B: raporter. This is a puzzling reference, identified by some as Augelus or Giles of Rome Aegidus romanum , author of On the Governance of Kings , or, more probably, Aulus Gellius, grammarian and Roman judge, author of the popular Noctes Atticae. She identifies the scribes as French, as does A. Doyle of Durham University, England. As the latter notes, the French origin of the scribes does not exclude its having been written in England. On the basis of an inspection of the microfilm, Karen Gould concludes that there were at least two scribes.
She identifies a change in scribes very near the center of the manuscript, between folios 48v and 49r; text number , the first of the two poems by Machaut from Remede de Fortune , begins folio I am indebted to the forenamed scholars, as well as Carter Revard and Linda Voigts, for their generous and expert advice concerning the date and provenance of the manuscript, all in informal communications.
Nevertheless, if they were not written for her in the first place, they would have been readily adaptable to her when Granson met her after ; lyrics that he perhaps composed for Isabel of York could be presented a second time to Isabel of Bavaria. In the arrangement of Machaut poems in Penn, these probably entered as an afterthought. Vg and B agree with E also in including the complaints among the Louange texts, as the exemplar for Penn evidently did; the later Machaut collections segregated the complaints. Yet it is to be noted that Penn contains two Machaut texts numbers 72 and that are elsewhere found only in the later collections.
This complicates the picture. Mudge had planned to treat in full the relationship between these works of Chaucer and Granson, but he evidently was not able to do so before he died. If the former, then seven times around as Philippe specifies will take the soul to circle nine with the traitors. Little supports such a date. William Kibler, whose translations of many medieval French texts into English are widely known, has kindly reviewed my translations and made helpful suggestions and corrections, but he grants readily that the sense is often mysterious.
No doubt the text is frequently corrupt. The attack on the unnamed poet appears in Motetus, lines 15—20, and Triplum, lines 1— The parallel words and phrases are in italics.
Deschamps' balades are found in Oeuvres , vol. Deschamps to Machaut: O fleur des fleurs de toute melodie, Tresdoulz maistres qui tant fustes adrois, O Guillaume, mondains dieux d'armonie , Apres voz faiz, qui obtendra le chois Sur tous faiseurs? Certes, ne le congnoys.
Vo noms sera precieuse relique, Car l'en plourra en France et en Artois La mort Machaut, la noble rhetorique. La fons Circe et la fonteine Helie Dont vous estiez le ruissel et les dois. T'a fait brasser buvrage a trop de lie Sur moy qui ay de toy fait Zephirus, Car en la fons Ciree est tes escus. A toy pour ce de la fontaine Helye. Wimsatt Editor. The collection as a whole and in its parts has a number of notable connections with the poet and his circle.
The scribes were French. In contents Penn is an anthology of fourteenth-century lyrics which seems to have been gathered together with a deliberate aesthetic intention; the anthologist aimed for pleasing variety. The poems are spread out by author and type with few uninterrupted large blocks. Five of the seven authors of these poems have known connections with Chaucer. Dominating the center of Penn are works of Guillaume de Machaut, who among fourteenth-century French poets exerted by far the most important influence on Chaucer.
Eustache Deschamps is represented by at least one poem, and seven more in Penn are probably by him. In order to bring out further the various ways in which Penn is associated with Chaucer, it will be convenient to consider the contents as they pertain to the individual authors. For this reason we will take up their works first. All that are certainly his are found between poems 72 and of the lyric collection — all but four between 82 and It seems that the compiler, in selecting the poems, went back and forth within the sections into which the Machaut manuscripts were always divided.
Forty of the first forty-seven Machaut poems in Penn come from his Louange des dames , the collective title of his lyrics not set to music. He selected a much higher proportion of the works set to music than of those without music. Only about a seventh of the Louange is represented, but over half of the musical pieces. If one assumes, as seems logical, that the works which had musical settings were more commonly presented than the others, one might surmise that the compiler had become familiar with the Machaut oeuvre particularly in performance, rather than simply from reading, and that he had developed favorites in the process which he included in Penn.
This suggests that the compiler was a court figure, instead of a professional scribe or scholar. At the same time, since Penn has a substantial number of nonmusical poems, it was evidently not intended to provide texts for musical purposes. The motet originally was a religious type, and it remained so in England. As far as I can determine, there is no significant inclusion or exclusion by the compiler of specific Machaut poems that we know Chaucer used. One point of topical interest.
Sixteen Granson texts fall between Penn numbers 18 and 34, and eight between numbers and It seems certain that Granson and Chaucer were friends. Granson probably went to England in after attending the wedding of Lionel of Clarence in Milan; he was in the service of Edward III and Richard II from about that time until , when the death of his father recalled him to Savoy; he returned to England for an extended stay in — The two poets also have in common a penchant, not shared by other prominent poets of the century, for St.
The rubric is one interesting feature. The other manuscripts identify the poems as balades, as do the present rubrics in Penn. More certain evidence is provided by the body of the text. Only B and Penn present the five poems in sequence in the order which Chaucer obviously had before him; in the other two manuscripts the texts are separated and the order is mixed. Though it does retain many of the better readings, numerous passages in it are completely different from the other manuscripts and for the most part clearly inferior to them.
In the edition I have limited the record of variant readings of C to those in which the sense is affected; nevertheless, C shows more variants than A and B together, which I have more fully recorded. The text of B is not bad, but it is quite imperfect. While manuscript A breaks up the five-balade unit, the detail of its text is better than that of B. Penn both retains the complete unit and has a very good text. In it also only two lines have imperfect meter II 15; V 19 , and the text makes good sense throughout except at the beginning of Balade V, when the scribe seems to have become confused about the meaning and put verbs in the second and third person when they should be in the first lines 1 and 3.
Chaucer no doubt chose the best and liveliest poems of the five. The change suggests that he had a specific occasional purpose for the composition. More indicative than the scribal blunder here are competing readings of Penn, A, and B that make equally sound sense. In these the Penn version is consistently closer to Chaucer.
In the following edition I have presented the Penn text unaltered throughout except for capitalization, punctuation, and expansion of abbreviations. There is in her beauty, goodness, and grace More than any man could devise; It is a great joy that in such a small space God has brought together all good things; Honor wishes to honor her above all women; Never have I seen such a happy young lady To have such a noble name from all people, For everyone has pleasure in praising her.
Wherever she is, good is done and evil is absent; Laughing and playing are very natural to her; Her heart is playful and solaces the others So joyfully that one cannot find fault with her; No one can stop looking at her; Her look is worth all the goods of a kingdom; It well seems that she is a most noble lady, For everyone has pleasure in praising her.
Nor do I think that today there is anyone living Who ever saw a lady more gracious; Nevertheless she does not want to love, For her heart is full of refusal. She has a beautiful face, perfectly fashioned, The sweetest that ever has been seen; Neck, hand, and arm, complexion and hair Of all the beautiful are thought the most beautiful; Charming body, prettily attired, Singing, dancing, and with a joyful demeanor, But he loses his time who asks for her love, For her heart is full of refusal. Loyalty, good sense, honor, and good breeding, And a sweet manner are natural to her; She listens well and responds carefully; Her heart is furnished with all good features; The God of Love could not find a better If he desires to have a lady-love, But I think that she would not have him at all For her heart is full of refusal.
Priez pour moy, tous les loyaulx amans. Priez pour moy etc.
De Bien Amer tous les jours renouvelle Le cuer de moy qui est obeissans En attendant le bon plaisir de celle A qui je sui et vueil estre servans. Priez etc. And I tell you that it has been more than seven years, But still the wound has not closed, For without mercy it cannot be healed, Pray for me, all the loyal lovers. Pity, most sweet lady, I beseech you to give me help. Assist my battle with Danger, For he is strong and his friends are powerful, Hardness hates me and Fear wounds me.
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If my health is not restored by you For Good Loving my life will be ended. Pray for me, all the loyal lovers. By Good Loving my heart Which is obedient is renewed each day While awaiting the good pleasure of her To whom I am, and desire to be, servant. I am but innocent and suffering And sustain myself by my loyal thought Until Mercy may have shown me her grace. Amours, ainsi fault vos dons acheter, Et vous donnez souvant sans ordonnance Assez doulour et petit de plaisance, Tout a rebours etc. Tousdiz convient souffrir et endurer, Sans nul certain languir en esperance Et recevoir mainte male meschance, Tout a rebours etc.
Jealousy, she is the mother of the devil, She wants to see and hear everything, And one can do nothing so reasonable That she will not turn it to evil. Love, thus one has to buy your gifts, And you often give without any logical order Great sorrow and little pleasure, Completely opposed to what one wants to find. For a short time the game is agreeable, But it is much too troublesome to continue, And even though the ladies are honorable, It is very unhappy for their servants to bear.
It is ever necessary to suffer and endure, Always with uncertainty to languish in hope And to receive many a sad misfortune, Completely opposed to what one wants to find. It suffices me to have so much solace As to be able to see the beautiful gracious one; Even though she stands aloof from me In serving her I will never be unhappy. Indeed, Love, when I properly recall The high estates, the middle, and the lower, From all of them you have made me choose, In my judgment, the best in every circumstance. Now love, Heart, as strongly as you can, For never will you have pain so sorrowful For my lady that it would not be joyful to me, In serving her I will never be unhappy.
Heart, it ought to suffice you more than enough To have chosen so well as you have chosen. Search no longer realm or empire, For so good a one you will never find, Nor will you ever see one more beautiful through my eyes. She is youth wise and delectable; Even though she is disdainful of my love In serving her I will never be unhappy.
The first poem is an attack by one poet on another, and the second is a rejoinder by the author attacked. The elegy is a likely source for Chaucer. Moreover, the contents of the exchange associate Jean with English court circles and suggest composition in the very years that Chaucer began his service in the courts. The attacking poet is Philippe de Vitry, bishop of Meaux from to , famous poet-musician and friend of Petrarch. This exchange is little known and less understood. In his rejoinder, also a balade, Jean does not deny being in England or writing the poetry, but states firmly that he does not owe allegiance to the French and that he is serving truth in England.
Car amoureus diz fais couvers De noms divers. You serve foolishly When you pretend to love his youthful deeds With a love that Orpheus finds hateful, There where you have no love except bitterness, In Albion cursed by God. Your shade in flight will be accused By Rhadamanthus the perverse And condemned by King Minos With seven turns of his tail backwards; And with reproaches He will constrain your tongue to loosen As with a renegade traitor, At Phlegethon, the bitter sea, In Albion cursed by God.
Indeed, John, the fountain of Cirrha Does not know you, nor the green place Where the voice of Calliope stays. For you make amorous poems filled With divers names. Ne je ne sui point de la nacion De terre en Grec Gaulle de Dieu amee. Je ne vueil pas tel don De terre en Grec Gaulle de Dieu amee. Sy te supplie, ne banny mon bon nom De terre en Grec Gaulle de Dieu amee. Do not make Hugo of me because I am in Albion. I never had inspiration or flight elsewhere.
The report of Eolus always incites foolishly By false process, inflaming envy. It has made you brew a drink with too many dregs For me, who have made of you Zephirus, For your shield is in the fountain of Cirrha; I have always said it without flattery. Now you have given me with reproaches Phlegethon, The infernal river, and the seven turns upon entering Are seven torments.
I do not wish such a gift From the land in Greek called Gaul, loved by God. And if King Minos is seeking my life He will find Echo and her powers To contest against Rhadamanthus, If he accuses me of any treason.
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I never put a name in fable or song Which would not have served in any country. This allusion to Dante antedates by far any in French poetry previously identified. In the third stanza the frame of allusion changes to Ovid. Jean evidently enjoyed prestige as a poet and musician. Nevertheless, he does not stand on his dignity. He ends with a plea to Philippe not to slander him in France. It is not certain that in his response Jean evidences a direct familiarity with Inferno.
But coincidentally there is an unidentified Hugo whom Philippe attacks in one of his extant motets; Jean might have known of this Hugo of the motet. The poems cannot be dated exactly, but there are some very good clues. The better text is in Penn and provides the basis for the edition above.
In this manuscript, the exchange appears as the third and fourth poems in a connected series of six French balades. In the first a man complains, and in the second a woman. In both balades there is abundant, often-obscure reference to mythological or pseudo-mythological personages. Pourtant, sa main continue de donner la mort. Des heures de lecture en perspective!
Un guerrier, un brigand, un assassin. La haine fouette les murs de Mortagne depuis toujours. De plus, les visites de leurs potes zonards se font de plus en plus rares. Ils ne disparaissent pas en mourant. Encore faut-il en payer le prix. En voici dix exemples. La provocation fait scandale. Un peu plus loin, trois jeunes paysans tentent le pari du bio.
Son commanditaire, la police, le FBI Une femme arrive dans un appartement, lieu de rendez-vous avec son amant, mais celui-ci ne la rejoint pas. Son nom : Emmanuelle. Elle est maso. Elle est sado. Comment draguer en concert? Il se doit de trouver le coupable. Pourquoi les nains sont-ils petits? Pourquoi les princesses sont-elles toujours belles? Par les auteurs de Sillage. Cet album contient onze de ces histoires. Jacques Chiraquix. Sa vraie vie, elle commence en Vous le reconnaissez?!
Gloria est une femme comme les autres… toujours au bord de la crise de nerfs! Elles sont jeunes. Elles sont sexy. Ras-le-bol des motards… STOP! Vous faites fausse route! Approchez, approchez, mesdames et messieurs! Chaque planche est un gag et une occasion de muscler ses zygomatiques. Pour tous. Vous avez toujours voulu retrouver vos anciens copains de classe?
Pour Corrine, Louis, Martin et les autres, la vie est un jeu. Entre cynisme et tendresse, un portrait intime sur toute la gamme. Des histoires muettes en une page. Un extraterrestre se pose en catastrophe sur la Terre en plein milieu du Jurassique. Choisissez le bon! Il vit seul dans un grand appartement. Mieux vaudrait pas. Frantico revient pour une nouvelle apparition en blog. David B. Et pourtant, Louis aurait bien besoin d'aide car, seul, il doit affronter des situations peu confortables. Lisa Mandel se confie presque quotidiennement sur son blog.
All rights reserved. First published by Tokuma Shoten Co. Ils prennent donc la route pour Plouhinec-les-deux-corbeaux, un nom qui ne s'invente pas. Paris, 18 novembre Les Prussiennes attaquent la capitale.
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Ils ne reculent devant rien…. Ronchon cohabite avec Grognon. Ronchon, lui, est responsable des ventes dans une grande entreprise et fait le DJ pendant ses heures libres. Mais ils ne sont pas les seuls sur la piste.
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Il consigne tous ces moments dans La Belle vie. Goldman en BD! Zep signe la couverture. Normandie, Dix habitants fuient vers le Havre via Dieppe. Port de Hull, Un mal terrible semble ronger le nouveau passager. Mais la redoutable Baccarat veille….
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Petite Louve est une jeune fille sioux, en passe de devenir une femme. When Jesus was crucified for the sins of the people of the world and arose from the dead on the third day, victory was won for everyone. When He returned to heaven following the resurrection, Jesus left the Holy Spirit to serve as our Comforter and Counselor. He promised to return to earth a second time to complete His plan of salvation and take His people to heaven.
Adventists are among the believers who look forward to that day.