Jourdan , Le papyrus de Derveni. Betegh , The Derveni Papyrus. Cosmology, Theology, and Interpretation , Cambridge, ; T. Kouremenos , G. Parasoglou , K. Tsantsanoglou , The Derveni Papyrus , Florence, or the newly edited epigrams of Poseidippos which are of great interest for Hellenistic religion e. Acosta-Hughes — E. Kosmetatou — M. Baumbach [eds. VIII , Washington, But studies based on previously published material, in particular surveys of cults in Roman Asia Minor e. The new edition of an oration for Theseus in Roman Athens 84 provides insights both into the cult of the Athenian hero and into the function of epideictic orations in festivals.
The cult of mortals has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Turning to sanctuaries , their organisation and their finances, the new texts include an exciting new find from fifth-century Olympia concerning theorodokoi in Sparta and Euboia which seems to show that the sanctuary possessed a widespread network of relations at an early stage , a very interesting Hellenistic decree from Halasarna forbidding the use of sacred property as surety for loans ; and another inscription from the same city which shows that former priests constituted a board Among the new texts we single out a dedication of an alumnus to an anonymous god in Thyraion Although this issue presents only one new text ; for new texts see P.
Herrmann — H. We also mention an interesting text an old find from Kyrene which demonstrates how something as innocents as the sending of a delegation to a festival could be politically explosive in the context of rivalries between cities in the Roman Empire We single out several interesting funerary imprecations The reader of this issue will not fail to observe the large number of studies devoted to magic in the broadest sense of the word, especially to curse tablets e. Other stimulating developments concern the study of the circulation of magical handbooks from which spells and recipes were copied and adapted As regards the conflict between Hellenic religion and Christianity in late Antiquity, a very important new find is an inscription of Ikaria which contains an oracle of Apollon Pythios, also quoted by Christian authors, referring to the conversion of ancient temples into churches of Mary 5th cent.
Strubbe ed. If not otherwise specified, dates are BC. Drew-Bear et al. Zolotarev ed. Dreher ed. Kultische Grundlagen, rechtliche Ausgestaltung und politische Funktion , Cologne et al.
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Matthaiou — G. Malouchou eds. Bilde et al. Labarre ed. Actes du colloque de Lyon juin , Lyon, Dion ed. Lazzarini — G. Molisani — S. Panciera eds. Colvin ed. Follet ed. Nouveaux documents, nouvelles approches i er s. State, Economy, and Culture , Uppsala, Boreas Cabanes — J. Lamboley eds. Actes du IV e colloque international de Grenoble octobre , Paris, Lupu , Greek Sacred Law. Cowey — B. Kramer eds. Heedemann — E. Winter eds. Elmar Schwertheim zum Geburtstag gewidmet , Bonn, Asia Minor Studien Aigina : Sikyonia : Sikyon: Argolis : Argos: Epidauria : Epidauros: Lakonia : Sparta: Kythera : Messenia : Andania: Arkadia : Mantineia: Elis : Achaia : Boiotia : Delphi : Phokis : Drymaia: West Lokris : Naupaktos: Thessaly : Epeiros : Illyria : Macedonia: 64; Dion: Moesia : Histria: 10; Nikopolis ad Istrum: Dacia : North Shore of the Black Sea : Delos : Rhodes : Lesbos : Eresos: ; Mytilene: Kyklades : Chios : Kos : Nisyros : Samos : Koressia : Ikaria : Samothrake : Euboia : Crete : Sicily : Akragas: 8.
Italy : ; Elea: Gaul : Britannia : Asia Minor : 4. Karia : Ionia : Ephesos: ; Magnesia on the Maeander: Lydia : Aiolis : ; Kyme: Troas : Ilion: Mysia : Gambreion: 88; Pergamon: Bithynia : ; Bithynion: Pontos : Sinope: Galatia : Ankyra: ; Tavium: Phrygia : 3. Pisidia : Pamphylia : Lykia : Kilikia : Cyprus : ; Kafizin: ; Kourion: ; Paphos: Kommagene : Egypt : Kyrene : Greek words. Marcius Censorinus ; Antinoos: ; cf.
Amphitrite : Anteros : 5. Aphrodite : Apollon : 3. Archegetes : Ares : Aristaios : Artemis : Asklepios : 5. Athena : Charites : Demeter : 8. Theai Eleusiniai. Dionysos : Dioskouroi : Eileithyia : 5. Eirene : Eleutheria : Enodia : ; Patroa ; cf. Eros : 5. Euangelos : Eumenides : Eurysakes : Ge : Glykon : Hades : Hagne Theos : Hekate : Helios : 3.
Heliosarapis : Hephaistos : Hera : Herakles : 5. Hermes : 5. Hestia : Horai : Polykarpoi ; Telesphoroi Hosios kai Dikaios : 3. Hosioi kai Dikaioi : Hygieia : Kabeiroi : 5. Kairos Olympios : Kephisos : Kore : Persephone , Theai Eleusiniai. Leto : Leukothea : Ma : Messene : Meter : Meteres : Mnemosyne : Muses : 5. Neleus : Nemeseis : Nemesis : Nymphs : Olympios Kairos : Pan : Persephone : Parthenos : Pompaios : Poseidon : Praxidike : Rhome Dea Roma : 73bis.
Selene : Theai : Eleusiniai Themis : Theoi : Theos : Basileus 59; Hypsistos Tritopatores : Tyche : Zeus : 5. Celtic : Apollon Grannos: Egyptian : Iranian : Thracian : Bendis Platonism, Pythagoras. Adak — S. A decree is dated with reference to an eponymous priest 1, mid-3rd cent. Adak — N.
The monuments are decorated with representations of Hosios kai Dikaios in relief , 5 ; Mes? The most elaborate iconography is found on an altar dedicated by the village of the Korosokometai 5 ; on three sides of the altar there are representations accompanied by labels of Hosios Dikaios, Apollon represented on horseback , and Helios.
In the introductory chapter A. Also remarkable is the appearance of a Jew as a sponsor of the Dionysia in an epidosis list in Hellenistic Iasos 21 ]. The corpus contains five amulets which may be Jewish. Aneziri — D. Kah — P. Scholz eds. Additional elements, in some cases, were a cult statue or even a temple.
Hermes and Herakles are the gods most often worshipped in Hellenistic gymnasia. Other divinities whose cult is attested in gymnasia include Apollon with the Muses e. IG XI. The cult of local mythical heroes inside a gymnasion was rather uncommon e. Besides Hellenistic kings, other human recipients of cults in Hellenistic gymnasia were former benefactors e. On exceptional cases a cult for a benefactor was established in his lifetime e. With the exception of Titus Flamininus Plut. The text refers to the reconstruction of the theatre, mentioning the proskenion and a statue.
One of the offices occupied by the benefactor may have been that of archiereus. The pit did not contain waste, but symbolic items, possibly in the context of a ritual. Arena , Iscrizioni greche arcaiche di Sicilia e Magna Grecia. Iscrizioni di Sicilia II. The revised edition unfortunately has a different numbering, even though almost all the texts are the same [for concordances and analysis see R. The only new texts of a religious interest are graffiti on Attic skyphoi dedicated to Demeter and found in the sanctuary of Demeter at Akragas early 5th cent.
In two appendices A. A statue of Leto may have been dedicated by another relative of Sothemis I. Histriae The cult of Leto is attested in Histria and Berezan, but not in other Milesian colonies. I adjure you by the angels, Cherubim, the harmony of above [of heaven? The ambiguous vocabulary, with Jewish, Christian, and pagan infuences, is common in this period cf.
All four refer to the visits of a college of ironworkers of Hermonthis at Deir el-Bahari during which the group sacrificed a donkey before the god. December This would imply the existence of post-Costantinian pagan religious activity in the Thebais. Frazer, M. Mauss, H.
Baitinger — B. The authors plausibly interpret them as ballots for voting in the theatre of Elis and in the bouleuterion at Olympia. In light of this evidence, B. BC-3rd cent. A prosopographical study demonstrates that the members of these cult associations belonged to a well-educated class, but were not always part of the Athenian elite. The associations discussed by B. She rightly points out that this inscription refers to sacrifices offered to the Muses, and consequently cannot be regarded as evidence of a cult of Hesiod or of an association of rhapsodes. Aelia Capitolina, Ptolemais, Tyros affected their cults, B.
Berytos imported the Roman pantheon e. Caesarea Maritima used the Roman calendar to honour traditional deities; local traditions remained strong in Ptolemais and Tyros, while Gaza had a Greek pantheon. Testimonia et fragmenta. Pars II. Parker , Polytheism and Society at Athens , Oxford, , p.
BC-4th cent. It is not surprising that the majority of the female dedications was addressed to female deities Demeter, Kore, Athena, Artemis, Hera, and the Nymphs , while offerings to male deities were rare. In these cases the god appears in the company of goddesses e. An inscription from Siphnos [not from Paros as stated by B. I, xxiii , 3; p.
II, v, 49; p. Commenting on a funerary epigram from Itanos I. III, iv , 39; p. Chaniotis , in J. The starting point of B. According to B. The aim was a revival of the order according to which the celebration of festivals depended chronologically on the conveyance of crops and not on the payment of the rent cf. LSCG Suppl. A new dedication to Hekate Sossis found in the area of Mylasa Sossos? Cults and sanctuaries : A fragmentary inscription 5, Imperial period refers to building works in connection with Dionysos line 12; cf. Austin-Bastianini; the reference to epistyles in line 2 suggests a relief frieze representing not Bakchos but the Dionysiac thiasos].
Another Hellenistic lease of land from Hydrai? Mylasa do not contain regulations concerning sacrifices, but this is the case in a lease from Amos; see EBGR , 10]. A Hellenistic document concerning a delimitation 11 mentions as points of orientation the peribolos [of a sanctuary? A fragmentary cult regulation 13, 4th cent.
Three gladiatorial monuments can be added to the group of testimonia concerning gladiatorial events in Mylasa ; cf. Mylasa The addressee of the dedication may have been a heroised young soldier, worshipped as a healing hero. Many healing heroes were regarded as warriors: e. The fellow ephebes of T. From the fact that Protoleon was responsible for the alipterion we may infer that the ephebes dedicated his statue in the gymnasion. For this phenomenon cf. A curse in n o 53 is addressed against anyone who destroys the inscription.
Mazoyer — O. Casabonne eds. Bearzot et al. Borgia — M. Could it be Zeus Oromasdes for whom see infra n o 56? AD [ cf.
EBGR , 18]; and a funerary altar for a purple-dyer 3, Imperial period. Bresson — P. Brun — E. Debord — E. Varinlioglu eds. Pisye : Dedications and cults : A dedication was made by a priest of Zeus Labraundos after his term of office This is not a dedication to Asklepios, but to Tetartaios sc. Pyretos , the personification of fever who was worshipped as a god. AD ; it was probably introduced by the Romans cf.
Quartana ; cf. These formulae are also attested in other communities in this region Tinaz: 31, 32?
The stele was to be set up in the sanctuary of Zeus Hypatos line 22 , whose cult is attested in Karia. The sanctuary received a fine if the annual crowning of the benefactor was neglected line The decree is dated with a reference to an eponymous priest line 1; the Rhodian priest of Helios and attests the month Badromios line 1. A dedication for the well-being? The man had served as a priest of Zeus Hypatos? Thera : Antimachos made a dedication to Asklepios of Epidauros in fulfilment of a vow 53, late 4th cent. Former ephebarchai and gymnasiarchoi address their dedications to the gods of the gymnasion, Hermes and Herakles , 2nd-1st cent.
Representatives of Karian communities are also listed in a contemporary document of unknown content but similar character Karian Koinon]. In an appendix the eds. Flavius Phaidros, who voluntarily served as priest during the celebration of the Heraia, and his wife Fl. Aristolais Appendix 1, Panamara , c. IG XII. Lindos This term had been interpreted as evidence for sacred prostitution practiced during a pentaeteric festival of Zeus L.
The use of the nomen Seius only restored in I. Tralleis 6 and very common in the East is taken as an indication of Etruscan origin; the restoration of this name is improbable since it is restored in a position where one does not expect a nomen gentile but a second name L. Aurelius Secundus Se[. The one woman not Aurelia, but Aimilia did not use the family name Seius but the Roman nomina as a Roman citizen and a daughter of a L. EBGR , ]. He discusses in detail the political relations between Seleukos II and Smyrna which may explain his support for the asylia of the sanctuary of Aphrodite Stratonikis.
The primary motive of Tenos, Anaphe, Magnesia on the Maeander, Teos, and Alabanda for seeking the recognition of the asylia of their sanctuaries was their protection from raids, in particular those of Cretan pirates [ cf. In Kyme, e. The cult of Philopoimen in Megalopolis Syll. The model of deification was preferred to that of heroisation in the case of a few non-royal benefactors Diodoros Pasparos, Artemidoros, and Theophanes [ cf. The heroisation of a living person Nikias in Kos, symbolically affiliated to the deified Koan Demos was a rare phenomenon [on Diodoros Pasparos cf.
Thus, religious motifs were prudently exploited in order to achieve the asylia of the Asklepieion and thus that of the entire island [ cf. This evidence supports the assumption that these cities had adopted the Corinthian calendar, for which C. Several inscriptions from Lindos e. According to C. Together with a Hellenistic stoa, the hierothyteion created a building complex where public meals were served during festivals honouring the poliadic deities.
The author presents an intriguing reconstruction of the religious topography of the sanctuary, which occupied three terraces with their respective religious focal points: the lower terrace with an altar, the middle terrace with the hierothyteion and the stoa, and the upper terrace with the temple and the altar of Athena and Zeus. Ephesos , but mainly on literary sources e.
Asiarches may originally have been the title of the chairman of the Koinon Asias before 29 BC [ cf. Laodikeia 73, ; L. Ephesos , , , , as an asiarches. Several inscriptions reveal that the presentation and funding of spectacles was a very important activity of a high priest e. Stratonikeia , while the sponsorship of expensive spectacles gladiatorial games and wild beast hunts is attested for asiarchai , too e.
Ephesos ; I. Smyrna It seems that by the 2nd cent. The author demonstrates that this is not a bilingual inscription, since the two texts have nothing to do with each other, neither thematically nor chronologically. The Greek inscription is convincingly restored as a dedication to Iulia Sebaste Nea Aphrodite by an archiereia , whose name is not preserved on the stone. Interestingly, all the known persons involved in the Imperial cult at Paphos in this period seem to belong to the same family.
In an appendix C. A posthumous honorary decree for the benefactor Hermogenes 1, c. A base supported a statue of Thea Eleutheria, whose cult was already known in Aphrodisias 8, 1st-2nd cent. A bronze-smith, possibly a slave, dedicated the statuette of an eagle to Zeus Nineudios in fulfilment of a vow 11, 1st cent.
The cult of Zeus Nineudios was one of the major cults at Aphrodisias. Iulius Zoilos, a freedman of Octavian, stephanephoros and priest of Aphrodite and Eleutheria for life 12, late 1st cent. An inscribed cornice records the dedication of a building to Thea Aphrodite? Most of them had evidently been based on unsourced rumours relayed as fact by much later commentators, such as Jaubert , Guynaud and Bareste , on modern misunderstandings of the 16th-century French texts, or on pure invention. Even the often-advanced suggestion that quatrain I. Skeptics such as James Randi suggest that his reputation as a prophet is largely manufactured by modern-day supporters who fit his words to events that have either already occurred or are so imminent as to be inevitable, a process sometimes known as "retroactive clairvoyance" postdiction.
No Nostradamus quatrain is known to have been interpreted as predicting a specific event before it occurred, other than in vague, general terms that could equally apply to any number of other events. Additionally, scholars have pointed out that almost all English translations of Nostradamus's quatrains are of extremely poor quality, seem to display little or no knowledge of 16th-century French, are tendentious, and are sometimes intentionally altered in order to make them fit whatever events the translator believed they were supposed to refer or vice versa.
Even Leoni accepted on page that he had never seen an original edition, and on earlier pages he indicated that much of his biographical material was unsourced. None of this research and criticism was originally known to most of the English-language commentators, by dint of the dates when they were writing and, to some extent, the language in which it was written.
Meanwhile, some of the more recent sources listed Lemesurier, Gruber, Wilson have been particularly scathing about later attempts by some lesser-known authors and Internet enthusiasts to extract alleged hidden meanings from the texts, whether with the aid of anagrams, numerical codes, graphs or otherwise.
The prophecies retold and expanded by Nostradamus figured largely in popular culture in the 20th and 21st centuries. As well as being the subject of hundreds of books both fiction and nonfiction , Nostradamus's life has been depicted in several films and videos, and his life and writings continue to be a subject of media interest. There have also been several well-known Internet hoaxes , where quatrains in the style of Nostradamus have been circulated by e-mail as the real thing.
The best-known examples concern the collapse of the World Trade Center in the 11 September attacks. With the arrival of the year , Nostradamus's prophecies started to be co-opted especially by the History Channel as evidence suggesting that the end of the world was imminent, notwithstanding the fact that his book never mentions the end of the world, let alone the year From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 27 June For other uses, see Nostradamus disambiguation.
Salon-de-Provence , Provence, France. Main articles. Death and culture Parapsychology Scientific literacy. Nostradamus's supporters have retrospectively claimed that he predicted major world events, including the Great Fire of London , the French Revolution , the rises of Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler , the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , and the September 11 attacks. Main article: Nostradamus in popular culture. Biography portal.
More were later added, amounting to in an omnibus edition published after his death organized into ten "Centuries", each one containing one hundred quatrains, except for Century VII, which, for unknown reasons, only contains forty-two; the other fifty-eight may have been lost due to a problem during publication. Similarly, the expression Pau, Nay, Loron —often interpreted as an anagram of "Napaulon Roy"—refers to three towns in southwestern France near his one-time home, and on Quatrain 57 of Century I, Nostradamus seemingly refers to Trump by calling the person mentioned a "false trumpet.
Nostradamus: The Man Behind the Prophecies. Martin's Press. London: W. Chambers Limited. Retrieved 7 January Archived from the original on 28 September Retrieved 17 April Archived from the original on 27 July Internet Sacred Text Archive. Retrieved 20 March Nostradamus and Prophecies of the Next Millennium. Nostradamus, Michel:: Orus Apollo , ?
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Brind'Amour, Pierre Librairie Droz. Chevignard, Bernard Chomarat, Michel; Laroche, Jean-Paul Gruber, Elmar R. Scherz Verlag GmbH. Lemesurier, Peter 1 April Lemesurier, Peter 1 November John Hunt Publishing. Nostradamus: The Illustrated Prophecies. Lemesurier, Peter 20 August Career PressInc. Leoni, Edgar Nostradamus and his prophecies. Dover Publications. By the beginning of the fourth century, however, Daoist writers interpreted the process of change as dilution or decay. Buddhist apologists were quick to respond, claiming that Laozi was in fact a lesser incarnation or disciple of the Buddha.
The debate continued for centuries, including the production and banning of numerous versions of The Scripture on Converting the Barbarians by both sides. The metaphor of conversion was put to rest — or perhaps transformed again — only during the Yuan dynasty, when Buddhist advisors convinced Khubilai Khan that, in a multi-ethnic empire, it was wiser to follow Buddhist models for state religion and to quash propaganda hinting at the inferiority of non-Han groups.
After ritualized debates and contests in 12,58, all intact versions of The Scripture on Converting the Barbarians were supposed to be confiscated, a presage of the government's alleged burning of all texts in the Daoist canon of except for the Daodejing. As modern scholars of religion, the contributors to this issue of Cahiers bring critical acumen to the question of similarities and differences between Buddhism and Daoism. As we have seen, "converting the barbarians" as a figure of speech has a long and complicated history.
At first invoked to explain the identity or similarity between religious practices, the idea was later used by Buddhist and Daoist elites jockeying for state support to assert difference and superiority. Modern historians are sensitive to the problem of whether this and other terms are being used to claim similarity or difference. Scholars not only attend to who is making the argument and for what purposes, but are also conscious of the long arm of the state, even in the early centuries of the Chinese imperium, and the efforts by church leaders to negotiate favorable terms for the licensing of their religious programs.
Moreover, the articles here are based on recent insights into the nature of religious identity in China. Rather than assuming the more exclusive worldview of their Buddhist or Daoist informants, modern scholars are increasingly cognizant of the different forms that religious identity takes in the Chinese setting. The very question of religious belonging — and hence of similarity to or difference from another religious tradition — has traditionally been asked by only a small number of people in Chinese history, either members of the Buddhist and Daoist elite or the broader educated elite still a minority of the population in premodern times.
As Timothy Barrett remarks, "Chinese Buddhism and Daoism grew up together in an environment in which a strong sense of religious identity was probably available only to a minority — to the properly-ordained Chinese Buddhist monk who had absorbed an accurate knowledge of the religion from a foreign master; to the priest or 'libationer' within a movement which still maintained the reforming zeal and hostility to popular religion of its late Han founders. This is not to deny that shared ritual practices fashioned communities and provided them with a strong sense of identity.
Hence, even for the task of understanding Buddhism and Daoism, limiting one's vision to Buddhism and Daoism however they are defined fails to provide a picture of the whole phenomenon. The Question of Sources. The articles in this issue also cast a critical, productive eye upon the sources used to study Chinese religion. The overwhelming size of the modern Buddhist and Daoist canons would seem to be both a blessing and a curse. Or, to use indigenous metaphors, perhaps it would be more accurate to consider the Dazangjing a translation of holy words promising great insight or life-long confusion, and the Daozang MM a library capable of opening vistas or inducing mania.
The Tang-. The Daoist canon of the Ming dynasty, completed in and first printed in , contains some 1, different works in 4, juan volumes. It is no exaggeration to say that most of our knowledge about Buddhism and Daoism — and much of our understanding of medicine, astronomy, biography, textual interpretation, and other fields — has come from the close study of these two canons. Yet only in the past fifty years have scholars brought a more critical eye to understanding the historicity — the insights and the biases, the emphases and the oversights — of these bodies of texts.
Although focused on Buddhist sources, most of his remarks apply mutatis mutandis to the Daoist canon as well, which we indicate below in brackets. Ziircher outlines three paradoxes:. First, that our view of Chinese Buddhism [or Daoism] as a historical phenomenon is greatly obscured by the abundance of our source materials. Second, that if we want to define what was the normal state of medieval Chinese Buddhism [or Daoism], we should concentrate on what seems to be abnormal. Its authors and compilers were overwhelmingly members of the literate elite who took an exclusive view toward religious affiliation.
For them, Buddhism provided a unique message, and being Buddhist was a distinctive identity, not to be confused with Daoism or the practices of popular religion. We believe that the contributors to this issue of Cahiers advance, explicitly or implicitly, the agenda laid out by Ziircher. Others subject their canonical material to rigorous criticism. Others seek out visual sources or stress the material nature of unique manuscript remains. Some of the contributors demonstrate the ways in which Buddhism and Daoism were complex and multi-layered rather than monolithic.
Virtually all of the essays emphasize forms of practice that could be considered both Buddhist and Daoist or neither Buddhist nor Daoist. The article in the first section on "Thought and. Practice" deals with cultivating sagehood, the essays in the section on "Ritual" take up communal and mortuary ritual, and the practice of monasticism, those in the section on "Spells and Talismans" address the reproduction of spells, the practice of divination, and making seals, and the article in the final section on "Local Religion and Popular Cults" examines the building of pantheons through the canonization of local deities.
Areas of Recent Research. Buddhologists are usually trained to aim beyond the immediate Chinese context and to trace Buddhism back to its ostensible roots in India, while scholars of Daoist studies, steeped in Sinology, are encouraged to emphasize the Chineseness of their material. In recent years the field has entered a new phase, manifest in these essays, in which scholars who normally pursue specialized research in one of the traditions engage in conversation with scholars working in the other tradition.
Virtually all of the contributors analyze problems that in this sense are comparative. As a result of both new paradigms and a close focus on the continuing question of religious interchange, what new areas have been covered?