always needed If not, we would have to get rid of music, flowers, and perfumes..! Le Corbusier's ideas were gradually adopted by architecture schools, and the aesthetics of Art Deco were abandoned. The same features that made Art Deco popular in the beginning, its craftsmanship, rich materials and ornament, led to its decline. The Great Depression that began in the United States in , and reached Europe shortly afterwards, greatly reduced the number of wealthy clients who could pay for the furnishings and art objects.
In the Depression economic climate, few companies were ready to build new skyscrapers. A handful of Art Deco hotels were built in Miami Beach after World War II, but elsewhere the style largely vanished, except in industrial design, where it continued to be used in automobile styling and products such as jukeboxes. In the s, it experienced a modest academic revival, thanks in part to the writings of architectural historians such as Bevis Hillier.
In the s efforts were made in the United States and Europe to preserve the best examples of Art Deco architecture, and many buildings were restored and repurposed. Postmodern architecture , which first appeared in the s, like Art Deco, often includes purely decorative features. Reginald Marsh , , Workers sorting the mail , a mural in the U. Customs House in New York.
There was no section set aside for painting at the Exposition. Art deco painting was by definition decorative, designed to decorate a room or work of architecture, so few painters worked exclusively in the style, but two painters are closely associated with Art Deco.
Jean Dupas painted Art Deco murals for the Bordeaux Pavilion at the Decorative Arts Exposition in Paris, and also painted the picture over the fireplace in the Maison de la Collectioneur exhibit at the Exposition, which featured furniture by Ruhlmann and other prominent Art Deco designers. His murals were also prominent in the decor of the French ocean liner SS Normandie. His work was purely decorative, designed as a background or accompaniment to other elements of the decor.
The other painter closely associated with the style is Tamara de Lempicka. Born in Poland, she emigrated to Paris after the Russian Revolution. She painted portraits in a realistic, dynamic and colorful Art Deco style. In the s a dramatic new form of Art Deco painting appeared in the United States. Many were given the task of decorating government buildings, hospitals and schools. There was no specific art deco style used in the murals; artists engaged to paint murals in government buildings came from many different schools, from American regionalism to social realism ; they included Reginald Marsh , Rockwell Kent and the Mexican painter Diego Rivera.
The murals were Art Deco because they were all decorative and related to the activities in the building or city where they were painted: Reginald Marsh and Rockwell Kent both decorated U. Sculpture was a very common and integral feature of Art Deco architecture. The had major sculptural works placed around the site, pavilions were decorated with sculptural friezes, and several pavilions devoted to smaller studio sculpture.
In the s, a large group of prominent sculptors made works for the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne at Chaillot. Alfred Janniot made the relief sculptures on the facade of the Palais de Tokyo. Public art deco sculpture was almost always representational, usually of heroic or allegorical figures related to the purpose of the building or room.
The themes were usually selected by the patrons, not the artist. Abstract sculpture for decoration was extremely rare. In the United States, the most prominent Art Deco sculptor for public art was Paul Manship , who updated classical and mythological subjects and themes in an Art Deco style. His most famous work was the statue of Prometheus at Rockefeller Center in New York, a 20th-century adaptation of a classical subject.
Other important works for Rockefeller Center were made by Lee Lawrie , including the sculptural facade and the Atlas statue. During the Great Depression in the United States, many sculptors were commissioned to make works for the decoration of federal government buildings, with funds provided by the WPA, or Works Progress Administration. They included sculptor Sidney Biehler Waugh, who created stylized and idealized images of workers and their tasks for federal government office buildings. One of the best known and certainly the largest public Art Deco sculpture is the Christ the Redeemer by the French sculptor Paul Landowski , completed between and , located on a mountain top overlooking Rio de Janeiro , Brazil.
Nix, Sr. Many early Art Deco sculptures were small, designed to decorate salons. One genre of this sculpture was called the Chryselephantine statuette, named for a style of ancient Greek temple statues made of gold and ivory. They were sometimes made of bronze, or sometimes with much more lavish materials, such as ivory.
Pierre Le Paguays was a prominent Art Dco studio sculptor, whose work was shown at the Exposition. Bronze nude of a dancer on an onyx plinth by Josef Lorenzl , c.
Speed , a design for a radiator ornament by the American sculptor Harriet Whitney Frishmuth Parallel with these Art Deco sculptors, more avant-garde and abstract modernist sculptors were at work in Paris and New York. Program for the Ballets Russes by Leon Bakst Peter Behrens , Deutscher Werkbund exhibition poster A Vanity Fair cover by Georges Lepape London Underground poster by Horace Taylor Moulin Rouge poster by Charles Gesmar It appeared in Paris in the posters and the costume designs of Leon Bakst for the Ballets Russes, and in the catalogs of the fashion designers Paul Poiret.
In the s, the look changed; the fashions stressed were more casual, sportive and daring, with the woman models usually smoking cigarettes. American fashion magazines such as Vogue , Vanity Fair and Harper's Bazaar quickly picked up the new style and popularized it in the United States. It also influenced the work of American book illustrators such as Rockwell Kent. In Germany, the most famous poster artist of the period was Ludwig Hohlwein , who created colorful and dramatic posters for music festivals, beers, and, late in his career, for the Nazi Party.
During the Art Nouveau period, posters usually advertised theatrical products or cabarets. In the s, travel posters, made for steamship lines and airlines, became extremely popular. The style changed notably in the s, to focus attention on the product being advertised. The images became simpler, precise, more linear, more dynamic, and were often placed against a single color background. Jean Carlu designed posters for Charlie Chaplin movies, soaps, and theaters; in the late s he emigrated to the United States, where, during the World War, he designed posters to encourage war production.
The designer Charles Gesmar became famous making posters for the singer Mistinguett and for Air France. Among the best known French Art Deco poster designers was Cassandre , who made the celebrated poster of the ocean liner SS Normandie in In the s a new genre of posters appeared in the United States during the Great Depression. The Federal Art Project hired American artists to create posters to promote tourism and cultural events.
La Samaritaine department store, by Henri Sauvage , Paris, — Austin , and Albert C. Martin, Sr. National Diet Building in Tokyo , Japan Mayakovskaya Metro Station in Moscow The two young architects used reinforced concrete for the first time in Paris residential buildings; the new buildings had clean lines, rectangular forms, and no decoration on the facades; they marked a clean break with the art nouveau style.
Between and he constructed the new art deco facade of the La Samaritaine department store in Paris. After the First World War, art deco buildings of steel and reinforced concrete began to appear in large cities across Europe and the United States. In the United States the style was most commonly used for office buildings, government buildings, movie theaters, and railroad stations. It sometimes was combined with other styles; Los Angeles City Hall combined Art Deco with a roof based on the ancient Greek Mausoleum at Halicarnassus , while the Los Angeles railroad station combined Deco with Spanish mission architecture.
Art Deco elements also appeared in engineering projects, including the towers of the Golden Gate Bridge and the intake towers of Hoover Dam. The Art Deco style was not limited to buildings on land; the ocean liner SS Normandie , whose first voyage was in , featured Art Deco design, including a dining room whose ceiling and decoration were made of glass by Lalique. Elevator of the Chrysler Building The grand showcases of Art deco interior design were the lobbies of government buildings, theaters, and particularly office buildings. Interiors were extremely colorful and dynamic, combining sculpture, murals, and ornate geometric design in marble, glass, ceramics and stainless steel.
An early example was the Fisher Building in Detroit, by Joseph Nathaniel French ; the lobby was highly decorated with sculpture and ceramics. The Guardian Building originally the Union Trust Building in Detroit, by Wirt Rowland , decorated with red and black marble and brightly colored ceramics, highlighted by highly polished steel elevator doors and counters. The sculptural decoration installed in the walls illustrated the virtues of industry and saving; the building was immediately termed the "Cathedral of Commerce". The Medical and Dental Building called Sutter Street in San Francisco by Timothy Pflueger was inspired by Mayan architecture, in a highly stylized form; it used pyramid shapes, and the interior walls were covered highly stylized rows of hieroglyphs.
The building now the National Museum of Immigration, with an aquarium in the basement was built for the Paris Colonial Exposition of , to celebrate the people and products of French colonies. The exterior facade was entirely covered with sculpture, and the lobby created an Art Deco harmony with a wood parquet floor in a geometric pattern, a mural depicting the people of French colonies; and a harmonious composition of vertical doors and horizontal balconies.
Grauman's Egyptian Theater in Hollywood Gaumont State Cinema in London The Paramount in Shanghai , China Many of the best surviving examples of Art Deco are movie theaters built in the s and s. The Art Deco period coincided with the conversion of silent films to sound, and movie companies built enormous theaters in major cities to capture the huge audience that came to see movies. Movie palaces in the s often combined exotic themes with art deco style; Grauman's Egyptian Theater in Hollywood was inspired by ancient Egyptian tombs and pyramids , while the Fox Theater in Bakersfield, California attached a tower in California Mission style to an Art Deco hall.
Originally designed as a stage theater, it quickly transformed into a movie theater, which could seat 6, persons The interior design by Donald Deskey used glass, aluminum, chrome, and leather to create a colorful escape from reality The Paramount Theater in Oakland, California, by Timothy Pflueger, had a colorful ceramic facade a lobby four stories high, and separate Art Deco smoking rooms for gentlemen and ladies.
Similar grand palaces appeared in Europe. The Grand Rex in Paris , with its imposing tower, was the largest movie theater in Europe. The Gaumont State Cinema in London had a tower modeled after the Empire State building, covered with cream-colored ceramic tiles and an interior in an Art Deco-Italian Renaissance style. The Paramount Theater in Shanghai , China was originally built as a dance hall called The gate of pleasures ; it was converted to a movie theater after the Communist Revolution in , and now is a ballroom and disco.
In the s Italian architects built a small movie palace, the Cinema Impero, in Asmara in what is now Eritrea. Today, many of the movie theaters have been subdivided into multiplexes, but others have been restored and are used as cultural centers in their communities. Pan-Pacific Auditorium in Los Angeles Towers added In the late s, a new variety of Art Deco architecture became common; it was called Streamline Moderne or simply Streamline, or, in France, the Style Paqueboat, or Ocean Liner style.
Buildings in the style were had rounded corners, long horizontal lines; they were built of reinforced concrete, and were almost always white; and sometimes had nautical features, such as railings that resembled those on a ship. The rounded corner was not entirely new; it had appeared in Berlin in in the Mossehaus by Erich Mendelsohn , and later in the Hoover Building , an industrial complex in the London suburb of Perivale. In the United States, it became most closely associated with transport; Streamline moderne was rare in office buildings, but was often used for bus stations and airport terminals, such as terminal at La Guardia airport in New York City that handled the first transatlantic flights, via the PanAm clipper flying boats; and in roadside architecture, such as gas stations and diners.
In the late s a series of diners, modeled after streamlined railroad cars, were produced and installed in towns in New England; at least two examples still remain and are now registered historic buildings. Iron fireplace screen, Rose Iron Works, Cleveland Sunrise motif from the Wisconsin Gas Building Detail of mosaic facade of Paramount Theater Oakland, California Decoration in the Art Deco period went through several distinct phases. Between and , as Art Nouveau was exhausted, design styles saw a return to tradition, particularly in the work of Paul Iribe.
A second tendency of Art Deco, also from to , was inspired by the bright colors of the artistic movement known as the Fauves and by the colorful costumes and sets of the Ballets Russes. This style was often expressed with exotic materials such as sharkskin, mother of pearl, ivory, tinted leather, lacquered and painted wood, and decorative inlays on furniture that emphasized its geometry. This period of the style reached its high point in the Paris Exposition of Decorative Arts.
In the late s and the s, the decorative style changed, inspired by new materials and technologies. It became sleeker and less ornamental. Furniture, like architecture, began to have rounded edges and to take on a polished, streamlined look, taken from the streamline modern style. New materials, such as chrome-plated steel, aluminum and bakelite , an early form of plastic, began to appear in furniture and decoration.
Throughout the Art Deco period, and particularly in the s, the motifs of the decor expressed the function of the building. The Streamline style made it appear that the building itself was in motion. The WPA murals of the s featured ordinary people; factory workers, postal workers, families and farmers, in place of classical heroes.
Dressing table and chair of marble and encrusted, lacquered, and gilded wood by Paul Follot Late Art Deco furniture and rug by Jules Leleu s. A Waterfall style buffet table. French furniture from until the early s was largely an updating of French traditional furniture styles, and the art nouveau designs of Louis Majorelle , Charles Plumet and other manufacturers. French furniture manufacturers felt threatened by the growing popularity of German manufacturers and styles, particularly the Biedermeier style, which was simple and clean-lined. French designers saw the new German style, and decided to meet the German challenge.
The French designers decided to present new French styles in the Salon of The rules of the Salon indicated that only modern styles would be permitted. Unlike the prominent art nouveau designers like Louis Majorelle, who personally designed every piece, they assembled a team of skilled craftsmen and produced complete interior designs, including furniture, glassware, carpets, ceramics, wallpaper and lighting.
Their work featured bright colors and furniture and fine woods, such ebony encrusted with mother of pearl, abalone and silvered metal to create bouquets of flowers. They designed everything from the interiors of ocean liners to perfume bottles for the label of Jean Patou. The firm prospered in the early s, but the two men were better craftsmen than businessmen.
The firm was sold in , and both men left. He first exhibited his works at the Autumn Salon, then had his own pavilion, the "House of the Rich Collector", at the Exposition. He used only most rare and expensive materials, including ebony , mahogany , rosewood , ambon and other exotic woods, decorated with inlays of ivory, tortoise shell, mother of pearl, Little pompoms of silk decorated the handles of drawers of the cabinets. In all of his work, the interior structure of the furniture was completely concealed. The framework usually of oak, was completely covered with an overlay of thin strips of wood, then covered by a second layer of strips of rare and expensive woods.
This was then covered with a veneer and polished, so that the piece looked as if it had been cut out of a single block of wood. Contrast to the dark wood was provided by inlays of ivory, and ivory key plates and handles. According to Ruhlmann, armchairs had to be designed differently according to the functions of the rooms where they appeared; living room armchairs were designed to be welcoming, office chairs comfortable, and salon chairs voluptuous. Only a small number of pieces of each design of furniture was made, and the average price of one of his beds or cabinets was greater than the price of an average house.
He introduced the style of lacquered art deco furniture at the end of in the late s, and in the late s introduced furniture made of metal with panels of smoked glass. He attacked furniture made only for the rich, and called upon designers to create furniture made with inexpensive materials and modern style, which ordinary people could afford. He designed his own chairs, created to be inexpensive and mass-produced. In the s, furniture designs adapted to the form, with smoother surfaces and curved forms.
The masters of the late style included Donald Deskey was one of the most influential designers; he created the interior of the Radio City Music Hall. He used a mixture of traditional and very modern materials, including aluminum, chrome, and bakelite, an early form of plastic.
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Pieces were typically of plywood finished with blond veneer and with rounded edges, resembling a waterfall. Chrysler Airflow sedan, designed by Carl Breer Streamline was a variety of Art Deco which emerged during the mids. It was influenced by modern aerodynamic principles developed for aviation and ballistics to reduce aerodynamic drag at high velocities.
The bullet shapes were applied by designers to cars, trains, ships, and even objects not intended to move, such as refrigerators , gas pumps , and buildings. It was unsuccessful commercially, but the beauty and functionality of its design set a precedent; meant modernity. It continued to be used in car design well after World War II.
New industrial materials began to influence design of cars and household objects. These included aluminum , chrome , and bakelite , an early form of plastic. Bakelite could be easily molded into different forms, and soon was used in telephones, radios and other appliances. The most famous example was the SS Normandie , which made its first transatlantic trip in It was designed particularly to bring wealthy Americans to Paris to shop.
The cabins and salons featured the latest Art Deco furnishings and decoration. The Grand Salon of the ship, which was the restaurant for first-class passengers, was bigger than the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles. It was illuminated by electric lights within twelve pillars of Lalique crystal; thirty-six matching pillars lined the walls. This was one of the earliest examples of illumination being directly integrated into architecture. The style of ships was soon adapted to buildings.
A notable example is found on the San Francisco waterfront, where the Maritime Museum building, built as a public bath in , resembles a ferryboat, with ship railings and rounded corners. The floral carpet was reinvented in Deco style by Paul Poiret. The use of the style was greatly enhanced by the introduction of the pochoir stencil-based printing system, which allowed designers to achieve crispness of lines and very vivid colors. After World War I, exports of clothing and fabrics became one of the most important currency earners of France.
Late Art Deco wallpaper and textiles sometimes featured stylized industrial scenes, cityscapes, locomotives and other modern themes, as well as stylized female figures, metallic colors and geometric designs. Fashion changed dramatically during the Art Deco period, thanks in particular to designers Paul Poiret and later Coco Chanel. Poiret introduced an important innovation to fashion design, the concept of draping , a departure from the tailoring and pattern-making of the past. Evening coat by Paul Poiret , c.
Desiree Lubovska in a dress by Jean Patou , c. Natacha Rambova in a dress designed by Paul Poiret , Coco Chanel in a sailor's blouse and trousers Boucheron , a gold buckle set with diamonds and carved onyx, lapis lazuli, jade, and coral. They also placed greater emphasis on very elaborate and elegant settings, featuring less-expensive materials such as enamel, glass, horn and ivory. Diamonds themselves were cut in less traditional forms; the Exposition saw a large number of diamonds cut in the form of tiny rods or matchsticks. The settings for diamonds also changed; More and more often jewelers used platinum instead of gold, since it was strong and flexible, and could set clusters of stones.
Jewelers also began to use more dark materials, such as enamels and black onyx , which provided a higher contrast with diamonds. Jewelry became much more colorful and varied in style. Cartier and the firm of Boucheron combined diamonds with colorful other gemstones cut into the form of leaves, fruit or flowers, to make brooches, rings, earrings, clips and pendants.
Far Eastern themes also became popular; plaques of jade and coral were combined with platinum and diamonds, and vanity cases, cigarette cases and powder boxes were decorated with Japanese and Chinese landscapes made with mother of pearl, enamel and lacquer. Rapidly changing fashions in clothing brought new styles of jewelry. Sleeveless dresses of the s meant that arms needed decoration, and designers quickly created bracelets of gold, silver and platinum encrusted with lapis-lazuli, onyx, coral, and other colorful stones; Other bracelets were intended for the upper arms, and several bracelets were often worn at the same time.
The short haircuts of women in the twenties called for elaborate deco earring designs. As women began to smoke in public, designers created very ornate cigarette cases and ivory cigarette holders. The invention of the wrist-watch before World War I inspired jewelers to create extraordinary decorated watches, encrusted with diamonds and plated with enamel, gold and silver.
Pendant watches, hanging from a ribbon, also became fashionable. The firm of Chaumet made highly geometric cigarette boxes, cigarette lighters, pillboxes and notebooks, made of hard stones decorated with jade , lapis lazuli , diamonds and sapphires. They were joined by many young new designers, each with his own idea of deco. Raymond Templier designed pieces with highly intricate geometric patterns, including silver earrings that looked like skyscrapers. Gerard Sandoz was only 18 when he started to design jewelry in ; he designed many celebrated pieces based on the smooth and polished look of modern machinery.
Jean Despres made necklaces of contrasting colors by bringing together silver and black lacquer, or gold with lapis lazuli. Many of his designs looked like highly polished pieces of machines. Jean Dunand was also inspired by modern machinery, combined with bright reds and blacks contrasting with polished metal. Like the Art Nouveau period before it, Art Deco was an exceptional period for fine glass and other decorative objects, designed to fit their architectural surroundings. In , at the age of 58, he bought a large glass works in Combs-la-Ville and began to manufacture both artistic and practical glass objects.
He treated glass as a form of sculpture, and created statuettes, vases, bowls, lamps and ornaments. He used demi-crystal rather than lead crystal, which was softer and easier to form, though not as lustrous. He sometimes used colored glass, but more often used opalescent glass, where part or the whole of the outer surface was stained with a wash. Lalique provided the decorative glass panels, lights and illuminated glass ceilings for the ocean liners SS Ile de France in and the SS Normandie in , and for some of the first-class sleeping cars of the French railroads.
Other notable Art Deco glass manufacturers included Marius-Ernest Sabino, who specialized in figurines, vases, bowls, and glass sculptures of fish, nudes, and animals. For these he often used an opalescent glass which could change from white to blue to amber, depending upon the light. His vases and bowls featured molded friezes of animals, nudes or busts of women with fruit or flowers. His work was less subtle but more colorful than that of Lalique. Other notable Deco glass designers included Edmond Etling, who also used bright opalescent colors, often with geometric patterns and sculpted nudes; Albert Simonet, and Aristide Colotte and Maurice Marinot , who was known for his deeply etched sculptural bottles and vases.
The firm of Daum from the city of Nancy , which had been famous for its Art Nouveau glass, produced a line of Deco vases and glass sculpture, solid, geometric and chunky in form. More delicate multicolored works were made by Gabriel Argy-Rousseau , who produced delicately colored vases with sculpted butterflies and nymphs, and Francois Decorchemont, whose vases were streaked and marbled. The Great Depression ruined a large part of the decorative glass industry, which depended upon wealthy clients.
Some artists turned to designing stained glass windows for churches. In , the Steuben glass company began the practice of commissioning famous artists to produce glassware. Cocktail set of chrome-plated steel by Norman Bel Geddes Art Deco artists produced a wide variety of practical objects in the Art Deco style, made of industrial materials from traditional wrought iron to chrome-plated steel. The American artist Norman Bel Geddes designed a cocktail set resembling a skyscraper made of chrome-plated steel.
The French sculptor Jean Dunand produced magnificent doors on the theme "The Hunt", covered with gold leaf and paint on plaster Art Deco architecture began in Europe, but by there were examples in large cities on every continent and in almost every country. This is a selection of prominent buildings on each continent. For a comprehensive of existing buildings by country, see List of Art Deco architecture. Peter's Cathedral in Rabat , Morocco Most Art Deco buildings in Africa were built during European colonial rule, and often designed by Italian and French architects. Broadway Mansions in Shanghai , China Kologdam Building in Bandung , Indonesia Ankara railway station in Ankara , Turkey Dare House in Chennai , India A large number of the Art Deco buildings in Asia were designed by European architects, but in the Philippines local architect Juan Nakpil was preeminent.
Many Art Deco landmarks in Asia were demolished during the great economic expansion of Asia the late 20th century, but some notable enclaves of the architecture still remain, particularly in Shanghai and Mumbai. Manchester Unity Building in Melbourne Sound Shell in Napier, New Zealand at night. Several towns in New Zealand, including Napier and Hastings were rebuilt in Art Deco style after the Hawke's Bay earthquake , and many of the buildings have been protected and restored.
Harris Water Treatment Plant. Examples of Art Deco residential architecture can be found in the Condesa neighborhood, many designed by Francisco J. In the United States, Art Deco buildings are found from coast to coast, in all the major cities. It was most widely used for office buildings, train stations, airport terminals, and movie theaters; residential buildings are rare. In the s, the more austere streamline style became popular.
Many buildings were demolished between and the late s, but then efforts began to protect the best examples. The Bacardi Building in Havana , Cuba Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Brussels , Belgium Mayakovskaya Station in Moscow , Russia Rivoli Theater in Porto , Portugal Spain and Portugal have some striking examples of Art Deco buildings, particularly movie theaters. An example in Spain is the Cine Rialto in Valencia During the s, Art Deco had a noticeable effect on house design in the United Kingdom,  as well as the design of various public buildings.
The London Underground is famous for many examples of Art Deco architecture,  and there are a number of buildings in the style situated along the Golden Mile in Brentford. Also in West London is the Hoover Building, which was originally built for The Hoover Company and was converted into a superstore in the early s. The Indian Institute of Architects, founded in Bombay in , played a prominent role in propagating the Art Deco movement. As a result, it was declared a success by the 'Journal of the Indian Institute of Architects'.
The exhibition focused on various elements of a home ranging from furniture, elements of interior decoration as well as radios and refrigerators using new and scientifically relevant materials and methods. Bombay's expanding port commerce in the s resulted in the growth of educated middle class population. It also saw an increase of people migrating to Bombay in search of job opportunities. This led to the pressing need for new developments through Land Reclamation Schemes and construction of new public and residential buildings.
Lacerda Elevator in Salvador, Bahia , Brazil Kavanagh building in Buenos Aires , Argentina The Abasto Market in Buenos Aires, circa The U-Drop Inn , a roadside gas station and diner on U. Highway 66 in Shamrock, Texas , now a historic monument. Art deco neighborhood in Havana , Cuba. In many cities, efforts have been made to protect the remaining Art Deco buildings. In many U. Even more modest art deco buildings have been preserved as part of America's architectural heritage; an art deco cafe and gas station along Route 66 in Shamrock, Texas is an historic monument.
The Miami Beach Architectural District protects several hundred old buildings, and requires that new buildings comply with the style.