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Her research agenda includes issues within the field of management of creativity and innovation in inter-organizational networks. The theoretical focus is on agglomerations clusters and industrial districts , project based organizations in creative industries and university-industry collaborations in high-tech industries. The main research settings are creative industries design, music industry , high-tech industries life science, advanced materials , Italian industrial districts and clusters. She published articles and book chapters in national and international outlets in the field of inter-organizational networks for innovation in clusters and industrial districts.
He has conducted research on several topics the impacts of ICT among industrial district, knowledge management and communities of practices, design and creativity in SMEs and industrial district. More recently his research focused on Industry 4. Email: marco. Another separate network of decentralised MNE labs carry out precompetitive basic or applied research, embodying particular areas of technological comparative advantage of their host countries. Volume 26 , Issue 4.
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Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Citing Literature. It also helps better differentiate the concepts and relate them to each other in a more meaningful way. So forgive me if I revisit some basic definitions. Although knowledge is often seen as a richer form of information this differentiation is not terribly helpful. A more useful definition of knowledge is that it is about know-how and know-why. A simple non-business metaphor is that of a cake.
An analysis of its molecular constituents is data — for most purposes not very useful — you may not even be able to tell it were a cake. A list of ingredients is information — more useful — an experienced cook could probably make the cake — the data has been given context. The recipe though would be knowledge — written knowledge - explicit knowledge — it tells you how-to make the cake. On the other hand an inexperienced cook even with the recipe might not make a very good cake.
A person, however, with relevant knowledge, experience, and skill — knowledge in their heads - that is not easily written down - tacit knowledge — would almost certainly make an excellent cake from the recipe. It is about wise judgement. An important point to note here — to make knowledge productive — you need information.
Knowing how to make a cake is not sufficient — you need information — the list of ingredients. And to make a wise decision you too need information — the likes and tastes of the consumers of the cake. Know-why is also important. Let us suppose you are missing a key ingredient of the cake — knowing why a particular ingredient was part of the recipe might help a knowledgeable cook substitute an alternative. In fact know-why is often more important than know-how as it allows you to be creative - to fall back on principles — to re-invent your know-how.
Competence and Mindset But there is a factor missing - explicit knowledge, tacit knowledge and information are not enough to make knowledge productive. A person putting knowledge into action needs to be competent and that means three essential elements - they must have the knowledge and skill but most of all they must have the right motivation and attitude.
Creativity and leadership in science, technology and innovation : Sussex Research Online
You can have the most knowledgeable, skilled people in the world and provide them with perfect knowledge but they may still fail to do anything useful with it. In other words their mindset is important. Knowledge Management So lets look at the meaning of knowledge management as there are many definitions. In reality knowledge management applies right across the organisation - it is a holistic concept. Although verbose — I feel this puts focus and responsibility on the individual — the knowledge worker - and on the holistic nature of knowledge management.
Well you clearly can manage some aspects of knowledge. You can manage explicit knowledge captured on paper and in electronic databases in the same way you can manage information. This is the important stuff. Here knowledge management — in its creative sense - is more about nurturing than managing. It is more organic than mechanistic. Creativity and Innovation So in this context, what are creativity and innovation? There are several definitions. Often they are not distinguished.
They are simply seen as part of the process by which knowledge is developed and transformed into business value. This is a perfectly acceptable definition but again like the failure to differentiate between information and knowledge — it is not very useful for practical purposes. A more useful approach is to view creativity as the process of generating ideas whilst seeing innovation as the sifting, refining and more critically — the implementation of those ideas.
Creativity is about divergent thinking. Innovation is about convergent thinking. Creativity is about the generation of ideas and innovation is about putting them into action. Creativity — coming up with new ideas - is not enough. We need innovation — the taking of new or existing ideas and putting them into action. This requires the application of existing knowledge and the development of appropriate new knowledge. Coming up with new ideas is the food of innovation. Innovation is a far tougher proposition than creativity.
The Nature of Ideas What is an idea? It can take many subtle forms. Or it could be a new unproven concept of how something might work based on new knowledge of a natural, social or business phenomenon: "the solar wind could power the ship".
The realisation of an idea may be vision driven: "This is our goal. How can we apply it to the development of new products or services? Both forms are valid and both are visionary in their own way. If this is true why do we not see a more creative world in every sphere of life? Much of it has got to do with our ways of thinking. But one of the major reasons that we fail to do this is that there are blocks to our creativity and until these blocks are removed creativity cannot flourish. Creativity Is a Serious Business Creativity is often thought to be a serious analytical task.
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This is not true. The starting point of creativity is the generation of new ideas. It is thus important to look at the process by which new ideas are created. New thoughts and ideas come from a kind of thought-play of the mind. Daydreaming of what could or might be. It is a game - a fun game. Playing with words, concepts and metaphors. Playing what-if games. What if this was true? What if things were different?
What if this limitation did not hold? He defines jamming - "to take a theme, a question, a notion, a whim, an idea, pass it around, break it up, put it together, turn it over, run it backward, fly with it as far as possible, out of sight, never retreating This is clearly all about play, about having fun. It is about not recognising boundaries or limitations - exploring for its own sake. In play nothing is taken for granted. Nothing is absolute or unalterable. This is the essence of play. Also playing on your own is usually not much fun — playing at is best is a team activity — its about interaction — its about working together - its about collaboration.
Creativity Is Not Needed Generating new ideas — being creative - is often thought to be about holding brainstorming sessions or the like and although such sessions play their part we miss a huge opportunity if we only view creativity in this fashion. We actually get to play all of the time or at least we do if we see it that way. Every interaction in our lives should be about play - should be about learning, should be about creativity. In my view, the playground is our lives.
In business we get to play when we interact with people. Company meetings — so often a bureaucratic waste of time — if only we took the opportunity - are one of the best opportunities for play and learning. In short when we interact with people we have an opportunity to learn, to influence, to make things happen. We need to be creative every minute of our lives — every decision, every interaction - every act needs to be a creative and innovative one — not one out of habit. Creativity is needed at every level and every dimension within an organisation. Creativity is the responsibility of each functional discipline, of each team, of each manager, of each and every individual.
Creativity is not limited to the grand scheme of things - to new products, new services and new or improved processes. As an individual if I can better organise my day or write a report in a more effective way - then this is every bit a creative act. Limiting Paradigms By far the most effective block to creativity at any level is the paradigm.
R&D networks and innovation: decentralised product development in multinational enterprises
But it is an extremely important concept that we should take the time to fully understand. A paradigm is a way of thinking, perceiving, communicating and viewing the world. It is often called a worldview or a mindset. The important point to understand about a paradigm is that it works at the subconscious level. We are not aware of our own paradigms. Its a bit like thinking the whole world is coloured red — unaware that we are wearing rose tinted contact lenses.
Paradigms include theories, principles, values, beliefs, and doctrines. They can be thought of as a rigid tacit infrastructure of ideas that shape not only our thinking but also our perception of the world. When someone says "we need a new paradigm for this.
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All they are saying is "we need a new approach or we need a new way of looking at things". By the very definition of the word - our personal and organisational paradigms are not known to us. Paradigms are both good and bad. In one sense they are the mind's immune system against new, possibly dangerous ideas. On the other hand if they prevent the take up of any new idea they are potentially more dangerous.
The problem is - we do something - we make a decision - we react in a particular way - quite naturally for a subconscious reason. A reason with which our conscious mind would not agree. However, our conscious mind rationalises our action. And we move on totally unaware - at best dimly aware - that we have done something for the wrong reason. Some of us may recognise that we do this in our personal lives - in our emotional lives - in our relationships with our loved ones.
But we do it too in our business lives.