By this time he had rejected informalism, rendering competition with any other such painters, American or otherwise, a lost cause. Greco died in , the year that variations on Pop art began to appear in Buenos Aires. If this is a campy send-up of advertising, it nonetheless still functions as self-promotion. In Warhol. And it appears also in the psychology of art to designate a certain type of acts of consciousness that are distinguished from perception and imagination, and would realize themselves not so much through a lone act of consciousness but placed in relation to various successive valuated acts.
It was delayed until October because of the coup. One component of the Happening was based on a La Monte Young sound environment Masotta had experienced. This was slightly altered from the version planned in April. The October version substituted lower-middle-class actors dressed to look poor. The Happening was being reframed in Buenos Aires as representation and fiction rather than presence and authenticity. Earlier that year, Jacoby had already devised artworks premised on absences—missed encounters with the real, as it were.
They took care to note the circulation of each newspaper and magazine that they were deceiving, as if tracking the possible expanded audiences that the project could have. The deception, in this case, was framed as a kind of sociological experiment, one with a political undertone. Simply put, with various degrees of success, for various durations, and for various purposes, these fictions are experienced as fact. In Buenos Aires in , the parafiction served at least three objectives: to argue that action-based art, as inherited from Northern centers like New York and Paris, was ultimately an effect of its own reportage; to generate apperception of the mass media as a substrate for works of art; and to draw attention to the ease with which falsehoods could be and had been circulated via that substrate.
Political protest is here synonymous with art and media critique. It was written just prior to Lucy R. This charted the path for a new approach, one that would supersede the Happening or make it outmoded. Although Masotta had found fruitful tools in Pop, he glimpsed in the Happening a way to escape from dependence on Northern style. Not all media art was premised on deception. The guerrilla does not die just to hang on the wall, but the inspirational poster that delivers the message does have to hang somewhere; it needs some sort of support or exhibition context.
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It consisted of three elements: a text by Jacoby that was reproduced in large print in the gallery, a photograph of an African-American protester at an antiwar rally in the United States, and a teletype machine feeding real-time information about May , then unfolding in France. The text was displayed using white detachable letters on a large blackboard, with a handwritten signature at the bottom. Rather than voiding his messages outright, however, Jacoby played a balancing act. As much as the telex brought news of revolutionary change into the gallery setting, it also arrived as information spit out mindlessly by a machine.
An internationally supported plebiscite in held under the auspices of the military dictatorship was followed by a peaceful transition to an elected civilian government.
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Allende received Alessandri was a close second with Although Allende received the highest number of votes, according to the Chilean constitution and since none of the candidates won by an absolute majority, the National Congress had to decide among the candidates. The constitution did not allow a person to be president for two consecutive terms; the incumbent president, Eduardo Frei Montalva , was therefore ineligible as a candidate.
The CIA's " Track I " operation was a plan to influence the Congress to choose Alessandri, who would resign after a short time in office, forcing a second election. Frei would be eligible to run. Alessandri announced on 9 September. Congress decided on Allende. Soon after hearing news of his win, Allende signed a Statute of Constitutional Guarantees, which stated that he would follow the constitution during his presidency; the U. In , economics minister Pedro Vuskovic adopted monetary policies that increased the amount of circulating currency and devalued the escudo, which increased inflation to percent in and engendered a black market economy.
In October , Chile suffered the first of many strikes. Other than damaging the national economy, the principal effect of the day strike was drawing Army head, Gen. Carlos Prats , into the government as Interior Minister , an appeasement to the right wing.
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Despite the declining economy, President Allende's Popular Unity coalition increased its vote to The Christian Democrats allied with the right-wing National Party, who were opposed to Allende's government. The internecine parliamentary conflict, between the legislature and the executive branch, paralyzed the activities of government. Allende began convinced they were plotting his assassination.
Using his daughter as a messenger, he explained the situation to Fidel Castro. Castro gave four pieces of advice: convince technicians to stay in Chile , only sell copper for US dollars, avoid extreme revolutionary acts which would give opponents an excuse to wreck or control the economy, maintain a proper relationship with the Chilean military until local militias could be established and consolidated.
Allende attempted to follow Castro's advice. Prior to the coup, the Chilean military had undergone a process of de-politicization since the s, when military personnel participated in government positions. Subsequently, most military officers remained under-funded; because of the low salaries the milit. Santiago Santiago , is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas. It is the center of Chile's largest and most densely populated conurbation , the Santiago Metropolitan Region , whose total population is 7 million; the city is located in the country's central valley.
Most of the city lies between m above mean sea level. Founded in by the Spanish conqueror Pedro de Valdivia , Santiago has been the capital city of Chile since colonial times; the city has a downtown core of 19th-century neoclassical architecture and winding side-streets, dotted by art deco, neo-gothic , other styles. Santiago's cityscape is shaped by several stand-alone hills and the fast-flowing Mapocho River , lined by parks such as Parque Forestal ; the Andes Mountains can be seen from most points in the city. These mountains contribute to a considerable smog problem during winter; the city outskirts are surrounded by vineyards and Santiago is within an hour of both the mountains and the Pacific Ocean.
Santiago is the cultural and financial center of Chile and is home to the regional headquarters of many multinational corporations. Santiago is named after the biblical figure St. Santiago will host the Pan American Games. In Chile, there are several entities which bear the name of "Santiago" that are confused; the Commune of Santiago , sometimes referred to as "downtown" or "Central Santiago", is an administrative division that comprises the area occupied by the city during its colonial period.
The commune , administered by the Municipality of Santiago and headed by a mayor, is part of the Santiago Province headed by a provincial governor, in itself a subdivision of the Santiago Metropolitan Region headed by an intendant. Despite these classifications, when the term "Santiago" is used without another descriptor, it refers to what is known as Greater Santiago, a territorial extension defined by its urban continuity that includes the Commune of Santiago in addition to 36 other communes, which together comprise the majority of the Santiago Province and some areas of neighboring provinces.
The city and region's demonym is santiaguinas. According to certain archaeological investigations, it is believed that the first human groups reached the Santiago basin in the 10th millennium BC; the groups were nomadic hunter-gatherers , who traveled from the coast to the interior in search of guanacos during the time of the Andean snowmelt. About the year , the first sedentary inhabitants began to settle due to the formation of agricultural communities along the Mapocho River maize and beans, the domestication of camelids in the area; the villages established in the areas belonging to the Picunches or Promaucae people, were subject to the Inca Empire throughout the late fifteenth century and into the early sixteenth century.
The Incas settled in the valley of mitimaes , the main installation settled in the center of the present city, with strongholds such as Huaca de Chena and the sanctuary of El Plomo hill; the area would have served as a basis for the failed Inca expeditions southward road junction as the Inca Trail. Having been sent by Francisco Pizarro from Peru and having made the long journey from Cuzco , Extremadura conquistador Pedro de Valdivia reached the valley of the Mapocho on 13 December The hosts of Valdivia camped by the river in the slopes of the Tupahue hill and began to interact with the Picunche people who inhabited the area.
Lucia ". Following colonial rule, Valdivia entrusted the layout of the new town to master builder Pedro de Gamboa, who would design the city grid layout. In the center of the city, Gamboa designed a Plaza Mayor , around which various plots for the Cathedral and the governor's house were selected. In total, eight blocks from north to south, ten from east to west, were built; each solar was given to the settlers, who built houses of straw.
Valdivia left months to the south with his troops, beginning the War of Arauco. Santiago was left unprotected; the indigenous hosts of Michimalonco used this to their advantage, attacked the fledgling city. On 11 September , the city was destroyed by the natives, but the strong Spanish Garrison managed to defend the fort; the resistance was led by a mistress to Valdivia. When she realized they were being overrun, she ordered the execution of all native prisoners, proceeded to put their heads on pikes and threw a few heads to the natives.
It has a council—manager system of government; the population of the town was 5, at the census. The Woodside area was home to natives belonging to the Ohlone tribe. Woodside is said to be the oldest English-speaking settlement in the southern part of the San Francisco Peninsula; the first English-speaking settlers arrived in the early 19th century to log the rich stands of redwoods. Brown's adobe house, built in , still stands today. By mid-century, the Woodside area had a dozen mills producing building materials for a booming San Francisco. By the late 19th century, Woodside was home to country estates; the Sequoia Redwood trees in Woodside are 3rd generation growth.
The first generation of the Redwood trees were used to build San Francisco original homes. After the San Francisco earthquake , the loggers returned to Woodside to cut the second growth of redwood so they could be used for the rebuilding of San Francisco. In , the Family, a private club, set up camp facilities and rustic buildings in Woodside at the Family Farm, a rural retreat used by club members for recreation.
Gatherings at the Family Farm include an annual Farm Play and performed by members. Woodside was incorporated in to prevent urbanization , it still retains a rural residential character, though it is a short commute to Silicon Valley. Today, Woodside is among the wealthiest small towns in the United States; the intentionally small business district includes: a few restaurants.
Outside of the business district are the Stillheart Institute educational event center, Skywood Trading Post and the Mountain Terrace event center. Town restaurants include the Michelin starred Village Pub, Buck's of Woodside restaurant, known among Silicon Valley entrepreneurs as the location where many VC investment deals have been signed, the Firehouse Bistro.
Horses are part of the local culture. Numerous residents keep horses, the town government maintains a network of horse trails; some resident's homes are considered farms. Woodside is home to a number of open space preserves, including the Purisima Open Space , where both horseback riding and bicycling are allowed. Carl Djerassi founded an artists' colony in the community in memory of his late daughter Pamela; the Djerassi Artists Residency is one of several Bay Area programs.
It is located adjacent to the campus of Stanford University , east of the town. The infamous San Andreas fault runs through town. This fault is a major source of earthquake activity in California , including the San Francisco earthquake.
Sam L. Slick Collection of Posters, 1970-2000
Much of Woodside is wooded, with redwoods and Douglas fir dominating in the western hills and more oaks and eucalyptus in the lower areas. San Francisco Bay lies to the east; the Santa Cruz mountains separate Woodside from the ocean and extend down to Monterey Bay about forty miles south. According to the United States Census Bureau , the town has a total area of Summers can be hot.
Snowfall is rare except in the nearby Santa Cruz Mountains, where several inches falls every several years. He left an estimated 1, paintings. Highlights of his work include paintings of views of Paris. Valenzuela Llanos was born in the province of Chile , in the city of San Fernando , he was the son of a wealthy family in decline - his parents, Florencia Valenzuela Llanos and Ricardo Lira, were cousins who belonged to a family with a long landowning and military tradition, where intermarriage was common.
No explicit records remain to explain why the family was falling into poverty. In his youth, Valenzuela Llanos was always interested in nature and enjoyed strolling through the grounds and admiring the countryside. He made sketches of trees and colours and was known as respectable young gentleman. He went to high school at a liceo; as the financial situation of his family got worse, the young Alberto decided to work in the local textile store.
He felt knowing his family situation.
At the age of 17, bored during a quiet day at the shop, he started drawing lilies on a piece of fabric; the store owner saw the drawings and, annoyed but impressed, showed the ruined fabric to the boy's father. Luckily for Alberto, the new director of the Academy was Juan Mochi, unlike previous Academy directors, tried to encourage his students to develop a unique style and did not care if they used unconventional artistic techniques; this enabled Llanos to dedicate the rest of life and career to painting the subject he loved most: landscapes.
Valenzuela Llanos produced textured and simple landscapes using pinks and greens. His paintings of the spring are a faithful record of the morning light; the size of his canvases is notable and is well above the average for the period. The personality of Valenzuela Llanos was calm and serene and his main hobby was painting with oils, he never felt influenced by the bohemian atmosphere of the time, keeping his distance from political conflicts, was always concerned about the welfare of his parents and friends in his hometown, taking the train to Colchagua whenever he had the chance to visit his relatives.
His painting evolved thanks to the direction of Mochi and he began specialising in oil painting and using more and more sketches, drawing designs before starting on the painting itself.
Most he was able to develop a personal style, the product of need and of effort. In , he won an award at an exhibition in the United States and the Chilean government gave him a scholarship to study in Paris in exchange for some years of teaching. There, he learned about impressionism and expressionism and had an productive period, producing many paintings of Paris at dawn. Get to Know Us. Amazon Payment Products. English Choose a language for shopping. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers.
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