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Campus Catalunya. Universitat Rovira i Virgili. Un estudio comparativo , Ed. Universitat Girona, Des dels camps. I, Ed. Emporitana, Figueres, Marcel Puyfoucart, Paris, s. De La Magrana, Barcelona, XXI, Madrid, Cinca S. Albin Michel, Paris, Entrevista a Joan Rocamora i Cuatrecasas.

The Intellectual Migration from Europe, , Chicago, Barranquilla, Departament de Cultura, Barcelona, Vision Libros, Anagrama, Beta III Milenio, Una catalanitat a prova , ed. Belgrano, Buenos Aires, Toulouse De retorn a Catalunya , Ed. Un siglo de exilios y migraciones , Editorial Comares S. Curial, Barcelona, Espagnols dans le Sud-Ouest , Ed.

Iris,Toulouse, Testimonis sobre la Guerra Civil. Giulianotti, Richard, ed.

The History of Catalonia

Sport and m odern social theorists. Springer, Giulianotti, Richard, and Roland Robertson, eds. Globalization and sport. Wiley-Blackwell, Gleaves, John, and Matthew Llewellyn. Goffman, Erving. The presentation of self in every day life. London: Harmondsworth, Harris, John. Hart-Davis, Duff. Olympic Mar- keting Corp, Huish, Robert. James, Cyril Lionel Robert. Bey ond a boundary. Lever, Janet. MacClancy, Jeremy. N ationalism at play : the Basques of Vizcay a and Athletic Bilbao. Berg Publisher Ltd, , Maguire, Joseph, and Joseph A. Global sport: Identities, societies, civilizations.

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Polity, Martin, Simon. Football and Fascism : The national gam e under Musso- lini. Oxford: Berg, Palgrave Macmillan US, Ofer, Inbal. Sussex Academic Press, Palmer, Catherine. Pink, Sarah. W om en and bullfi ghting: gender, sex and the consum ption of tradition. Berg Publisher Ltd, Quiroga, Alejandro.

Redeker, Robert. Rein, Raanan. Riordan, James. CUP Archive, Sport, politics, and com m unism. Manchester University Press, Alianza Editorial, Shobe, Hunter. Smith, Anthony D. N ational identity. University of Nevada Press, Smith, Bill L. Vaczi, Mariann. Soccer, culture and society in Spain: an ethnography of Basque fandom. Routledge, b. Yuval-Davis, Nira. Sage, The article focuses on the promotion of physical education as part of a wider effort to forge a new Fascist, and later on a National-Catholic, culture.

It exists as a means of spreading our doctrine. Hence our preoccupation: [ Forging an Organic N ation SIBA 4 37 of sport and highlight the tensions between the wish to generate a new physical culture for the masses, on the one hand, and the demand for elite training, on the other. Following the work of researchers such as Cathy van Ingen and Jennifer Hargreaves the current article views gender identities as deve- loping relationally within different cultural spaces of which the classroom, the sporting club and the youth movement are but a few. As Alan Bairner rightly noted sport often constitutes a conservative set of institutional practices that reinforce existing power relations.

The second section analyzes the promotion of physical education as part of a wider effort to forge a new Fascist, and later on a National-Catholic, culture. Hargreaves ; idem ; C. Van Ingen Bairner In Spain women entered the world of sporting activities and of physical education through a manipulation of the massage that called for national regeneration and for a demographic revolution.

For the purpose of the current article, however, it is important to distinguish between the two. According to Bailey: Sport is a collective noun and usually refers to a range of activities, processes, social relationships and presumed physical, psychological and sociological outcomes.

These activities include individual, partner and team sports; contact and non-contact sports; motor-driven or perceptually dominated sports; different emphases on strategy, chance and physical skills; and competitive, self-development and purely recreational acti- vities. Bailey Whilst the performance of physical skills forms a central and characteristic feature of the subject, like all other areas of the curriculum, it is fundamentally concerned with knowledge, skills and understanding. This is perhaps not surprising given that the dictatorship came into life following a civil war that took the lives of over , soldiers and civilians and set the development of the Spanish economy back by nearly two decades.

During the s little funds were available for the promotion of sporting activities and even less to the creation of adequate facilities. When it came to legislation and to the foundation of organizational structures, however, the dictatorship advanced in great leaps. It was especially apparent in areas where the Falange was eager to assert it administrative power by promoting policies that contradicted the aims of other prominent forces within the nationalist coalition such as the Catholic Church or the military.

The Franco regime should therefore be viewed as a profoundly anti-liberal and nationalist regime of which a fascist movement, the Falange, was but one political force. The SF was founded in June At its height, in the early s, the organization attained a membership of over , During the initial years of the regime Pilar Primo de Rivera used her unique position in order to attain direct control over all spheres of life where women operated. As part of a general effort to legally codify the changes undergone by the nationalist education system it was decreed that all primary school children girls and boys would be entitled to six weekly hours of physical education, music and arts and crafts.

It now gained entry into the public school system when it was stated that all physical education classes would be administered by its instructors. Ofer Carrero Eras A document published in indicated that the SF did not favor the option of employing male ins- tructors. According to its National Delegate the promotion of physical education amongst women necessitated an exclusively female staff. Candidates had to be unmarried and between years of age. Following the war the Falange founded two national schools for the training of youth and physical education instructors.

Until the SF trained new female PE instructors. Between the years further PE teachers graduated from courses of between 3 to 4 years long and instructors from short, one- month long, courses. However, the interviews I conducted with ex SF-members and PE instructors reveal the fact that such differences existed. Carrero Eras, The SF ordered physical education manuals for high school students. The manuals included tables and sketches of the exercises to be given by the priest. But what could you do? You had to let them pass.

Even if the exercises came out real bad we gave them a good grade. The SF gave out many scholarships, which enabled girls from the villages to receive a more comprehensive education. The regime was fast ap- proaching a phase where brute political repression was at an all-time low although this would reemerge in the late s and a growing emphasis was put on indirect supervision through cultural enterprises.

By the mids the situation started to reverse. Internal documents from that time describe the growing resistance of many to take part in activities imposed upon them within different institutions. This lack of interest was compoun- ded by newly found alternatives.

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The general improvement in the eco- nomic situation and the new Law of Association widened the choice of cultural associations available to women. A large number of the women who made a name for themselves during that period were initially trained under the supervision of the SF, but the organization itself was losing its monopoly in this area. Over time, however, the organization proved unable both ideologically and structurally to meet the changing needs and aspirations of thousands of Spanish women.

While some had come to see the SF as too radical, for others it was not radical or innovative enough. During the late 18th and early 19th century three schools of physical activity emerged in Europe: the German, Swedish and the British School.

It was less leisurely and was mostly practiced in gymnasiums. German gymnastics was closely associated with the formation of German nationalism. Muth and Jahn developed a system of drills turn , which emphasized the importance of physical strength and the use of different apparatus such as ropes, bars and so forth.

The Swedish school emphasized accuracy and style and called for a high level of discipline and attunement between the individual and the group. Hall p. Mosse ; R. Crego Melnick However, as each of these schools responded to somewhat different concerns in terms of morality and physical health they were soon adapted within different social and ideological contexts. It was only natural, perhaps, that a stronger emphasis was put on the German school, which was highly dominant amongst instructors with prior military background.

In the case of women the Swedish school carried the day. Such rationality is achieved only when physical exercise is executed in order to comply 24 For more on the three schools and their implementation in Europe see: R. Naul, in K. Hardman Agosti, in F. Abandoning such a gift, not taking care of it using the best measures offered to us by science, constitutes ingratitude.

However, the greatest contradiction inherent in its policies surfaced when a woman athlete truly stood out. This process is too limited and centers on institutional and structural aspects. We need to act further on the [ Following the Civil War the demographic perspective gained ground and the entire debate on the issue of physical education was conducted within the limiting boundaries of a deeply Catholic discourse. By presenting a more youthful and attractive facet of the regime and positioning its members as intermediaries between different female populations as well as public and private institutions, the organization proved its usefulness far beyond that of other organs within the Falange.

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What little information can be 33 F. Forging an Organic N ation SIBA 4 49 found has to be gathered from local studies that focus mostly on the experiences of PE instructors and to a lesser degree on those of some practitioners who took part in sporting activities over time. A series of oral interviews that were conducted with 24 women who practiced sports overtime during the years of the dictatorship pointed to the importance of the SF in promoting physical education and in funding installations for the practice of sports.

And obviously physical education classes seemed to us a bit like a boring routine at the time. There were hardly any exercises. But I knew many [female] basketball players and none of them was a tomboy. They were beautiful girls, but people had this concept of women athletes, they did not look on us favorably.

She must be clean and look clean. She must keep her hair short and if she does not she must arrange it in an appropriate manner when teaching. Gimeno Marco, R. Llopis Goig, G. Text not highlighted originally. Following the completion of her training she was assigned to the same school from which she graduated ten years earlier. The headmistress was a young nun and a former classmate of hers. When at the end of the year she organized a display of her ten-year-old students. One of the exercises included a series of handstands.

According to M. At the end of the day she was informed by the headmistress that as impressive as the display was her students would henceforth refrain from performing handstands in public. This type of work is not the work of the [instructors] but rather of the provincial delegate.

It is she who has to approach the headmistress and reach an agreement, without resorting to threats. Interview with the author Madrid, And when I gave a class of gymnastics I had to change in a hurry in whatever corner they set aside for me. Furthermore, in a society where the majority of women had no access to higher education becoming a PE instructor provided meant that they could go on with their studies.

According to Manrique Arribas doing so within the ranks of a political entity such as the SF was looked upon more positively than simply becoming a teacher or bank employee One of her most vivid memories was of the French students: The French girls wore bikinis during swimming classes. During training, when the professor herself was in the pool, they changed to a one-piece bathing suit but as soon as she came out — not when the class was over but when the professor stepped out of the pool — they put their bikinis on again.

Manrique Arribas PE instructors taught girls and young women how to care for their bodies and exercise muscles no one even dared to speak about. As a result a space was created where short and relatively attractive uniforms, collective undressing and showering were considered legi- timate. The fact that we are all women does not mean we should forget our moral obligations Under no conditions must men be allowed into the dressing rooms, even when all players are fully dressed.

The instructors taught several generations of Spanish girls and women born after the Civil War how to nurture and even publicly expose their bodies. Such teachings, anchored as they were in a more open and progressive perceptions of the human body, were not always compatible with the existing moral code. What can I tell you? I had a problem with that. The SF stressed the importance of maternity, and consequently the need for women to retire from certain spheres of action. At the same time women were encouraged and often forced to take part in an array of projects aimed at national regeneration including re-education and political indoctrination ini- tiatives, demographic campaigns and the equivalent of an obligatory military service for women.

The physical wellbeing of women was tied to the physical and moral wellbeing of the nation itself. During other, less radicalized periods, demographic and moral dictates carried the day. In Spain young women and girls participated in several mass demonstrations throughout and but this type of public exposure was not sustained in later years. In order to compensate for the lack of funding the organization created a nationwide network of classes and of sporting teams that operated under the most rudimentary conditions. Under these conditions the more open and innovative physical culture promoted by the SF served to differentiate it from other more conservative elements within the regime.

In conclusion, much work is still needed in order to assess the impact of physical education policies during the Franco regime on different target populations such as urban and rural school students, workers, university students etc.

Spanish at Work

While not all of the women who would go on to become PE instructors were necessarily adherents of the regime they willingly became its agents within schools and youth movements. In doing so they taught several generations of girls and young women how to nurture, take pride and even publicly expose their bodies in the only manner considered acceptable in a conservative and a highly chauvinistic society. Bailey, Richard. Carrero Eras, Luis.

Caspistegui Gorasurreta, Francisco Javier. Crego, Robert. Sports and Gam es of the 18 th and 19 th century. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled W om en, Italy Berkeley: California University Press, Hall, Margaret Anne. Peterborough: University of Toronto Press, Hargreaves, Jennifer. Sport and Modern Social Theorists. London: Palgrave Macmillan, Manrique Arribas, Juan Carlos.

Melnick, Samantha. Mosse, George. Naul, Ronald. Essen: Hofmann, Brighton: Sussex University Press, Van Ingen, Cathy. The title of the biography uses the diminutive of his name, Arturito. According to his biographer, Jeroni Bergas, when he died in , he was still Arturito in Spanish popular memory. Why and how Arturito Pomar never became Arturo are the questions that I ask in this text. Ke y w o rd s : Arturo Pomar, chess, media, Francoist celebrity, nationalism.

To write this article I needed to recur to several people who helped me with insights, testimonies and documental support. Poor Spanish mailman. What a shame. Bobby Fischer to Arturo Pomar, According to his biographer, Jeroni Bergas, when he died in at age eighty- one, he was still Arturito in Spanish popular memory 6.

The political and ideological myth constructed by totalitarian narratives 2 For a bibliography of the theoretical works and the most representative case studies of this articulation, see Daniel Beck and Louis Bosshart; Alan Bairner, especially chapters one and eight. In the Hispanic world, both theoretical analyses and case studies are not as abundant as in the Anglo-Saxon, German and French traditions. Another type of work emphasizes the type of society studied rather than the type of sport. A reference in this sense is Bairner and Sugden. There is a great variety of ways in which sport may be linked to nationalism.

Most societies have their own peculiar traditions as regards sport and leisure activities…. That is why myth and type are indissociable. Drawing from academic sources and personal experiences, Juan A. Dimos un genio del ajedrez, ya que otras genialidades estaban mal vistas, incluso fusiladas. We gave a genius of chess, since other geniuses were unaccepted, and even shot.

Once, Arturito Pomar [now it seems to me that he works in the Postal Service] was in Valladolid playing simultaneously with partners of the casino and local chess players. I, who did not know anything about chess, got in there in my shorts and dirty knees, because I have always experienced, like the Jews [and I do not think I have anything Jewish, and I am sorry about that], the fascination for the greatest of the land.

Arturito Pomar was a little greatness of the burned soil of post-war Spain. For its part, the Francoist regime exploited the chess prodigy for populist and ideological purposes. After the tournament he disputed simultaneous games that were reported in the press and the NO-DO recurrently. He offered two exhibition games in Madrid and six in Barcelona, with a total result of forty-six victories, twelve draws and four defeats. At his return to Palma de Mallorca, where he lived, he played simultaneously against twelve players in the Passatge Bar, winning eleven games and drawing one. Later, he went to the Club Ajedrez Mallorca, where he played a double session.

Days later, he moved to La Salle College, where he played another session of simultaneous games against a group of twelve teachers and students, winning all. In this tournament his game with Brinkmann ended in a draw after two days and two hours. In London, Arturito was astonished by the amount of bread he could eat — that is, amazed at a country without cartillas de racionam iento, rations, and famine.

From onwards, his popularity declined. In , none of the newspapers mentioned him. Admitiendo la existencia de otra cantidad semejante sin organizar. Por lo tanto, no pasan de Estas cifras se aglomeran, mayormente, en las principales ciudades. Sin que el optimismo nos ciegue sabemos que no pasan de las las personas por cada El milagro ha podido realizarse gracias a dos cosas. Recently, the Spanish press reported the news of a performance of the chess-child in a Spanish northern town. With the peculiar laconism of this sort of information, the account read: it should be said that, practically, the whole town attended the exhibition.

The case is paradoxical. There are 20, chess players in Spain, and we can admit the existence of another similar quantity not registered in any club. These players are mostly concentrated in the main cities.

The miracle was accomplished thanks to two things: the thirteen years of age of the chess player, and the cooperation of the media and propaganda in Spain, which did not spare the highest praise of the child. The local press followed this scheme. Surely, all of you will have already formed an idea of him through the pictures published in the newspapers. The London tournament consecrated Pomar. Th e Ab a n d o n m e n t o f t h e H e r o Between and , Pomar won several national championships, played tournaments in Latin America, United States and Canada, invited by clubs and individuals.

During the Cold War, chess players competed for primacy on the chessboard, and media reports assumed a simple equivalence: the country that had the best player was also in possession of intellectual supremacy, which exponentially increased its prestige. It is also understandable that the U.

S, they were national icons for whom large teams of people worked, with a dedication comparable to that applied to the development of aerospace technology. He did not have a team with him — trainers and analysts that worked overnight to recommend the best moves the following day in postponed matches. Moreover, far from receiving support, as it had been the case during his infancy, Pomar — son of a working-class family, mailman, and father of seven — had to cover all his expenses during the month-long unpaid leave granted by the government.

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Additionally, in order to travel, her wife Carmen had to spend family savings, part of which were dedicated to buying a gift for the employee that substituted Pomar while he competed. In the second half of the tournament, Pomar began losing and conceding draws in favorable positions due to the sleep deprivation caused by his lack of a team. Details about his condition are unknown. He appeared laconic, apathetic, indifferent and phlegmatic. Regarding his political instrumentalization and sub- sequent abandonment, he sounded resig-ned and submissive. Es deia que ensenyaria a les escoles.

Volem que ensenyi escacs? Prefereixen que no ho faci? No es cosa meva decidir-ho. Que faria amb ells? They wanted me to teach chess in schools. Even a minister, named Rubio, approached me to see if I was willing to take responsibility for the organization. But they were just words. Do you want me to teach? I agree. Do you prefer me not to teach? It is not my business to decide what I do. What would I do with them? You have to accept with resig- nation every mishap of life.

But, in exchange of resignation, please satisfy my curiosity. Why do you want me to go? What happens is that I am going to work in an hour. I classify mail. That entertains me. In my view, Pomar never considered that his illness had a bio-political root, nor did he see himself as a populist tool, because he had fully internalized a separation between existence and desire. Consequently, the question is not why Pomar never complained about the treatment he received when he was no longer a child politically exploitable, but how could he have complained from this ideological standpoint.

People who hated us now understand us thanks to you, because you broke many walls […] Your victories are a legitimate pride for all Spaniards, inside and outside our country. As mentioned at the beginning of this essay, his is a case that retains morphological concomitances with that of the boxer Urtain. The poet Eduardo Scala interviewed Pomar when the player turned 60 years old. He recalled the words of Alexander Kotov, one of the main trainers of the U.

Bebo, libo devocionalmente una copa de Hierbas de Mallorca: Felanitx, la vieja casa del Dr. Tiene en su mesa una torre de sobres que debe introducir en sus casillas correspondientes. Comenzamos el juego. I pilgrim through Las Ramblas towards the great master, the Spanish legend of chess. I prepare the moment in an old cafeteria. I drink, I devotionally imbibe a cup of Majorcan herbs: Felanitx, the old house of Dr. Arturo Pomar? Enter through the other side of the building. It is a desolate place, with a Kafkaesque, procedural atmosphere. He offers me his distant, languid hand. Over his table lies a tower of envelopes that must enter into their corresponding boxes.

He kindly invites me to sit on his work stool; he prefers to stand, as if he was playing a simultaneous game with me. He seems to enjoy a certain stillness of spirit; however, he lights one cigarette after another, while he looks at me with his best eye. He is Job — the Job at the end of the Book; I tell him; he knows. We start the game; El Mundo Deportivo, 19 Mayo , p. Im perio 29 Sept. La Vanguardia, 9 Feb. Im perio, 31 Ag. Acceso 18 jul. Hoja Ofi cial de los lunes, 25 Oct. Madrid, La Vanguardia, 16 nov. ABC, 9 feb , p. ABC, 27 Oct. Im perio. Boyero, Javier.

Marca, 21 Dic , p. Castro, C. ABC Sevilla 19 Feb , p. Triunfo, 15 sept. Im perio 25, Sept. Lamarca, R. Per- sonal e-mail. Madrid: Dossat, Entrevista con Llorenc Capella. La Vanguardia. Romeo, Carmen. Mensaje al autor. Umbral, Francisco. La Vanguardia 19 Oct , p. New s Chronicle. Vosser, H. New York Tim es 3 Feb. Se co n d ary So u rce s Bairner, Alan. Beck, Daniel and Bosshart, Louis. Com m unication Research Trends vol 22, no.

Bergas, Jeroni. Crolley, Liz, and Duke, Vic. Football, Nationality , and the State. Harlow: Longman. Fusi, Juan P. Franco, autoritarism o y poder personal. Madrid: Suma de Letras, Ganzo, Julio and Fuentes, Juan M. Johnson, Daniel. Arturo Pom ar. Una vida dedicada al ajedrez. Badalona: Paidotribo. Ochoa, J. En Bergas, J. Madrid: Ediciones Rialp, Indeed, the relations among family, kinship relations, and access to power were subjects that had been practiced by Spanish medi- evalists in recent years. It relates with precision the changes in the social status of women, who pass from the predominance of the hypergamic practices of the early centuries of the Middle Ages to their decline with the triumph of the princely lineages in the central centuries.

That line of argument, which may not have gone far beyond these works, has borne more fruit from the point of view of the modern- ization of Spanish medieval studies than that of the eternal debate on the territorial structure of the Peninsula in the Middle Ages. The territorializa- tion debate, which had received the legacy of the essentialist debate, had reached a dead end from which it could only be extracted by a study of lineage that was more in accordance with the new methodologies.

In this context, the warm welcome given to Adam J. Burns for medieval Valencia. His methodological arsenal extends from the formulations of the sociology of social action and systemic sociology to Hans G. Adam J. Thomas N. Robert I. Estudio del camino de Santiago Madrid: Tecnos, Gamson and Ch. However, Spanish academic tradi- tion is excessively conditioned by the nineteenth-century German model, which is why philology has been academically linked since its origins with linguistics and starkly separated from history.

Moreover, there has been no true dialogue between history and philology, which is why the three disciplines are still unfortunately following rather independent paths. Lastly, the administrative and bureaucratic compartments have carried That has meant that in Spanish medieval studies there has not been much tradition in interdisciplinary research projects, though there are exceptions. Among them are some volumes published jointly by experts in the two disciplines.

In the face of this output, which lacks methodological nerve and epistemological renovation, a revision movement has been generated in Spanish medieval studies. True, the postulates of the new philology, developed starting in the late eighties in some North American academic spheres, have not caught on.

The Historia, leyenda y mito Burgos: Dossoles, The historical vestiges and traces of mythology reach the historian and philologist through their linguistic and stylistic traces. Solidly researched and splendidly written, her works are excellent approaches to the world of Islamic Spain through literature. Spanish Language and Medieval Literature, published in Bibliography of Old Spanish Texts, comp.

Charles B. Faulhaber et al. Thomas Montgomery, Medieval Spanish Epic. From the perspective of the Romance lit- eratures, the journal Romance Philology, published in Berkeley, California, since , is outstanding. Velasco set out to analyze Castilian chivalry by setting it in relation to its European framework.

The current of his work may be associated with the history of literary culture. Nowadays, there is no predominant current. True, a pragmatic neopositivism espoused by the majority of medievalists is based on the postulates of nineteenth-century German historical studies and the French methodological school. All that helps to endow Spanish medieval studies with a curious mixture of tradition and modernity, be- tween conservatism and innovation.

Methodological revision, when it has existed, has come fundamentally from three spheres: the recent reappraisal of some scholars born between Chronica Hispana saeculi XII, ed. Emma Falque Turnhout: Brepols, No stable programmatic link between philologists and historians has been achieved. The two spheres continue to be too distant, both from a strictly academic point of view and from that of research. Lack of commu- nication has increased, due to both the rigidity of the Spanish academic system and the uncritical reluctance aroused by the currents related to postmodernism and the new medieval studies that originated in the North American academic world.

The idea of the conception of historical texts as literary artefacts and the practice of reading primary sources as texts which has helped to bring together historians, linguists, and literary historians in other academic spheres have been misinterpreted, which has widened the radical separation between the mode of interpreting primary sources, historical texts, and literature. Unfortunately, a certain conceptual weakness lingers among many Span- ish medievalists. The cultivation of methodological and epistemological as- pects is regarded as an excessively theoretical task, which distorts research into primary sources.

Moreover, there is scarcely any dialogue between historians and researchers in other social sciences such as sociology, an- thropology, or linguistics. Although the lack of theoretical information is palliated in part with the new generations of medievalists, the situation still has to improve.

In the nineties the model switched to North American medieval studies. The problem is that no objective and genuinely ex- ternal grading system has been achieved. Endogamy reproduces itself because it continues to be a common practice for Spanish universities to hire their own doctoral students. The publishing system does not encourage the distribution of really high quality recent research. There is an excessive distance between uni- The former usually publish PhD theses, done at the university of the publisher, whose subjects are only of interest to a specialized minority and whose language all too often degenerates into academic jargon.

That holds back the reception of new methodologies even more. The academic system, with its incessant stimulation of quantity over quality, generates mediocrity in research. That affects both those who are already established, because they do not need external stimulation, and those who are opting to become established, who urgently need to swell their curriculum vitae with more publications, but with no concern for their quality. The diagnosis is severe in some points, but perhaps the hopes are greater.

At the same time, the tradition of cordiality and sincere affection that has always existed among Hispanists and Spanish researchers will certainly contribute to a gradual normalization, modernization, and prestige of Spanish medieval studies. Related Papers. The Routledge Companion to Iberian Studies.

By Alex J Novikoff. By James Amelang. In the Light of Medieval Spain. Islam, the West, and the Relevance of the Past. By Simon Doubleday.