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However, the noise will affect the graph of loudness, and it will be much more difficult or impossible to tell whether or not a sound has friction or not. Any spectrograms will also be inaccurate. Some suggestions It is obviously important that a linguist has an adequate tape recorder. If you buy a Marantz, it will be adequate and easier if you buy a monophonic recorder rather than q stereo.

But linguists have many calls on their money and may not be ready to spend so much perhaps in addition to customs charges on a tape recorder. Certainly, many of them have had only an inadequate tape recorder. SIL schools also find it difficult to buy such expensive equipment. Is there any alternative solution to this problem?

Of course a tape recorder intended for dictation, whether a cassette or a micro-cassette, will be inadequate. However, I have to travel a lot carrying computer equipment, so I must have a lightweight tape recorder. Such a tape recorder is better than no tape recorder. A personal stereo recorder is much more likely to provide an adequate frequency response, but would still have the problem of ALC. I have seen a brochure of one such recorder made by Aiwa that should satisfy the frequency response problem, but it only has playback through headphones.

A possibility for getting around one of the problems with an ALC tape recorder is to switch the pause control on before starting any recording. Then switch on the "record" mode and speak into the microphone at the expected recording level. In this way the ALC is set at a reasonable level before the pause is released and the recording is actually made.

One should not have to go through this procedure, but it does make the beginning of the recording more accurate. There might be another possible solution, namely, the use of an ALC deceiver. I have never seen one of these marketed, but saw the suggestion in an electronics magazine many years ago. The basic idea is that the ALC deceiver plugs between the microphone and the tape recorder and mixes a high frequency sound with the signal from the microphone. The frequency of this added sound would probably be about 20, Hz, loo high to be heard by most people and too high to actually record on the tape recorder.

Nevertheless, it may still be able to fool the ALC, keeping it adjusted at a constant value. It would probably not work with all tape recorders, but if it did work, it could overcome two of the problems caused by ALC, and may even help with the noise problem. Here is that explanation. Conclusions A good tape recorder is a very valuable tool for the linguist, and my recent experience shows that many linguists do not have good tape recorders.

Please give adequate consideration to this indispensable tool. Descriptions and deadlines of awards for books published in are given below.

Authors of nominated books must be current members of the MLA. Deadline: March 1, Authors need not be members of the MLA. Deadline: May 1, Eligibility does not depend upon membership in the MLA. Awarded biennially; next deadline: May 1, There are a few specific steps which, in my opinion, make the analysis of the tones of a tone language easier.

I will try to describe those steps. Line up a hundred or more two-syllable nouns. Group them according to tone sequence; those that seem to have the same tone sequence should be in the same group. Then listen to one group at a time. If you had some in the wrong group, change them to the correct group. This approach is based on the procedures described in Kenneth L.

Pike's Tone Languages Listen to the different groups of nouns with a frame.

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A frame is a word or morpheme which can be said with each item in the group. The frame should be kept in the same position, always preceding, or always following, the items of the group which are being contrasted. A contrastive set is a frame with its meaning, paired with one word in this case a noun from each of the different groups. Each noun lines up in the contrastive set so that the tones in contrast can be seen easily note that the contrast occurs on the second tone of the nouns : frame word to be tested meaning IIH HM HL In addition to a contrastive set with the frame preceding the items, it is good to have a contrastive set with the items preceding the frame, as in: word to be tested frame meaning HH HM HL In the Huautla de Jimenez dialect of Mazatec of Mexico, we can show a contrast of foar tones as follows.

The person markers following the frame show the four tones in contrast. They explain that when words in that language are said in isolation, words with the emic tones high-high, mid-mid, and low-low are all said with the same pitch. When a frame is used which has, for example, a high pitch, the groups are clearly differentiated.

A frame is clearly necessary for analysis. Ladefoged says that the pitch of a syllable is often conditioned by the voiced versus voiceless consonants that comprise it. That is, syllables with voiced consonants frequently have a lower pitch, whereas syllables with voiceless consonants frequently have a higher pitch. For example, in Carrier of British Columbia, the syllables with voiceless consonants have a higher pitch than syllables with voiced consonants Pike, Eunice, Check to see if the vowels are conditioning the pitch.

Ladefoged says that syllables frequently have a higher pitch when those syllables have an [i] or [u] vowel. For example, in Otomi of Mexico, syllables with the vowel [i] are higher in pitch than syllables with low vowels in the same environment Blight and Pike, Check the words with a final glottal stop. Syllables which end with a glottal stop frequently have higher allotones than similar syllables without a glottal stop. This is true in Popoloca of Mexico William and Pike, Compare the verbs with the nouns. Do they have the same tone sequences?

In some languages of Africa, there is considerable difference. Pilszczikowa points out that in Hausa the verbs usually have one syllable that is higher or lower than contiguous syllables. That is, the tone on the middle syllable is higher than the surrounding tones, or the tone on the middle syllable is lower than the surrounding tones. Thus, the tone sequence is high-low-high or it is low-high-low. Most of the verbs in Hausa, according to Pilszczikowa, have either a high-low-high sequence or a low-high-low sequence. A noun, however, may have all low tones or all high tones.

Check to see how stress is indicated. In a language with contrastive tone, stress is usually indicated by duration Lehiste, In a tone language, stress may also be indicated by allotones. For example, in Tenango Otomi Blight and Pike a stressed low tone the first syllable of the stem is lower than a preceding nonstressed low tone a proclitic. Word-level tone. If the stressed syllable is the only environment in which you hear the tone easily, and if the pitch of the nonstressed syllables seem to fluctuate, the language may have emic tone on the stressed syllables only.

Sometimes the pitch of the nonstressed syllable fluctuates, and sometimes the pitch of the nonstressed syllable is conditioned. That is, the pitch of a nonstressed syllable tends to be high when contiguous to an emic high tone, but probably not as high as the stressed syllable. If the nonstressed syllables are following a syllable with a stressed low, they may have mid pitch. Either way, one of the main features that points to word-level tone is the fluctuation of the pitch of the nonstressed syllables. Contour tone on the word level.

Etung, a language of Nigeria, has two tones — high tone versus low tone. All possible sequences of tone occui in three syllable words, namely; 1. HHH 5. LHH 2. HLH 6. LLH 3. HLL 7. LLL 4. HHL 8. LHL In two-syllable words, glides may occur on the second syllable, but they occur only there. The same tone sequences occur in two-syllable words as in three-syllable words, if a glide is considered to be a sequence of two tones.

The tone sequences of two-syllable words are as follows: 1. HL-H 6. LL-H 3. HH-L 8. LH-L An example of the correspondence between the two- and the three-syllable tone sequences is the tone sequence number 2. The tone sequence number 4, H H L of the three-syllable words corresponds to the tone sequence H H-L of the two-syllable words.

It is described by Edmondson and Bendor-Samuel, One falling tone per word. Yotsukura says that the only signiHcant thing about the tone system of Japanese is the fall. The contrast consists in the place where the fall occurs. Words with a fall in tone contrast with words with no fall. Carrier, an Athapaskan language of Canada, has also been analyzed as having one emic fall per word. Syllables following the fall within a word have low pitch Pike Luganda, a Bantu language of Africa, has been analyzed as having one fall per word, or as ending in high tone Kalema, One fall or one rise per word.

In another type of word tone, the contrast is a change from low to high, or from high to low. The place where the change occurs is contrastive. In writing emically, the tone high to low or low to high needs to be written only on the syllable before the change. The pitch of the other syllaoles is predictable. That is, after a syllable marked low, the following syllables are high.

After a syllable marked high, the following syllables are low. Dogon of Burkina Faso has a tone system like this author's field notes. For a similar tone system, see the Oska dialtct of Japanese Pierrehumbert and Beckman, Level versus moving contours. Another type of word tone is found in Nepal. There is a "moving contour" versus a "level contour" as described by Hoehlig and Hari, They describe the contour as follows: 1 The low moving contour is breathy and rising.

In orthography, the moving contour is preceded by an apostrophe. The breathy contour is marked by an h following the first vowel. Syllable weight. According to Newman, , the pitch of the verb tone in Bolanci of Nigeria is predictable on the basis of syllable weight. He says, "If the initial syllable is heavy, then the verb will have Lo-Hi tone, if the syllable is light, the tone will be Hi-Hi" page A light syllable has a short vowel and is not nasalized. A heavy syllable has a CVC syllable or a long vowel. It may have a short nasalized vowel. The stress rules are as follows: 1.

In a word with no heavy syllables, the next to the last syllable is stressed. Downstepping terrace tone. The presence of a process phoneme, that is of terrace tone, can be suspected by the restricted distribution of the "mid" pitch. Notice that with terraced tone the mid pitch occurs only when lollowing a high tone and never when following a low. Furthermore, the mid pitch never occurs postpause. Postpause following a low there is a contrast of orly two tones, but following high there is a contrast of three tones. This phenomenon is caused by the process phoneme which is marked by "!

Emically there is a contrast of only two tones plus the process phoneme. Kenneth L. Pike speaks of a process phoneme. A process phoneme cannot be identified in isolation; it can be identified only by the influence it has on a sequence of tones. A process phoneme always occurs between high tones. The high tone following a is lower than the high preceding it. Welmers described downstep and said it might be due to the historical loss of a low tone.

Tone sandhi. Tone sandhi is the change of emic tones in a word. For example, the change may come in accordance with where the word occurs in the sentence, that is, whether it occurs sentence initial or sentence final, etc. In Acatlan Mixtec Pike and Wistrand, , some words change in accordance with their occurrence postpause versus nonpostpause. The emic tones of a word may change in accordance with the tone of the word they are contiguous to.

The emic tones of a word may change in accordance with the word to which they are contiguous, independent of the tone of that word, but dependent on the class to which that word belongs. For example, in San Miguel Mixtec one class of words causes a change. Another class of words with the same tones does not cause a change. That is, words with the tones high-high, high-mid, mid-mid, mid-low, and low-high must be divided into classes. One class causes other words to have a change in tone. The other class, however, even though it has the same tones, does not cause such a change Pike, Kenneth L.

Bibliography Blight, Richard C. International Journal of American Linguistics Edmondson, Thomas and John Bendor-Samue!. Tone patterns of Etung. Journal of African Languages 5. Hoehlig, Monika and Maria Hari. Kagate phonemic summary. Tribhuvan University. James, Dorothy and Ramona Luchi. Phonemes of Siane. Te Reo 5. Jones, W. Syllables and word-stress in Hindi. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 1.

Kalema, John. Accent modification rules in Lugandi. Studies in African Linguistics 8. Udefoged, Peter. A phonetic study of West African Unguages. Cambridge: University Press. Lehistc, Use. Cambridge, MA: The M. May, Jean and Eunice Locwecke. The phonological hierarchy in Fasu.


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Anthropological Linguistics 7. Newman, Paul. Syllable weight as a phonological variable. Studies in African Linguistics Pankratz, Leo and Eunice V. Phonology and morphotoncmics of Ayutia Mixtec. International Journal of American Linguistics ,, Pierrchumbert, Janet B. Japanese tone structure. Cambridge, MA: M. Pike, Eunice V.

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Problems in Zapotec tone analysis. Tone contrasts in Central Carrier Athapaskan. Brend, cd. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company. Pike, Kenneth L. Tone Languages. Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press. Suprasegmentals in reference to phonemes of item, of process, and of relation. To honor Roman Jakobson: Essays on the occasion of his seventieth birthday, The Hague: Mouton. Reprinted in Studies in Tone and Intonation, Edited by Ruth M. Basil: S. Kargen Pilszczikowa-Chodak, N. Tone-vowel height correlation and tone assignment in the patterns of verb and noun plurals in Hausa.

African language structures. Los Angeles: University of California Press. Williams, Ann F. The phonology of Western Popoloca. Lingua Yotsukura, Sayo. The Japanese tone and intonation systems. Linguistics Carta F. A sentence repetition test SRT is an indirect measure of second language proficiency. It is a screening test, quickly administered and, thus, ideally suited for testing large numbers of people and giving a broad picture of the varying levels of second language proficiency which occur with n the community.

This article is a brief introduction to the technique and its application in bilingualism surveys. Proficiency testing in a bilingualism survey. Careful goal setting is the hallmark of every good sociolinguistic survey. Researchers might see the need to examine dialect boundaries, they might trace the effects of different attitudes on language use, or they might search for the reasons for language maintenance in the face of a changing social climate. The goals chart the course the survey will follow.

The investigation of community-wide bilingualism is only one of many potential components of a sociolinguistic survey. The choice to investigate bilingualism within a community is based on the wider goals of the survey, that is, whether patterns of bilingualism are a question to be answered by this particular study. Similarly, the testing of second language proficiency is only one component of a focused bilingualism study. There are bilingualism surveys whose goals, for example, require proficiency scores in order to draw the desired conclusions for language planning.

There are other bilingualism surveys, for example, whose goals are fully met through the administration of questionnaires or in-depth interviews regarding the attitudes underlying language shift. Therefore the importance of second language proficiency testing to the goals of the particular bilingualism survey must be established. If second language proficiency is indeed a question, then, the context for its examination must be detailed. Community-wide bilingualism is usually not examined in isolation, rather, it is studied as it relates to language attitudes, or language use, or patterns of language contact or other such phenomena within a community.

The depth, or breadth, of study is related to the desired extendibility of the results. If the goal, as is usually the case, is to make predictions for the larger population from the results of the sample studied, then very careful, detailed planning is necessary. This planning must include the identification of critical factors for sampling the population, as well as preparing the instruments for collecting information on the related phenomena to be investigated. Selection of the test instrument. Another part of that planning is the actual selection of the instrument to be used for assessing proficiency.

Second language proficiency is ultimately an individual matter, yet the aggregate of individual proficiencies produces a profile of bilingualism within a community. The instrument selected should be one whose methodology facilitates the construction of that community-wide profile, that is, it should be practical. The results it offers should allow the researcher to draw conclusions and make predictions in keeping with the goals of the bilingualism survey, that is, it must be valid and reliable.

Many instruments or techniques for obtaining second language proficiency levels have been shown to be both valid and reliable. If, for example, the goal is to obtain an in-depth understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the second language proficiency of a few, selected individuals in the community under investigation, a diagnostic type of instrument should be chosen. An example of the application of this type of instrument would be where certain individuals or a certain narrowly defined class of individuals is determined to represent the highest level of second language proficiency in the community.

In keeping with the goals of the survey, an in-depth oral proficiency interview would be conducted with each of them in order to determine their individual strengths and weaknesses. The identification of such individuals could be accomplished through extensive administration of questionnaires or in-depth interviews.

On the other hand, if the goal is to obtain an extensive profile of second language proficiencies present in a community, a different, screening type of instrument should be chosen. An example of the application of this second type of instrument would be in a situation where a community is sampled on the basis of a number of specified factors e.

Efforts would be made to ensure that the entire community is represented in the sampling and a large number of people would be tested so that the results could be used to draw conclusions about and make predictions for that entire population. Sentence repetition test for community-wide testing. The sentence repetition test is a good example of this second type of instrument. It is a screening test, designed to facilitate testing the large number of people required for drawing conclusions about the whole community.

It has been shown to discriminate the broad range of second language proficiency levels, so is suitable for formulating a profile of community-wide second language proficiencies. The sentence repetition test SRT is an indirect test methodology, but its scores are calibrated with a separate, more direct assessment of proficiency so that the results of the testing are interpreted in terms of that correlation. Its administration time is brief and it can be scored on the spot — a sentence SRT with three practice sentences requires approximately five minutes.

The SRT technique is so 22 Notes on Linguistics 56 designed that once developed and calibrated it is ready to be used without further modification wherever bilingualism in that particular language is a question. Also, the same test administrator can give the test in all locations, without additional training. The SRT procedure is easy for people to understand; in 'jed, it follows the natural tendency of people to repeat what they hear.

It is not necessary to tape record participants' responses nor is it absolutely necessary to isolate them for test administration. The construction of a particular SRT can be accomplished in an area different from the actual site for testing; this would maximize time spent in actual assessment in the test area. There are undoubtedly many different ways in which a test utilizing the repetition of sentences could be constructed.

The SRT methodology that is prescribed here is based on the premise that a lest must be developed separately for each language. That is, unique sentences are selected for each test and these sentences are calibrated with a separate, external proficiency standard e. The format consists of using fifteen unrelated sentences, and scoring a maximum of three points for verbatim repetition of the entire test sentence.

The procedures for developing an SRT are designed so that researchers who do not speak the language being tested or have only rudimentary proficiency are able to oversee and participate in the development of such a test. This is primarily accomplished by using the assistance of educated mother tongue speakers of the test language at all stages of constructing the test. The procedures for training test administrators are such that an administrator with minimal proficiency in the test language should be able to administer and score a test reliably when fully trained, although, of course, use of a mother tongue or fluent speaker of the test language would be more expedient.

Although the actual administration of an SRT is brief, the construction and calibration of it requires an investment of time and attention to insure a quality instrument. It is probably best used, then, in the investigation of bilingualism in a language of wider communication or other study where extensive testing is necessary.

These sentences should represent a variety of registers and complexity of vocabulary and syntax The sentences are evaluated for naturalness and then tape-recorded by an educated MT speaker of the test language. Tnis preliminary form of the test sentences is given to a sample of second-language speakers of the test language who demonstrate varied levels of proficiency.

Based on their performances, fifteen ot the sen:ences are chosen for the final form of the test. Sentences chosen should display a range of difficulty from easy to difficult; also, each sentence chosen should be repeated more accurately by those whose overall performance is good, and more poorly by those whose overall performance is poor. To insure this, appropriate statistical formulas are utilized in sentence selection according to standard SRT development procedure. These fifteen sentences, along with three easy-to-repeat practice sentences comprise the final form of an SRT.

Performance on the test is scored as follows: a verbatim repetition of a test sentence is awarded three points, one mistake two iwints, two mistakes one point, and three mistakes or more, zero points. The maximum score for an SRT is, thus, 45 points. Calibration of an SRT. For maximum interpretability of test results it is desirable ihat an SRT be calibrated with a more descriptive assessment of second language proficiency. Throughout the pilot study and field study stages of development of the SRT technique, an instrument ca led the Reported Proficiency Evaluation RPE has been utilized for this purpose.


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The RPE was developed and has proven useful as a practical tool fitted to the exigencies of developing a test under field conditions. The RPE is a descriptive estimation of second language proficiency. In this procedure educated mother tongue speakers of the test language evaluate the proficiency of a number of second-language 25 24 Notes on Linguistics 56 speakers of that language with whom they are well acquainted. The MT raters grade their second-language acquaintances according to a standard set of proficiency descriptions, which describe differing levels of attainment in the areas of accent, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension.

The MT rater's evaluation of his acquaintances' second-language ability is expressed m terms of proficiency levels called Reported Proficiency Evaluation RPE levels. A statistical correlation between the second-language speaker's RPE level rating and his performance on the SRT dv-,veloped in that language is established according to the statistical procedures of standard SRT development.

Manual for developing and using SRTs. A full description of these practical methodologies and their application in bilingualism surveys is presented in the SRT Manual see RadlofQ. A step-by-step description of the development and calibration of an SRT is provided in this manual. The statistical procedures which are usf. Case studies of SRT use in actual bilingualism studies and a survey of the literature in second language testing supporting the use of sentence repetition are included. The history of the development of these techniques in the field study stage is described, along with studies in validity and reliability.

Field experience has proven SRT an effective tool for evaluating proficiency levels in communities where Pashto is the language of wider communication. An Urdu SRT has also been developed and is similarly used. The reader is urged to consult the manual and follow the prescribed methodology for developing and using an SRT in a field situation. Manual for Peace Corps language teeters. Princeton, NJ.

Radloff, Carla. Sentence repetition testing for studies of community bilingualism. Bergman, Ted. Survey reference manual, 2ncl edition. Dallas: SIL. Daytime sessions will be devoted to plenary and section papers, with the Wednesday set aside for workshops or sightseeing. Evening sessions will be devoted to panels and to presentations about the semiotics of theatre and music.

The book is a compilation of recent work in systemic-functional linguistics. Benson and William S. Greaves, Catherine Emmott, and Daniel Kies. Selections were chosen by the editors as examples of advances in current theory and practice. Some of the papers comprising this book have their roots in the 17th International Systemic Congress July More information about this book can be obtained from Pinter Publishers. Seven papers given at the Congress and not included in the abovementioned book are included.

This publication should be available in early The substance of the Congress consisted of a total of over symposia in the diverse fields of archeology, anthropology, history, political science, culture, linguistics, macroeconomics, sociology, international relations, rural studies, and general topics, with papers from almost 2, participants.

Even in this single symposium the topics and methodological approaches varied considerably. Three papers dealt with phonology. Sonority clashes are reduced by the shifting of sounds on the sonority scale. Gurlckian et al presented a highly technical report on their spectral analysis of speech for vowel identification and specification.

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Another three papers dealt broadly with text analysis. Fleming showed how problem and resolution figured in the text structure of a Garifuna folktale. Heitzman showed various discourse devices, such as quotations, antonyms, and negatives, for adding redundancy to a text in order to manage the information rate in Asheninca. Three papers dealt with dialectal and socio-linguistic factors in literacy in the Campa languages of Peru. Three other papers dealt with morphosyntax, especially with respect to transitivity and ergativity.

Alvarez's paper exemplified this in several syntactic structures in Guajiro, where the gender-number suffix on the verb either agrees with the subject or, in transitives when the subject is marked by a person prefix, with the object. I have yet to see any work to show what discourse considerations indicate when the subject prefix should be used. The remaining seven papers fit the broad category of comparative. Evidence was given by Payne for including Apolista and by Malone for excluding Chimila from the Arawakan family.

Alexandra Aikhenvald-Angenot, a Russian linguist teaching and conducting field research in Brazil, figured prominently in the symposium with her questions and comments as co-author and presenter of three papers. One was a lexicostatistical analysis of Maipuran Arawakan languages of the upper Rio Negro. Another, co-authored with Angenot and Ritchie Key, actually suggested a genetic affiliation of Proto-Arawakan with Nostratic, with some 40 supposed cognates as evidence.

A couple of the papers dealt with comparative morphosyntax. My paper was a phonological reconstruction of Proto Lokono-Guajiro, with a discussion of its place within the Arawakan family. In light of the size and diversity of the Congress, I am left wondering what the purpose is in bringing the entire enterprise together at a single time and place. The Congress could probably be enhanced by providing a significant number of plenary sessions dealing with integrating themes.

Perhaps there are those in attendance with no responsibility to a single symposium who are able to sample the work being done in several areas, but for those of us with a commitment to a particular symposium, time and opportunities were limited for participating in other areas. To preregister, send your check or money order for the appropriate amount in U.

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