The situation being such as it is, Our Empire, for its existence and self-defense has no other recourse but to appeal to arms and to crush every obstacle in its path. The hallowed spirits of Our Imperial Ancestors guarding Us from above, We rely upon the loyalty and courage of Our subjects in Our confident expectation that the task bequeathed by Our forefathers will be carried forward and that the sources of evil will be speedily eradicated and an enduring peace immutably established in East Asia, preserving thereby the glory of Our Empire. Whereas the Imperial Government of Japan has committed unprovoked acts of war against the Government and the people of the United States of America:.
Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the state of war between the United States and the Imperial Government of Japan which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and the President is hereby authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Imperial Government of Japan; and, to bring the conflict to a successful termination, all the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States.
Then, on December 8, , after several hours of fighting between Thai and Japanese troops at Chumphon, Thailand had to accede to Japanese demands for access through the country for Japanese forces invading Burma and Malaya. Phibun assured the country that the Japanese action was prearranged with a sympathetic Thai government. Later in the month Phibun signed a mutual defense pact with Japan. Pridi resigned from the cabinet in protest but subsequently accepted the nonpolitical position of regent for the absent Ananda Mahidol.
Under pressure from Japan, the Phibun regime declared war on Britain and the United States in January , but the Thai ambassador in Washington, Seni Pramoj, refused to deliver the declaration to the United States government. Accordingly, the United States refrained from declaring war on Thailand. The OSS trained Thai personnel for underground activities, and units were readied to infiltrate Thailand.
From the office of the regent in Thailand, Pridi ran a clandestine movement that by the end of the war had with Allied aid armed more than 50, Thai to resist the Japanese. Thailand was rewarded for Phibun's close cooperation with Japan during the early years of war with the return of further territory that had once been under Bangkok's control, including portions of the Shan states in Burma and the four northernmost Malay states.
Japan meanwhile had stationed , troops on Thai soil and built the infamous "death railway" through Thailand using Allied prisoners of war. As the war dragged on, however, the Japanese presence grew more irksome. Trade came to a halt, and Japanese military personnel requisitioning supplies increasingly dealt with Thailand as a conquered territory rather than as an ally. Allied bombing raids damaged Bangkok and other targets and caused several thousand casualties.
Public opinion and, even more important, the sympathies of the civilian political elite, moved perceptibly against the Phibun regime and the military. In June , Phibun was forced from office and replaced by the first predominantly civilian government since the coup. It was fought between Thailand and the Empire of Japan. Despite fierce fighting in Southern Thailand, Thai resistance lasted only a few hours before ending in a ceasefire. To invade Malaya and Burma the Japanese needed to make use of Thai ports, railways, and airfields. The Thai people, however, were fiercely proud of never having been colonised and were determined to maintain their independence, having just beaten Vichy France in the French-Thai War.
The Thai army was far from negligible and their soldiers were at combat readiness. If heavy Japanese casualties were to be avoided it was vital that early landings across the beaches in southern Thailand should be unopposed. To facilitate this the Japanese opened secret negotiations with the Thai government. At the time it looked as though the Axis powers were winning the war in Europe, and in October , Thai dictator Plaek Pibulsonggram, gave a secret verbal promise to support them in the event of a Japanese invasion of Malaya.
In return for his secret alliance, the Japanese guaranteed Thailand provinces in Malaya which were ceded to the British in , as well as Burma's Shan State. However, Phibun seemed to have been quite ready to forget this promise if circumstances had changed and asked both the British and Americans in for guarantees of effective support if they were invaded. Neither country could give them, although British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was in favour of giving a public warning to Japan that an invasion of the southeast Asian kingdom would result in a British declaration of war.
This drove the Japanese planners to distraction as they unsuccessfully strove to obtain agreement to a right of passage through Thai territory, on which their whole operational plan depended. Japan Invades.
Synonyms and antonyms of Fürstenspiegel in the German dictionary of synonyms
Before 8 December Royal Thai Army started to set up the new military units in the South including: . Fighting ended in the afternoon when the Thais received orders to cease fire. Three Japanese troopships dropped anchor a few kilometres off the coast during the night of December 7. The landing was made adjacent to the main Thai army camp, Camp Vajiravudh. The Thais, notified earlier of the Japanese invasion at Songkhla, immediately went into action.
Due to its closeness to the Malayan border, Pattani was the second most important objective of the Japanese 25th Army. The landings were made despite the rough seas and on unsuitable landing grounds. The Thai battalion commander, Khun Inkhayutboriharn, was killed in action along with 23 other ranks, 5 Provincial Police, 4 Youth Army members and 9 Civilians. Pravat Chumsai. The Japanese 2nd Infantry Battalion of the rd Infantry Regiment landed at am, and occupied the town after having crushed police resistance there.
Further landings took place near the airfield to the south. The Japanese laid siege to the airfield, but the Thai airmen along with Prachuap Khirikhan Provincial Police managed to hold out until noon on the next day, when they received orders from the Thai government to cease fighting. The Thais lost 37 dead and 27 wounded. It was tasked with the capture of Bangkok.
The force was met by a small Thai police detachment. Despite a tense confrontation, fighting did not occur and the Japanese subsequently agreed not to enter the Thai capital until formal negotiations were concluded. The Japanese landings occurred during the early hours of December 8. A further clash occurred at Hat Yai.
The fighting ceased at noon when orders for an armistice to be arranged was received. A Japanese infantry company from the 1st Battalion of the rd Infantry Regiment landed at the coastal village of Ban Don in the early hours of December 8. The desultory fighting took place amid a rainstorm, and only ended in the afternoon when the hard-pressed Thais received orders to lay down their arms.
The Thais lost dead but the injured was not known exactly. While police rounded up Japanese residents the Thai cabinet debated its options. Plaek Pibulsonggram's decision to sign an armistice with Japan effectively ended Churchill's hopes of forging an alliance with Thailand. He also granted Japan permission to use Thailand as a base of operations to invade Malaya. Within hours after the armistice came into effect, squadrons of Japanese aircraft had flown into Songkla airfield from Indochina, allowing them to carry out air raids on strategic bases in Malaya and Singapore from a short distance.
On 14 December, Pibulsonggram signed a secret agreement with the Japanese committing Thai troops in the Burma Campaign. An alliance between Thailand and Japan was formally signed on December 21, In response, all Thai assets in the United States were frozen by the federal government. Viele sterben.
They were preceded ashore by 1, Japanese troops dressed in Thai military uniforms. Their orders were to procure some local transport plus the cooperation of Thai forces so that they could all proceed rapidly down the only motorable road in the area to the Malayan border under the pretence they were fleeing the Japanese. Then having fooled the British and been allowed to cross into Malaya, their objective was to seize vital bridges to stop them from being blown up. The plan did not succeed. The troops involved in this special operation expected to find a Japanese army colonel, who had been working incognito at their consulate in Songkla, waiting to meet them on the beach with their transport already lined up.
He was nowhere in sight; in an excess of zeal, he had destroyed his codes too early and was unable to make sense of the message conveying the invasion date. It led to considerable commotion and more delay. The Thai police, too, became suspicious when a group of Japanese soldiers tried to hire transport and bribe their cooperation with a large sum of money brought ashore specially for the purpose.
Fighting broke out, units of the Thai army joined in, and it was about twelve hours before the Japanese gained control of the situation in Songkla. Waffen sind lebende Wesen, und Gewehre verabscheuen Hitze ebenso wie der Soldat. Nimm dich vor Giftschlangen in acht! Du solltest dann die Leber roh verzehren und das Fleisch kochen. Patricia Norland [u. Wir werden zusammenarbeiten, um unseren Ruhm zu mehren. Phibun befiehlt der Nord-West-Armee sich nahe an die chinesische Grenze zu begeben. Wird in den Beistandspakt integriert. Stattdessen muss "Indochinois" gebraucht werden.
Later on, as a result of Japanese pressure, the Thai government declared war on Britain and the United States on January 25, Thailand was rewarded for Phibun's close cooperation with Japan during the early years of war with the return of further territory that had once been under Bangkok's control, namely the four northernmost Malay states. Although the majority of Thais were initially "intoxicated" with Japan's string of brilliant victories in early , by the end of the year there was widespread resentment as a result of arrogant Japanese behavior and war-induced economic problems.
A vicious contest for saw mills and teak logs owned by British companies erupted early on, followed by similar disputes over the control of enemy energy and shipping facilities within the country. Other problems were more severe. For a time Germany continued actively purchasing local products, but once shipping difficulties became unsolvable, Japan became Thailand's sole significant trading partner. Similarly, Thailand had to rely on the Japanese for consumer goods previously imported from Europe and the United States; goods which Japan was increasingly unable to provide as the war wore on.
A shortage of commodities quickly developed, with inflation soaring and standards of living dropping. Worse yet, the Japanese had aggressively claimed the right to import goods duty-free, significantly reducing the Thai government's revenues. Things came to a head in December when an armed confrontation between Japanese troops and Thai villagers and police escalated into a shoot-out in Ratchaburi. Nakamura's ability to understand the Thai perspective, combined with his affable personality, significantly helped to improve Thai-Japanese relations. This more conciliatory stance occurred at a moment when the tide began to turn against Japan, something which many within the Thai government recognized.
Realizing that the Allies had seized the initiative in the war, Phibun, well aware of the troublesome personal predicament his relationship with Tokyo had put him in, started distancing him from the Japanese. But the prime minister's star was waning at a much faster rate than he had thought. With the Allies intensifying their bombing raids on Bangkok public confidence in Phibun, already tested by his idiosyncratic domestic policies, was sagging fast.
The kingdom's ruling elite too was becoming increasingly weary of Phibun, whose intimidation and demotion of dissenters within the government ironically served to further unite his opponents, who were gathering around Pridi. Even the Japanese were becoming disaffected with Phibun. That a military scheme lay behind Phibun's attempt to relocate the seat of government certainly wasn't lost on the Japanese.
Coinciding with the beginnings of Phibun's efforts to distance himself — through prolonged trips to the provinces — from the Japanese was the downfall of Benito Mussolini in Italy, an event which sent shock waves throughout the Thai elite, to the point that an emergency cabinet meeting was convened to discuss the European war situation.
However, in spite of increasing domestic discontent and Japanese distrust, it would not be until the following year that Phibun's political demise would come. Von dort planten sie Gegenaktionen in vom Feind besetzten Gebieten. Dezember entwaffnen. However, the Indian National Council emphasised solidarity with the Indian National Congress and, at a time when Japan began her successful Malayan Campaign, the council reflected the Congress leadership's reluctance to appear Quisling of the Japanese. Later, the council sent delegates to attend the Bangkok Conference.
I asked Police-General Adun how I could represent my country in Japan when my attitude towards Japan remained the same as it had always been. I told him I did not think I could carry out my duties effectively, as Japan would distrust me, and that I could not therefore see that such an appointment would be in the national interest. Police-General Adun replied that this had already been discussed, however, and it had been concluded that on the contrary, such an appointment would be [especially] effective, as Japan would have more confidence in us on seeing that the Siamese government had sent as its representative a man who had not been popular with Japan in the past.
Besides, he continued, I was a man of some political influence. It was believed that Japan would therefore heed my opinion somewhat. I persisted in my refusal, however. Two to three days later. Field Marshal Pibul Songkhram insisted that I take up the appointment for the sake of the nation, stating that he believed Japan would trust Siam if I agreed to do so.
I persisted with my arguments, however, giving the same reasons as those I had already expressed to Police- General Adun, and pointing out that this was not a question of patriotism. The Prime Minister went on to say, however, that in any event he had already requested and received official approval of my appointment from Japan. I still continued to refuse. The Prime Minister then became angry with me and left the room saying that if I refused to go to Japan then he would go himself. Nai Pridi expressed the view that if the matter had gone as far as Japan's approval having been sought officially, then it was very difficult.
However, he felt that if I went it might in fact do some good, for he believed that the Allies would emerge the victors in the war, and that a wrong move by Siam might later cost our country its independence. He also advised me to take trustworthy people with me to be the members of my embassy staff. That evening Police-General Adun Adunyadetcarat came to see me again, and we held a general discussion. In the end I accepted the appointment [i.
Fifteenth-Century Studies 35
Japanischer Angriff mit ca. Massenflucht aus Rangoon beginnt: die Einwohnerzahl nimmt von Phibun preist dabei Japan. Ils ne permettront pas que quelque nation vienne les troubler ou s'emparer de leur terre. Die Hauptquartiere;. Vorsicht bei den Statistikdiagrammen! Extraits en ligne. Grant, Ian Lyall. The Zampi Press. I See History dot com. September Retrieved 8 August Rotfai Thai dot com. Bruce Reynolds. Martin's Press. Retrieved 8 August An obvious one was in July when a Japanese Camera Department came and sent out teams of photographers to record the "cultural entente" between Thailand and Japan.
A secret source imparted that a complete list of films already produced included highways, anti-aircraft facilities in Thailand, aeroplanes, the salt industry, British firms in Thailand and various government workshops. Crosby commented that Thai Government probably knew but dared not oppose it. Then came the Increase in Japanese tourists to Thailand, especially in the south, in October Seas approximately three meters high break against the shore.
Because of the danger the local fishing craft do not put to sea, and if we decide to use these beaches we must make up our minds to accept some sacrifice as inevitable. There are scarcely any Thai troops defending the coast and the authorities do not appear to be anxious. Fixed defenses consist of a skirmishing line only, without wire entanglements, and there are no pillboxes in the neighbourhood of our proposed disembarkation points.
The Singora and Patani aerodromes are poor and crude and in no way comparable with the enemy aerodromes at Kota Bharu and in Kedah Province. It will therefore be of the utmost importance to seize the enemy aerodromes as soon as possible. It will, however, be suitable for conduct of operations by a detachment of all arms of the service with one infantry regiment as nucleus.
Our disguised troops, immediately after disembarkation, would board cars which they had seized on the Thailand side of the frontier, and, as if confused, with a simulated, sorrowful expression, seek help from the British Army. After deceiving the frontier barrier guard and getting through it, they would dash at full speed towards the Perak River through the unconsolidated British defenses and seize possession of the Kuala Kangsar bridge. With the utmost urgency and in absolute secrecy, arrangements were to be made to acquire about a thousand Thai uniforms for officers and men.
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On disembarkation, flags of the three nations—Thailand, Japan, and Great Britain—would be issued to the disguised troops, who would advance waving in one hand the Thai flag and in the other the Union Jack. Calling out in English, 'Japanese soldier is frightful" and "Hurrah for the English," and would thus break right through the frontier line. On the train south In this way I was able to get a goodly amount of ore shipped off to Japan by the time the war broke out. He was educated at the Albertina Academy of Fine Arts in Turin, where he became an instructor after graduating in He travelled to Siam in , where he entered employment with the Siamese government in a twenty-five-year contract.
He was among many Westerners, particularly Italians, who were employed as architects and civil engineers during the reign of King Chulalongkorn. He married an Italian woman in Thailand, and returned to Italy after the term of his government contract ended. He himself spoke Thai perfectly, regarded himself as Thai and particularly supported the modem nationalist movement with large donations to the armed forces. Lacking anything more definite, the writer includes his answers here: When did Chinese women begin to come to Thailand in great numbers?
The greatest numbers came between and How strongly Chinese is the culture of the average Chinese home? About 70 percent of the 2,, Chinese in Thailand still follow Chinese customs and traditions. What is the unit of kinship in the Chinese community in Thailand? The clan. Does the clan exist as a dynamic social unit?
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Is the head a man or a woman? Almost always a man. If a man who has been the head of a clan dies, a woman sometimes becomes head. Who decides questions relating to marriage, occupation, business transactions, education, etc.? The head of the clan in consultation with the heads of the large or small families involved. How much freedom do children have in decisions relating to marriage, profession, education?
Is there any difference in various classes of society? With some exceptions all Chinese children have much liberty in these matters, with the exception of the choice of a profession. The educational laws of Thailand of course require them to go to school. Is Thai spoken in many Chinese homes? No, in very few. Do the children of homes in which both parents are Chinese tend to remain Chinese or do they become Thai?
They prefer to remain Chinese. The Education Act is compelling them to become Thai. Is the Thai government doing anything to help the Chinese become Thai in speech and ways of thought? The Thai government gives special rights to Chinese as well as Thai in order to help Chinese become Thai.
Do Chinese families have any share in Thai social life, or do the Chinese tend to limit their social contacts to Chinese, thus living apart from the Thai? Chinese families have a share in Thai social life. They spend most of their time with Chinese but that does not mean that they live apart from the Thai. Will the Chinese family tend to maintain itself as a cultural unit or is it tending to break down and become identified with the other people in Thailand?
The Chinese family will tend to maintain itself as a Chinese cultural unit forever. Our troops entered Cambodia in retaliation. Twenty-two days of fighting followed. During that time we took overmuch ground. During the course of the discussions, the question of the conflict between Siam and Indochina was raised, and Captain Jouan indicated that Indochina would be willing to have the United States, or the United States jointly with England, act as mediators in the dispute. He also claimed that Indochina could produce evidence to show that Japan had been providing Siam with ammunition and planes in spite of the former's claim to neutrality in the conflict.
Thailand will seek to obtain such territory as she can, and hopes even to secure Cambodia and Laos which are not coveted by Japan, latter being content with Tongking Japan might possibly ask Thailand for a military pact against Great Britain. He was a highly revered member of the Dhammayuttika Nikaya. Since this wat has belonged to the Thammayut.
Not only had she encountered opposition from French-educated members of the Khmer elite, but she was also among fifteen Europeans forced from office in Indochina for being Jewish during the Vichy period. My hopes for a trip to Shanghai appeared premature today. It [Lan Xang] possessed its own personality. As we go back to the most distant periods of our history, we can see that our ancient state has never been a vassal of another.
Such an assertion is a historical fact. The Lao people are entirely distinct from their neighbours. It is only in vain that a deceitful propaganda tries to distort the truth which the entire history proves: in heart, language, customs, as much as by their ancestors the Lao are Thai [Tai] but they are first and above all Lao. Let us unite our efforts to defend our country!
Let us gather around our guardian nation to save the land of our ancestors. The day will come when we restore the Lao country [pays lao] and we will recover again our national prestige. Japan continued to bang her fist on the Franco-Thai peace table. The ultimatum had expired without producing a French answer, and the threatened steps had failed to materialize.
But the press talked loudly and extensively on what Matsuoka was going to tell the French and reported preparations for important military conferences. Reports from the outside told of Japanese naval movements off the French Indo-China coast. And the Japanese consul general at Hanoi was or dered to prepare for the evacuation of Japanese from the French colony. On the face of it, Japan was clearing decks for action. The stock market boomed.
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The press hailed the coming settlement as a Japanese triumph and turned to new worlds to conquer. But it also foreshadowed new Japanese demands on French Indo-China by complaining about the treatment of Japanese traders flocking to the colony; and it charged that Russia was intensifying Bolshevist propaganda in the Far East. The crisis was over for the present. Japan proclaimed her triumph and implemented her self- appointed role as leader of a "Greater East Asia" today, when Matsuoka presided at the final session of the Franco-Thai peace conference at which the Japanese award of French territory to Thailand was signed by all the parties concerned.
At the other end of the social scale, peasant women complained that it was both impractical and indecorous to plant rice or mount a water buffalo wearing a skirt. Pibul replied that they should hitch up their skirts and sit on a buffalo as if riding side-saddle. These virtues, he said, constituted dharma, the Buddhist doctrine of justice and righteousness, and a brotherhood based on such principles would appeal to all Oriental peoples. It was an adroit performance. When feeling this, [the Lao] desire to preserve the Lao name for ever.
Weltkriegs zwischen Siam Thailand und Frankreich erfolgte.
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This volume focuses on authors who deal with analogous problems and raise similar questions in other contexts, authors who also address powerful rulers or develop ideals of right rulership but who choose very different literary genres to do so, or works on kingship that have almost been forgotten. Departing from well-trodden paths, we hope to contribute to the scholarly debate by bringing in new relevant material and confront it with well-known and oft-discussed classics.
Moreover, the selection of peripheral texts from Antiquity to the Renaissance reveals several patterns in the evolution of the tradition over a longer period of time. If you have personal access to this content, log in with your username and password here:.