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And you couldn't help looking and you sort of knew and you sort of didn't know. And you didn't want anyone to see you were looking, either. There were ducks, but they weren't so bad. There were geese that would come at you very alarmingly if you went near them, but then you needn't go near them, and otherwise they were perfectly respectable. They disapproved, it seemed, of everybody.

And there was Master Horace Budd, aged ten,, very sturdy and rosy, who was coming back to London to be a boarder, too, next quarter. But if you want a fight—". I'll just kill you. I know away. Edward Albert whistled after his fashion for a moment or so. He had a way of his own in his imagination. For behind his unobtrusive fa9ade Edward Albert led a life of lurid reverie.

It had passwords and secret signs, and you were admitted by an Ordeal. You had to stand with your finger in a gas-jet for five seconds. It hurt no end, you smarted for days afterwards, and you could smell your flesh burning. But let it be recorded that Edward Albert stood up to the test. He licked his finger first, but Bert Bloxham, who hadn't thought of that, made him wipe it dry. The headquarters of the Hidden Hand of Camden Town were in the room over the disused stable behind Bert Bloxham's aunt's house.

You went up to it by an almost vertical ladder. She was an extremely indifferent aunt, a heavy, silent woman in chapel, and with no trace of family resemblance to Bertie, and she never on any occasion ventured up that ladder. So the Hidden Hand had an admirable library of "bloods" stowed away there, and three black masks and three dark lanterns which stank of Brunswick Black when they were lit, an air-gun and a knuckle-duster, and there it planned a reign of terror that reached from King's Cross to Primrose Hill.

Little did the people of that region know how terrorised they were. On dark winter evenings the Hidden Hand would prowl sometimes for as long as an hour, with their dark lanterns nestling hotly inside their jackets and their masks on, actually on, except when a policeman was spotted. Then "Nix and we dissemble. In this fashion these desperadoes just raised hell. They swore and used forbidden words—Nuts' every other word was an oath—he thought nothing of saying "Godormighty" —and they had a pack of real cards, "the Devil's picture-books", and gambled with them at Beat your Neighbour out of doors and Grab and suchlike skin games for almost unlimited stakes.

Afterwards Nuts learnt Map from a cousin. For some obscure reason they always played for dollars and generally wore their masks while doing so. They swore and spat. They did not play for cash, they gave chits and kept a record, and at one time Nuts owed Edward Albert over five thousand dollars and Bert half as much again. That was a pretty load to carry for boys still under thirteen. Since it was quite within the range of possibilities that they would be smelt over when they went home, they did not smoke.

Nuts had tried chewing tobacco, using a partially-smoked cigarette he had picked up, but his reaction was so prompt and so extremely unpleasant for everyone concerned that the experiment was not repeated. Such was the hidden life that flowed darkly beneath the fair surface of Edward Albert's meek discretion. His mother, remarking how often he went to tea with Bert Bloxham or the MacBrydes—though indeed he never went near the MacBrydes—suggested a return of hospitality.

For a time he was disposed to resist this. He did not know what his mother would think of Nuts' vocabulary if perchance his tongue was loosened, nor did he know what his fellow-toughs of the Hidden Hand might think of his home life. She pressed the proposal. All the more reason for knowing them. He stipulated for fruit cake and ice cream. She did them well. They both came looking morbidly clean, and for a while everyone was too busy feeding Tor any other sort of behaviour.

They made noises, but good wholesome noises, and chiefly when they drank. Sighs of satisfaction marked the conclusion of the feast. And then came the crucial moment when Mrs Tewler said, "And now what shall we do? And believe it or not, these devils incarnate, these gamblers who thought nothing of staking a hundred dollars on a single throw, these wicked toughs who clothed themselves with cursing as with a garment, became as little children again. The Hidden Hand played Snakes and Ladders and Race Game and said "Thank you for our luvlay tea, Mam," just as though they really were the quite nice little boys Edward Albert had said they were.

THE number of boys in Mr Myame's school varied between nineteen and twenty-four, and yet Edward Albert got into the first eleven before he had been there two years, and played in his last year in the annual match against Bolter's College. Before that match he had not liked cricket very much, but sifter it he was as thorough a cricket fan as every young Englishman ought to be. Mr Myame's school played cricket in Regent's Park in the summer, but it did not play any game in the winter, because football made the boys muddy and parents objected, But Mr Myame was convinced that good sound open-air exercise was conducive to morality.

He hated to 'think of boys "loafing about" and the menu of his prospectus included "compulsory games. It was possible to obtain caps, flannels, shoes and equipment generally from firms of school outfitters at advantageous wholesale prices, and even the most unworldly parents were gratified by the spectacle of their offspring apparently playing cricket in a socially acceptable manner.

The underlying seriousness of the school was apparent in the choice of black and white for the school colours. Contemplating this enlargement of his enterprise, Mr Myame, being aware of a certain athletic insufficiency in himself, added a "Games Master" to the staff, Mr Plipp, an excellent young married elementary teacher who was free on Wednesday afternoons and who was also prepared to regard scout marches and tracking on Primrose Hill as a compulsory game for the winter months.

Nothing remained to perfect this games side of the school except to arrange a few matches, and here Mr Myame was so fortunate as to fall in with the Principal of Bolter's College who was watching his boys "practise", while he wrestled with a similar problem. Bolter's College was a small genteel private establishment in Highbury which catered mainly for the offspring of remote or hypothetical parents in the tropics; it had a Union Jack on its blazer pockets, its caps were red, white and blue, and its style of play did not seem to be hopelessly above the school standard.

So an annual, no, the annual cricket match was arranged, and had been going on for several years before Edward Albert joined the school Generally Bolter's won by producing lean, lithe and dusky "old boys" or alleged new additions to the staff who never reappeared. Nothing had been said about "old boys. Myame's was a younger and smaller establishment without them. They wanted Edward Albert to come up nearer and on the off side. Was there to be no longstop? Up there and closer was more dangerous. In the slips a ball can knock you over and stun you before you know where you are.

Why not pretend to be sick or go home? And be jawed at after by Mr Myame? Instead of tea? Edward Albert trotted up to his appointed place. The ritual of the game began. No—a little to the left. That's right. The old boy batting at the wicket snicked the ball neatly for a boundary.

It passed within a foot of Edward Albert. Edward Albert neglected the game for a moment or so while he exchanged offensive grimaces with Nuts. Then a ball hit him,. It hit him so hard that for a moment he thought he saw two balls, one at his feet and one running away from him. The College batsmen were running. Look alive. Edward Albert scrabbled at his feet and secured a ball, and with all his soul and strength threw it at the wicket keeper.

It missed him by about a yard and a half, and knocked the bails off the wicket. The bat of the long darkie slid over the creases, five seconds too late. Still Edward Albert did not realise his good fortune. Edward Albert grew an inch or so and forgot that he probably had a bump at the back of his head. Smartest thing you've done for a long time The game was held up for a moment by cries of "Thank you, Sir, Thank you. There it was, quite close to the Umpire's foot. Then there had been a second ball!

The Old Boy picked it up absent-mindedly and sent it soaring home, before retiring to the College outs to brood over his premature dismissal. He had counted on a long and glorious afternoon of free, loose hitting. He was replaced by a small boy who succumbed to the third of what were known as Mr Plipp's "googlies", a curious slow overarm delivery with great hypnotic power over the young. And then came a terrific event.

Mr Plipp told Edward Albert to bowl. He told him to bowl. He held the ball in his hand, looked at it, started, seemed to be struck by some strange idea, and then ordered Edward Albert to bowl. Mr Plipp was a cricket strategist of the most elaborate type, but for him to tell Edward Albert to take the next over strained the faith of his following to near the breaking point.

He instructed his pupil carefully in undertones. Well, give him some of those incalculable grounders of yours. Lob a bit if you like. Don't mind if he swipes you out of bounds once or twice. I know what I'm doing. And, after looking at it again for another reflective moment, he handed the ball to Edward Albert. I want him to hit. Fear and pride mingled in Edward Albert's heart as he handled the ball. As he felt for its creases, he had a curious feeling of unfamiliarity.

This ball was showing signs of wear, he thought But now to bowl, If he aimed about a yard or so to the right he might get the wicket. It often happened like that. He would do that. To begin with he would try one of his short sneakers. It pitched short and rolled slowly towards the wicket The giant, who seemed now ten feet high and broad in proportion, awaited its Doming with some hesitation. It was not the sort of ball he was accustomed to deal with.

He wasn't prepared for anything so feeble. He simply blocked the ball. Our hero resolved to vary his attack. He would send in a few very simple grounders to the giant's leg. One fast and then a slow twister? Down there. Out of his reach, perhaps. The fast one first. Edward Albert put all his strength into it and alas! Up, up, it went—a perfect Yorker.

He'd slog it to—heaven! But the giant, expecting another lob, had been advancing to smite. This strange ball, high in the air, made him hesitate, and, hesitating, he was lost. He remembered what he had to do just half a second too late. He stepped across the pitch and hit hard to leg. The leg bail dropped. Flop, went the ball into Mr Myame's gloves. To Goliath's astonishment, to Edward Albert's astonishment, to everyone's astonishment, the ball had got the leg stump. Butter-fingers had clean bowled Goliath. Clean bowled him, Sir! The rest of the innings was inglorious. Two of the College kids made two runs, and there was a wide, and, strangely enough, Edward Albert was not asked to bowl again.

The back of the defence was broken. Mr Plipp resumed his celebrated googlies and Mr Myame bowled three overs, and the last man was out. The College had been disposed of for twenty-four, eighteen actual runs, a wide, three byes and two no-balls by Mr Myame overrunning the crease. The black and whites went in at last to a possible victory.

This time they just might do it. Plipp displayed an unwonted disposition to slog, scored sixteen, and was caught out by Goliath at long on. Mr Myame compiled a cautious five and was clean bowled by the lean and long Old Boy, who also gave four byes from his bowling. Edward Albert did not actually score a run, but the end of the innings left him in so that he "carried his bat "triumphantly" not out. The school had won by six wickets, and Edward Albert was the hero of the day.

Bert wanted to throw catches to some of the other chaps, but he found Mr Plipp had pocketed the ball. The College retired in good order, discussing the glorious uncertainties of the game, and the victorious school fell into column with the annual match tea currant bread and jam, day-boys invited , enlivening its outlook.

As they left the park a young man in flannels came hurrying after Mr Myame. He produced a nice new red match ball as he spoke, and handed it to the Headmaster. He looked across at the departing College. It was far away and out of earshot. He turned a perplexed and heavy face to Mr Plipp. Mr Plipp took the ball and immediately put it into his pocket, producing another with the greatest promptitude.

I hope this won't upset your game in any way. We didn't notice at first. Just at the end of the game. Mr Myame reflected. There was a pause of several seconds and then he coughed and his hirsute adornments sprang to attention. In the former case we have no right to our victory. No, Sir. None whatever. We have to call this match off as—" he sought for an appropriate phrase—"a non sequitur.

But if, on the other hand, the substitution by the player was pure and honest—and I happen to know this young Tewler as one of the most earnest young Christians in my charge, a veritable Child of God, let alone that he was suffering from considerable pain at the time from die concussion of the ball, then I have no hesitation whatever in saying that not only are we entitled to this match, but that it was meant and intended that we should win this match.

The stars in their courses, if one may put it humbly and reverently, were fighting for us, and it would be sheer ingratitude—ingratitude—to quibble over this victory. The young man regarded Mr Myame with a qualified admiration, "That doesn't leave anything more to be said about it, Sir, does it? Mr Myame and Mr Plipp hurried to overtake their exultant crocodile in a thoughtful silence. There was no reason why they should not talk together, but strangely enough neither of them could think of anything suitable to say. Finally, at the house door Plipp said one word, "Tewler.

Boys who had never had a civil word for Edward Albert Tewler before, could be heard in the dingy passage and schoolroom glorifying and elaborating his achievements—melting up to him! And that is how he became a cricket fan and began to follow the Tests and collect pictures of eminent cricketers and watch matches on every possible occasion. There was hardly any grade of match that he could not watch now with helpful comments. He did not play very much himself because you cannot be too careful about corrupting your style by inferior practice.

But in his reveries, whistling after his fashion, he grew an immense beard—or wore a false beard perhaps—and made W. Grace seem a mere precursor to his own brighter and better batting. Or he returned triumphantly to the pavilion all the other side out for nine , the super-Spofforth of his day, and there among the applauding throng were Bert and Nuts, realising with amazement that this demon bowler was merely another of the endless impersonations of silent Teddy Tewler, their intimate and yet mysterious pal.

And henceforth "playing cricket" became a stock phrase with him, that phrase which still means so much to every Englishman, and which no Englishman can ever quite explain. We have submitted a sample, plucked straight from Regent's Park. A new confidence appeared in his bearing. Hitherto Bert had unquestionably been the leader, but not now. And one day young Horry Budd, who had butted our hero playfully in the back after 'his custom, received the surprise of his life. Hitherto Edward Albert had been indisposed to resent these little attentions. Now suddenly he turned. He smacked Horry's face with extreme viciousness, and smacked again with all his strength.

He overwhelmed Horry with surprise and dismay. Horry was a puncher, and face-smacking was outside his imagination. He had never smacked a face in his life. He howled aloud. The red marks remained for days. SO the child Edward Albert passed on through boyhood, and approached that peculiar reconstruction in the human life-cycle known as adolescence. It is a metamorphosis. The change is indeed not so wide as it is between tadpole and frog, but it is much more marked in man, my zoologist friends tell me, than in most others of the land animals about us.

Your cat, for example, does not undergo anything like the same transformation. It does not suddenly grow hair in unexpected places, change its miaow to a leonine roar, lose its teeth, and get a new set, become spotty and gawky with chemical and nervous uncertainty. Your kitten grows into a cat, "but gradually and gracefully, it is a specialised and completed creature from the moment it opens its eyes on the world, and it has no metamorphosis at all.

But it, is not my fault that you do not know that. I have done my feeble utmost to help in saving you and our world from the dismal mess of antiquated misconception and misrepresentation, self-satisfaction and blank ignorance in which we wallow so tragically to-day. I have fought the academic classical tradition tooth and nail. If the idea of a metamorphosis is a new one to you, you have only those wretched impostors who pretended to educate you to blame. If you find anything perplexing and unusual in what is written here, here and in the first Chapter of Book the Third, ahead of you, it is due to their default.

A few of is who have had the good fortune to get some real education have tried to supplement your possible deficiencies We made you and we have tried in vain to force into school and college use, a group of encyclopaedic books of which The Science of Life is the one most relevant here. You can get it now in a single volume brought up to the date of You ought really to read it all, because you cannot begin to understand our world or face the present gigantic challenges of life without it.

But for our present purposes all I would direct you to consult is a diagram and the accompanying text taken from an article in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society by Dr W. You will find it put as an Appendix at the end of this book. If you look at that and the one that precedes it, condensing what is known about the evolution of the Placental Mammals, you will grasp what I am saying here about a human metamorphosis and what I shall have to say further in Book the Third, about the extreme primitiveness of the Hominida in the scale of being.

Because otherwise you will not realise the extreme primitiveness of Edward Albert in the scale of being. You can supplement Dr Gregory if you like by inspecting a little lemuroid creature, the Spectral Tarsier, Tarsier Spectrum, in any Zoological Garden or collection of stuffed animals. It is an inhabitant of Malaya, and it has something dimly suggestive of our Edward Albert in its look and movements, a small, tailed, nocturnal, furry and rather scared Edward Albert. One of its fossil Eocene cousins, by the by, was so human in its bones that it was christened Tetonius homunculus , the primordial Little Man Strubei.

It is much nearer to your actual ancestor than the black magnificent gorilla, that formidable gentleman.

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It was close to our ancestor and the ancestors of all the monkeys and apes, but while they branched off from our family tree on a line of their own, from which there is no returning, becoming our cousins in various degrees, the Tarsier sub-order, came right on to the Hominids and us.

I shall be sorry if it causes you some trouble to follow me in this. I shall not blame you, but I must condole with you. You are the innocent victim of your upbringing. None of this is digression. I promised to write about Tewler and I write about Tewler now. I have to put him in his place in the universe. Which we share. I will tell, you everything I know about Tewler, I will dissect and demonstrate on the creature, but for the few years of life that remain to me, I will be damned if I write a single propitiatory or mitigated line about our ancestry to please all the Tewlers in the world.

We are a lowly and infantile breed, There is hardly a quadruped in the Zoo that is not more modified, evolved, distinguished and finished than ourselves. Go and look at the grace and finality of a tiger for example, or a gazelle, or a seal As his metamorphosis proceeded, two new sets of problems invaded Edward Albert's mind.

It was borne in upon him that he had to do certain things called earning a living, and simultaneously that complex of impulses, taboos, terrors and repressions, that onset of sex and sex education, which his mother had apprehended so anxiously, gathered about him and closed in upon him. Let us take the simpler issue first. Mixing up the idea of lessons, sufficiently disagreeable in themselves when you still had mother to help you, with earning a living when her help would be no longer available, didn't make the prospect more palatable.

He averted his attention from it as long as he could. George Orwell, an English Trotskyist writer with enormous feet, who fought very valiantly in Spain, recently made a study of the literature consumed by the English and American young at the close of their tadpole days.

Addison Venture’s Travel Log: Entry #31

He produced generalisations about it, which I have partially forgotten, and so I do not think it is any breach of the undertaking I have made to keep ideas completely out of this book, if I refer to one observation of his that has stuck in my mind, because it will be very helpful in framing the adolescence of Edward Albert in its proper setting,.

His point was that, by the showing of this literature, in matters of sex and business alike, either the young American is precocious or the young Briton is retarded. That retardation is not altogether disadvantageous. Because of the postponement of those adult preoccupations the British boys and girls get on with their school work with easier minds, and are found to be sounder and further advanced in their schooling than Americans of the same age.

This cannot be due to any profound difference in race. The blood of the American population is hardly more mongrelised than the British. Then why? I was reflecting on this problem; albeit sternly resolved to put nothing about it into this story, but just for my own amusement, when it dawned upon me that though Edward Albert was born in the back streets of Camden Town in that melting-pot of humanity called London, both his mother and his father had lived, they and their progenitors, in a feudal world, in a feudal world from whose remote interferences the thirteen colonies escaped, finally and emphatically, a century and a half ago.

What would seem strange about him to an American reader is just that difference. I had the clue. Generalisations evaporate at this word and fact resumes its sway. Mrs Tewler's mother was born in the shires, under the shadow of a lord of the manor, and she was brought up, so to speak, bone-feudal. His grandfather had found religion there, but Dickybird had never become a hall member by immersion, and the couple would probably have drifted back to the Anglican Communion if it had not been for his conspicuous inability to "find his place" in his prayer book. She was ashamed of him.

The Baptists were easier. Except for that one touch of dissent, Richard Tewler's tradition was just as feudal as his wife's. His grandfather and his father had both been with Colebrook and Mahogany all their lives, and they would as soon have thought of leaving the Firm, as the Firm would have thought of dismissing them. Colebrook and Mahogany pensioned off their old hands, helped them with their domestic difficulties, took an interest in their children, as a matter of course. Now this feudalism which ramifies to this day through the British social structure and gives its literature and social habits and distinctions that peculiar affectation of high unspoken values which so baffles and irritates Americans, was the underlying cause why our hero, instead of rushing forward, like a young American or a young Jew or a young barbarian, to embrace and wallow in his adolescence, advanced upon it, so to speak back foremost, pretending as far as possible to himself and the world at large that it really wasn't there, and that it was not of the slightest consequence even if it was.

Young Buffin Burleybank, who came into the school as a day boy for one short term until there was a vacancy for him at Mottiscombe, lived in an acquisitive home atmosphere where making money was openly discussed and glorified. He had wonderful stories of "young Harmsworth" and "old Newnes. And the youngster had borrowed a bit of money somehow, started something called Answers, started something else called Comic Cuts, and now was worth a cool million.

Still young and worth a cool million. And Newnes had been just a little obscure country chemist until he read a bit out of a paper and said to his wife, "I call that a regular Tit Bit. And he put a bit of capital into it and here he was 'normously rich. Yes, cars. Put my shirt on them. These motor cars are going big. They cost a lot to make and they're always going to cost a lot to make. You got to have skilled exact workmen, my father says, and those you can't get cheap.

So if the demand grows the price will go up. They've got cars now about as cheap first-hand as ever they're going to be, and what people like doctors and commercial travellers and middle-class people will get will be anything from shop-soiled to tenth-hand. Well, that's a business for you. Growing and growing. You can buy 'em, do 'em up as good as new, sell 'em hire purchase, hire 'em out—In a few years only dukes and earls and millionaires will have the slick new cars.

There won't be one car in ten on the road new. Not one in ten. My father knows all about that. There's a man named Henry Ford and his cars—why they're a joke! They rattle. They're ugly as sin. They fall to pieces. He makes jokes about 'em himself. Then there's these steam cars they have. Kettles on wheels. They blow out in a high wind. My father saw one of them blown out the other day. The car for a man of ordinary means is going to be the second-hand, third-hand, fourth-hand, high grade car, done-up and carefully renewed. There's lots of cars on the road now that will still be on the road in twenty-five years' time.

And that's where little Buffin Burleybank means to come in. That's where we open the oyster. You watch me. Go to Buffin Burleybank for a car. Get his advice. See his selection. His 'normous selection. A Car for Everyman. There's wonderful twists and turns in it. There's such things as vintage years for cars, my father says. J'ever think of that? You got to watch out for everything. You got to keep your eyes skinned. And excited by this home-grown faith in his business ability, he actually started a scheme of his own for buying and selling bicycles right there in the school, that even impressed Mr Myame.

If you bought a single bicycle you were the public and you had to pay full price; the dealer was bound by his contract with the wholesaler not to undersell. But suppose a few of you got together and made yourselves a firm and had an address and business notepaper all proper, then you could order half a dozen machines at trade rates and get them—Buffin was a little vague—twenty-five, thirty-five per cent off.

Which meant, said Buffin, calculating rapidly, you get six at the price of four. For he talked the idea out to Mr Myame after school one day, and Mr Myame was interested and bent his countenance towards him and seemed to half believe in him. So it was that a firm named B. Burleybank and Co. There were complications in the reckoning; the stationery and so forth had to be paid for.

And there was a difficulty he had not anticipated in finding just the particular people in Camden Town who were disposed to buy a bicycle in a hurry at the market rate. He persuaded the newsagent to put one of the unsold machines into the shop, and marked it at a ten per cent reduction as "A bargain. Slightly shop-soiled", but after a couple of days the newsagent insisted upon its removal because customers coming in for papers and cigarettes barked their shins against the treadle and swore something dreadful.

Buffin became almost wistful in his inquiries, 'e You don't happen to know anyone who wants a brand new bicycle in splendid condition at very little over cost price? Intimations of a transitory failure, of a lesson that would finally redound to his credit, came into his speeches. I started undercapitalised. If it wasn't for having to go to Mottiscombe I'd risk it now.

I'd ask for three months' credit on twelve more bicycles, twelve, mind you, hire a shop-window and make a splash. And when the credit was up I'd pay upon what I'd sold and have credit extended for more. They'd do it if I talked to them. I'm getting the hang of it Well, let me tell you a day will come when all you timid snipe will remember how Buffin bought his first experience for forty pounds—maybe it will come to that, s'much as that—bought it for forty pounds and sold it for a million.

Nice 'ole 'e'll be in. Which indeed was precisely what happened. Buffin went off to Mottiscombe and never more did the star of the Burleybanks rise above Edward Albert's horizon. Anything may have happened to them except success. Maybe Burleybank and Son went in too deep for second-hand cars before they heard of the use of gauges in mass production. Edward Albert watched this burst of enterprise with envious disapproval when, first of all, he felt it might succeed, and then with that "told you so" feeling which is one of our subtler pleasures in this vale of tears.

But Mr Myame's transitory appreciation of Buffin's cleverness wounded our hero profoundly. There was an element of worldliness about it. He had expected more other-worldliness from Mr Myame. He anyhow had got out of it very well, he and Nuts It set one thinking. THE feudal framework of Edward Albert's ideas would admit of no gainful enterprises of this kind whatever; His disposition was to do nothing of any sort anywhere until he was told.

Quite time enough then,. You ceased to float dangerously along the stream of life at the very earliest opportunity and struck root. You found where you could get the best pay for the least work—if possible with fixed rises and a pension scheme—and you settled down, trusting, admiring, but at the same time avoiding the humiliating company of your betters as much as possible. You got a nice little household of your own—but of that later. You started a "hobby" to amuse you in your spare time, you watched cricket and played golf, and so backed slowly towards the grave in which you were to bury whatever talent you had ever possessed.

Respectful but irresponsible dependence; "ordering yourself lowly and reverently to all your betters", as the dear old catechism puts it; that was the feudal idea. Before his mother's death, Edward Albert had been induced to contemplate the problem of his social anchorage so far as to listen to a suggestion made by one of her friends that a Gas Works Clerk was one of the soundest possible positions to which a modest young Believer might aspire.

To qualify for such a place in the world, he heard the lady say it was best to go twice a week to the evening classes of the Imperial College of Commercial Science for their Course of Training in Business Methods. They issued certificates of proficiency in all the clerkly arts, pr6cis and book-keeping by single and double entry, commercial arithmetic, mensuration, long hand and shorthand.

Elementary French—not French but Elementary French, whatever that may mean. This training was specially adapted to turning a crude human being into a Gas Works Clerk, and indeed she knew as a fact that the gas works people came to the College and accepted its certificates unquestioningly.

H.G. Wells

The College, according to its copious prospectus, engaged in many other activities, the Lower Division Civil Service, London Matriculation and so on, but it was the Gas Works Clerk, one particular case she had known, that had seized upon the informant's imagination. He was such a nice young man. Edward Albert listened carelessly at first and then attentively, and reflected. The College was situated in Kentish Town; its hoarding made a brave show, and what he saw there was not so much the prospect of gumming himself down firmly as a Gas Works Clerk, as of going in the evening, unwatched and uncontrolled, through the magic of the lit streets to the college.

One could start early and arrive late; he was already an adept in such intercalary freedoms. As well my parents-in-law, Jim and Annette Singletary, who, even in being deprived of the presence of their daughter, continue to support our life and vocation here. We are particularly thankful for the loving relationships our children enjoy with their grandparents, which have been a lifeline for us when we have missed home the most.

To our children, Benjamin and Madelyn, I give my love. Through those two precious souls, in whom I genuinely delight, I am learning much of what is important in human life together. May they grow to find their place in the People of God. To my wife, Elizabeth, I give my love and gratitude for enduring a process that has consumed nine of the eleven years of our marriage, and that has changed both of us in significant and often unexpected ways.

She agreed in our first year to my leaving secure and lucrative employment in order to follow a better calling, and she has all along held us together with her even temperament and grace under pressure, her patient love, and her very hard work. I am, and will always be, a better person because of her. Finally, I give thanks to the Triune God, who while redeeming and sustaining the cosmos, has condescended to carry on to eventual completion a work in me that is very much still in process.

I do not merely thank him for carrying us this far, but I submit this small work to him as what I pray is an acceptable sacrifice, which, if not for our Lord and his Kingdom, is nothing. Bell, Jr……………………………………………………………….. Smith and Ethnosymbolism……………………………………….. Murphy and the American Jeremiad………………………………………. As such, Christian salvation history necessarily implies what could be called a theopolitical ecclesiology, an ecclesiology that entails particular understandings of ecclesial identity and mission.

Yet it is also understood that other salvation histories are operative in the world, complete with their own communal manifestations, their own political embodiments, which often vie with the church for a claim on human life and meaning. The challenge for the church in this regard is to be able to identify and evaluate these narratives, their attendant political embodiments, and the degree to which the church itself perpetuates a competing gospel.

Christ is portrayed as a Caucasian dressed in a white robe underneath an open golden robe. Behind Christ stands an array of figures from American history, and behind them, the United States Capitol and Supreme Court buildings, as well as the U. Martin Luther King, Jr. The devil himself lurks in the dark background of this group. What is so telling about this is the way the images interweave the biblical narrative with the American national narrative. Indeed, the painting, which the artist says he 2 According to the artist, he had originally painted the historical King but had to change it due to copyright issues with the King Foundation.

The nation is in crisis, divided between those who would direct America according to their own interests and aggrandizement and those who would sacrifice for its safeguarding as a special nation, ordained to greatness if only it is faithful to its providential founding. To be faithful to Christ is to be faithful to America.

The McNaughton painting is a particularly vivid example of an important challenge to a robust ecclesial identity today, namely nationalism. Politics is understood in this study as the processes by which members of a given community understand how their community is to be defined and how their communal life is to be ordered, as well as how they work out that understanding in practice. Insofar as nationalism entails the fusion of the political with the theological, it constitutes a theopolitical project of identity formation.

I even had the name of the painting come to my mind. It hit me so hard that I knew I was supposed to paint it. I knew it would be one of the most difficult images I had ever endeavored to paint, but that it would be well worth it. Considering the time in which we live, I felt it definitely needed to be painted. This is the purview of nationalism, a movement often distinct from the state and pursuing a particular communal embodiment of national identity. Nationalism is of crucial importance for theopolitics, for in many cases the nationalist narrative vies with the Christian gospel, resulting in a heavily syncretized and problematic theopolitical identity.

Given the attention paid to nationalism by ecumenical ecclesial documents in recent years, 7 such a phenomenon requires explicit treatment. Barrington, ed. Cavanaugh and containing chapters by Stanley Hauerwas and a number of his students. Cavanaugh, eds. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, In the first chapter, I review existing theopolitical scholarship in order to discern the state of the question and to set the stage for the subsequent theological analysis of nationalism.

It should be made clear that the scholarship discussed in Chapter 1 is not the main problem at the heart of this study, but rather American Christian nationalism. However, in examining the shortcomings of the literature in this regard—literature, which by its insightful nature and interests, one would expect to take up nationalism more explicitly—I am able to establish a framework in which to operate. To that end, I examine its treatments of the contemporary challenges to ecclesial identity, which either rightly note the importance of distorted identity emanating from within the church but leave their treatment of nationalism underdeveloped, or which locate those challenges in phenomena of modernity, particularly the modern state and capitalism.

I also discuss how any adequate response to nationalism must include a robust treatment of biblical theopolitics, animated by explicit and thoroughgoing attention to the theopolitics of biblical Israel as normative for the church. This, too, I find largely absent or underdeveloped in theopolitical scholarship. In order to supplement this scholarship, I attend first to the question of nationalism in Chapters 2 and 3.

In Chapter 2, I survey theoretical scholarship in the area, with a view toward the instigators of nationalist movements, and especially the ways in which they construct national identity by appropriating and reinterpreting elements of existing traditions and narratives of identity. Cavanaugh, who I believe has appropriated the wrong side of the nationalism scholarly debate in his own understanding of state behavior.

This side portrays national identity as purely fabricated by state elites for the purpose of social cohesion under their regime; while this undoubtedly occurs in some instances, in others, national identity is being formulated by non-state elites using existing elements and narratives of identity and revising them to suit their agendas.

To demonstrate this, Chapter 3 discusses the relationship between religion and nationalism, including the historic interaction between nationalism and Christianity in the West. Appropriating the work of several nationalism scholars in what I view as increasing levels of depth, I show how theopolitical Christian nationalism really is, in that it ultimately requires the deliberate task of interpreting the Christian scriptures and intellectual tradition in such a way as to theologically underwrite a particular conception of national identity.

This process interweaves the theological narratives with the national so as to present identification with the nation as part and parcel of Christian faithfulness. However, I also point out that the existing nationalism scholarship itself fails to take adequate regard for the theological moves involved in such a project. To attend to this problem, as well as to provide a theological criterion of evaluation for the empirical studies of recent American Christian nationalism in Chapters 6 and 7, I provide in Chapters 4 and 5 a constructive biblical theopolitics.

Chapter 4 takes up the theopolitics of biblical Israel as related in the Old Testament. The promise of a people is made by God to Abraham near the beginning of the narrative, but the reader soon finds that people in bondage. However, the people fails to stay true to its divinely ordered life and chooses instead to conform to the ways of its neighbors.


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It is indicted by the prophets for its departure from covenant, and falls under judgment. However, always in view is its restoration, which will be made real in the one person who will be Israel as God meant Israel to be. He is the Messiah, and he inaugurates a new age wherein he establishes the church, as engrafted onto Israel, to be the communal embodiment of covenant fulfillment, as well as the form and manner—animated by the Holy Spirit—of the opening of Israel to the rest of the world.

This is the subject of Chapter 5, which examines the linkages between Israel and the church via Jesus Christ and determines that the character of the theopolitics of Israel is normative for the church, and is also singularly carried forth in the church throughout the Messianic Age. Christian nationalism in any form, then, directly challenges ecclesial identity.

Chapters 6 and 7 examine concrete instances of this very problem. This fused narrative, which the movement then seeks to institutionalize in American politics for the sake of cultural renewal, fits well into the theoretical framework supplied by nationalism scholarship, which means that as Christian Right nationalists seek to authenticate their vision of American national identity as the national identity, they simultaneously distort the Christian biblical and theological traditions on which they rely for narrative content as well as for popular support.

In the end, their nationalist narrative supplants the church with America, redefining for millions of Christians their primary community of theopolitical identity. Chapter 7 takes on the ideas of two American political theologians who undertake more sophisticated projects of interweaving the Christian biblical and theological traditions with the American national narrative.

I therefore examine their accounts and critique them both for their internal inconsistencies as well as their aberration from the biblical theopolitics presented in Chapters 4 and 5. This study is clearly interdisciplinary, as demonstrated by its engagement with social- scientific and historical scholarship on nationalism.

However, this project is primarily a theological endeavor: I engage what I perceive as a prominent challenge to the faithfulness of the church in our contemporary context, and I aim to address that challenge via a theological appropriation of the Christian scriptures, one that I hope is faithful both to the biblical narrative and to the church that claims—and is claimed by—that narrative.

With much appreciation, I leave it to the reader to discern to what extent this endeavor has been successful. While specific approaches vary, this scholarship typically examines the roots of these phenomena in modernity, identifying soteriologies at work within them that contend with, and ultimately amount to simulacra of, the Christian salvation narrative.

In response, the scholarship proposes a reorientation of Christian allegiances via a renewal of ecclesial identity, usually in the form of a recovery of traditional Christian beliefs and practices that would resist and ultimately subvert contemporary politics and economics by embodying an alternative as normed by the Gospel.

In view of their work, it would seem that nationalism would be at the forefront of their concerns, a distinct subject of robust theological analysis and evaluation. Yet all too often, these scholars simply subsume nationalism under the modern state, without accounting for it as a distinct phenomenon, many of its manifestations independent of state agendas and activities, or even contrary to state interests.

They not only provide an empirically untenable portrayal of nationalism, but in doing so, they inadvertently obscure or even preclude the key problem of nationalist discourse and practice emanating from within the church itself. Additionally, the potential response of theopolitical scholarship to the problem of nationalism is hampered by an inadequate account, to greater or lesser degrees, of the importance of biblical theopolitics—particularly that of Israel—for ecclesiology.

Often, biblical Israel is neglected or inadequately appropriated as a model for the church. I will show that while this scholarship is robust and helpful in important ways, it ultimately fails to properly understand the problem of nationalism or to deal with nationalism effectively as it effectively alters Christian identity and mission. This is in great part because no theological approach can adequately address such challenges to ecclesial identity without accounting for the interweaving of narratives, in this case biblical and national.

Yet such interweaving receives little to no attention in the work of these scholars, and as such, represents a lacuna in their theopolitical approaches. This chapter thus identifies the current state of the problem and lays the groundwork for the chapters to follow, in which I will present a discussion of nationalism scholarship and the importance of accounting for nationalism in relation to specific elements of the Christian theological tradition, followed by an account of a robust ecclesial theopolitics located in the biblical narrative. What is offered in this project is by no means a repudiation of the theopolitical scholarship discussed here; rather, it is a supplement, intended to address perceived deficiencies toward the advancement of their theopolitical project as a whole.

Nationalism as a Challenge to Ecclesial Identity This section surveys the work of prominent thinkers in theopolitical scholarship to take stock of their understanding of contemporary challenges to ecclesial identity, with special attention whether and how nationalism figures into their schemas. While I am in agreement with the vast majority of their thought, I will show that they fail to give the challenge of nationalism proper attention, and that this failure renders their approaches inadequate where it comes to diagnosing the habits of thought and practice that give way to altered ecclesial identity today.

Huebner, Harry J. Huebner, and Mark Thiessen Nation, eds. Eerdmans Publishing Company, , n. This is most typically accomplished by acquiring a stake in the powers-that-be, by positioning itself as their indispensible support. After Constantine, one had to believe without seeing that there was a community of believers, within the larger nominally Christian mass, but one knew for a fact that God was in control of history.

Oxford: Clarendon Press, , Again, Yoder sees Constantinianism primarily as a type of problem, symbolic of a particular theopolitical move. A literal example of this today is promotional material for the military chaplaincy. Qualified and sent by their religious bodies, trained by the U.

Here, the church serves as an auxiliary of the state, assisting state functions and making them more spiritually palatable, helping to spiritually prepare members of the military to serve the interests of the state. They reciprocate by assuring the powers that be of divine blessings in general and by reminding them occasionally of divine imperatives.

Eerdmans, , , 42 n. It is rather that our readiness to renounce our legitimate ends whenever they cannot be attained by legitimate means itself constitutes our participation in the triumphant suffering of the Lamb. I think he is right to perceive this as a central challenge to ecclesial identity, a challenge which too often has less to do with co-option from without than with idolatry from within. However, he seems to take for granted that even in situations of abuse, the right desire is always present, just pursued wrongly.

This misses the fact that in some contexts and concerning certain phenomena, even desire and the conception of the end in question is fundamentally distorted. Thus, it is not enough in those situations to merely correct the ethics of the pursuit of shalom, as Schlabach suggests, but to challenge the very conception of it. This may well entail a sharper critique than Schlabach suggests. His discussion of political identity occurs firmly within the context of the state, without regard to the nation as a potentially distinct field of political claims and activities.

What is nation? How is the national form of polity, or even of the state, 16 Ibid. We love because God first loved us. Prophets, too, need pastors. Do we miss something by concentrating primarily or even solely on the civil order? It is not merely the civil community and its institutions of coercive power that are at issue; it is also, and in many case far more importantly, the national community and its claims on the communal identity of Christians residing within it that challenge ecclesial identity and faithfulness to the Gospel.

As such, a more thoroughgoing engagement with those claims—and particularly with how they are interwoven with existing Christian claims in order to reorient Christian loyalties—must be undertaken. The primary subject of Christian ethics in America has been America. Such acts are dynamically responsive to a world that always exceeds our terms and settled institutional forms. Such scholarship has shown that democracies are, in fact, more prone statistically to exercise force against non-democracies than are non-democracies against each other.

Both the political left and right in the United States share a commitment to civil religion. Eerdmans, , Quoted from Robert Bellah et al. It is difficult to miss the eschatological overtones of this statement. Jerald Brauer Philadelphia: Fortress Press, , I affirm his moves to at least partially locate the agency of this problem within the church, though I think he does so less centrally than Yoder, attributing the problem also to liberalism and the modern state. While, like Yoder, his work tends to stay within the confines of the state, he does at least mention the notion of societal ethos, which can be related to nation and nationalism with further elaboration.

Quotations from Yoder, Priestly Kingdom, Put differently, we can grant that such an ethic is problematic and contradictory to the Gospel, but we must ask how or why such an ethic is even possible. Addressing this question necessitates both a robust biblical theopolitics of Israel and the church from both testaments, as well as an examination of the identity-forming processes going on in various political contexts.

It is particularly on this point of identity formation that nation and nationalism must be taken into consideration. For instance, it could be argued the primary problem for ecclesial identity in the United States is not so much that America will be considered Christian because it is democratic, but rather because it is thought to be elect of God, the New Israel. Where America is considered a Christian nation, it is so primarily in terms of divine election to a particular mission, the latter which is often interpreted to entail a certain state form.

Liberal democracy as a form of government is thus conceived as a function of its mission, not its election; that is, America is not Christian because it is democratic, but rather democratic because it is Christian. Thus, its supposed identity as a Christian nation must be rooted elsewhere, and I believe this is only discernible by a systematic treatment of American Christian nationalism.

Daniel M. Bell, Jr. For this reason, James K. Despite its various mutations through the centuries, however, the state has been 38 Daniel M. The present study does not address that argument per se, but focuses rather on the notion of capitalism as primary contender with the church for Christian theopolitical identity. They organize the social basis of production and prepare it for insertion into the worldwide capitalist machine….

The capitalist machine also reterritorializes desire: it subjects desire to the governing principle of market production. In this process capitalism relies on the state-form to prepare desire for participation in the capitalist order. It does not create the monetary form of the tax without flows of money escaping, nourishing or bringing into being other powers notably in commerce and banking. This development is combined with a complex system of self-discipline wherein the body politic is trained to surveil itself Liberalism does not juxtapose government and freedom.

Rather, liberal government is government through freedom. It has subsumed society; it has become social. Christianity is the true politics, the true polity, over against the agony of capitalist discipline, in the Augustinian sense that the Church embodies the true form of human social, political, and economic organization because its order is one of liturgy, of worship of the triune God. Yet, of the scholars discussed in this chapter, I believe Bell is least able to sufficiently account for the problems of nation and nationalism, due in no small part to a sort of economic determinism at work in his thought.

Bell is convinced that capitalism has triumphed in a totalistic way. Yet, how can capitalism be said to have so completely and successfully deterritorialized and reterritorialized identity for market production when states around the globe are riven by ethnic and nationalist violence—which by definition is tied to competing claims to territory—or when nationalist movements for cultural renewal span racial and socio-economic divides? To the degree that this counter-claim is accurate, then new possibilities of political identity formation open up and must be accounted for theologically.

Conversely, it could be that challenges to biblical theopolitics and ecclesial identity yet arise elsewhere. Cavanaugh William Cavanaugh presents one of the most thoroughgoing accounts of Christian theopolitics in contemporary scholarship. By his telling, modernity—particularly the modern state and its theoretical proponents—presents the greatest challenge to an orthodox ecclesial identity.

It does so by conveying an alternative salvation history, of which the modern state is the definitive political embodiment. This salvation narrative contends against that proclaimed by the church, and the church ends up domesticated, reduced to the oversight of the interior dispositions of individual souls. Of the scholars discussed in this chapter, Cavanaugh provides the most direct treatment of the phenomenon of nationalism, as well as the only direct engagement with the interdisciplinary field of nationalism scholarship.

He therefore warrants more extended discussion. For Cavanaugh, the chief challenge to proper ecclesial identity is modernity, and in particular the modern state and its theoretical justification. Modernity, he argues, assumes the separation of theology and politics as proper, with politics residing in a different autonomous space from that of the church. The church must therefore approach politics indirectly and from a distance.

Cavanaugh undertakes a thoroughgoing critique of this modern narrative throughout his work, most recently and comprehensively in his book, The Myth of Religious Violence. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, , This source provides the bulk of information for this discussion of Cavanaugh, given that it incorporates much of his previous work on the salvation narrative of modern liberalism. Integrated into early modern political philosophy, religion is primarily state of mind, something that cannot be enforced by civil authority or force. It is distinct and separate from the activities of the body.

For example, John Locke propagates a division of labor between the public interests of the state and the private interests of the church, a line which neither must cross in order to secure civil harmony. Violence is the purview of the state, rather than the church, the latter which constitutes a voluntary society of persons rooted in their interior religious dispositions. For Augustine, religio meant worship; true religio was worship of God as revealed in Jesus Christ, while false religio was directed to elements of creation.

This religio is not contrasted with some sort of secular realm free from it; religio cannot be compartmentalized from the rest of life, but rather, the rest of life put in proper order and relation to the Creator constitutes its true form With Thomas Aquinas, religio is a virtue, a habit cultivated by repeated practice.

It is a habit which brings the person to participate in the life of the Trinity, in both body and soul, in both private and public dimensions alike. Discussing Thomas Hobbes, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Locke, and others, Cavanaugh explains how a transnational church becomes for them a threat to state unity. He challenges the narratives put forward by contemporary political theorists such as Jeffrey Stout, Judith Shklar, and John Rawls, in which liberalism arises to save humanity from the ravages of religious strife.

The real conflict in modern political history has not been, as is so often stated, between State and individual, but between State and social group. See Cavanaugh, Torture and Eucharist. Quotations from pp. Cavanaugh tests various substantivist and functionalist accounts of religion, preferring the functionalist but finding them both ultimately inadequate.

The functionalist approach, looking at how a belief system works—i. Moreover, functionalist approaches, like substantivist, consider religion to be a universal phenomenon, both transhistorical and transcultural. That said, functionalist studies have demonstrated the many ways in which practices such as nationalism or civil religion qualify as religion by means of their exclusivity, their symbols, and their practices that can quite easily be characterized as liturgical.

In so doing, they have demonstrated the questionable and arbitrary nature of the religious-secular distinction. See pp. In short, the myth of religious violence operates as part of Western folklore. Rather than merely relating history, it actually authorizes certain configurations of power. And it is quite theological, underwriting a distinct salvation narrative. Cavanaugh then examines the historical record and finds a plethora of examples of combatants opposed to each other militarily, who in fact shared a commitment to the same doctrines; conversely, he finds numerous examples of allies committed to disparate doctrinal positions or traditions.

The fact that these examples are frequent and widespread indicates that religion could not have been the primary casus belli, in which case these could not qualify as religious conflicts This negates the first two components of the myth. Cavanaugh challenges the third component by pointing out the anachronism of reading the modern distinction between religious and secular onto historical figures who would have made no such distinction.

This distinction more often than not involves seeing society as basic and religion as a sort of secondary, and often less than rational, interpretation of the social, subsequently imposed upon it. Yet as other scholars have shown, once religion was isolated, no society remained in sixteenth century thought. For an in-depth discussion of the Eucharist as solution to the state project of globalization, see Cavanaugh, Theopolitical Imagination, especially Chapters 5 and 6.

I find his narrative convincing by and large, and I believe he successfully debunks certain significant liberal readings of history and politics since the Middle Ages. Cavanaugh has certainly informed my own thinking as much as any other theopolitical scholar. However, it is in the specific matter of nationalism where I must challenge his schema.

Nations most commonly entail some sort of shared ethnicity, language, or history, but these are themselves constructed. For his understanding of the theopolitics of the Eucharist, Cavanaugh draws upon the ressourcement work of Henri de Lubac to demonstrate how Eucharistic theology has changed over the centuries, resulting in a depoliticization of the church.

This mistaken inversion contributed to the idea that state and church, instead of occupying two different times, the temporal and the eternal respectively, actually occupied two different spaces or jurisdictions , Granting that elements such as ethnicity whether biological or cultural , language, and history are constructed, is he really claiming these only come about in the modern period, invented from scratch without so much as a premodern precedent?

That would be an absurd claim of utter discontinuity between premodern and modern periods, which is empirically untenable. In particular, the ethnosymbolist approach of Anthony D. Smith has demonstrated, contra modernist claims, that nationalists have limited options when it comes to crafting their message; they must, in fact, work within already existing parameters in order to effectively galvanize a populace behind a given conception of national identity.

For Smith, authentication is what enables nationalists to present a convincing national narrative to their compatriots and to outsiders. This is, to greater or lesser degrees depending on the case, a constructive process, and one which 81 If salvation histories can be found throughout various historical epochs, and if they necessarily entail a politics, then such politics is a recurrent phenomenon, not merely a modern innovation. Additionally, not attending to the substantive critiques of the modernist nationalism scholars Cavanaugh cites allows him to overlook some potentially problematic aspects of their own approaches.

For example, while Anderson emphasizes the role of modern capitalism and publishing in solidifying written vernaculars, which then solidifies national identities, Adrian Hastings points out that he completely neglects the centrality of the Bible in cultivating European nationalism from the late Middle Ages on; and indeed, it was not merely the biblical text itself, but clerical instruction in those texts that contributed.

Hobsbawm does state that the nationalist message must be on a wavelength that will resonate with the people hearing it, but as Smith points out, Hobsbawm fails to explain how such a wavelength arises if there are not preexisting elements of national identity and culture—in short, inherited traditions—to which the nationalist can refer. If we do not assume that nationalists and peoples alike are initially blank slates, then a Christian nationalism, for instance, must replace some pre-existing—perhaps more orthodox— theological understanding.

Such an understanding must be there for Christian nationalism to have any traction, and there must be some sort of theological realignment going on in the process of its reception. Neither Cavanaugh nor his sources account for this. Smith also criticizes Hobsbawm for his portrayal of the people or masses as essentially passive, receiving in an unquestioned or unqualified manner whatever discourse nationalists—or, for Cavanaugh, the state—wishes to utter. Not only does this ignore the nuances of public reception and agency, it also ignores the fact that not all nationalist movements are successful, including state nationalisms.

See Bell, Martin, Huck Gutman, and Patrick H. This is, after all, how the religious-secular distinction actually enables the rise of the state: private loyalty to God is separated from public loyalty to the state. Yet with regard to nationalism, this fails to acknowledge the fact that in many cases, nationalist movements do not consider religion to be transhistorical or private at all. But how can religion in this type of nationalism be considered transhistorical and transcultural?

Rather, the identity, mission, and destiny of the nation are actually being syncretized with specific features of a particular faith, that is to say, with quite particular historical and cultural narratives and features. In fact, it is the narratives of two peoples being fused together that marks this still prevalent form of nationalism.

Thomas Law Journal 3, no. Webb, who combines evangelism of the gospel with evangelism of American freedoms. This breeds a certain alarming evangelization- through-violence: regarding Muslims, for instance, Webb suggests that they can be forced militarily into democratic political arrangements so that they may subsequently choose freely to accept Christianity. What is important here is to note that what Cavanaugh critiques Webb for is actually a type of nationalist discourse. Rather, it is a message crafted from within Christian theology deliberately tying the American national narrative to a pre-existing national narrative, that of biblical Israel.

This means nationalism can take the form of a non-state, Christian theopolitical project, to greater or lesser degrees of sophistication and formality; the implications of this for ecclesial identity are potentially significant and therefore require more sustained, systematic treatment. Salvation History and Biblical Theopolitics For each of the following scholars, the salvation narrative of the Christian tradition is fundamental to ecclesial identity and practice.

In all cases, it significantly marks, if not drives, their conceptions of the church as political community. Part and parcel of these conceptions is their respective appropriations of the biblical narrative, which plays an important role for each scholar, but informs their work in somewhat different ways.

The responsibility of the church, then, is to refrain from being seduced by them, i. I do not find these positions to be mutually exclusive as Yoder seems to here. This reorders social relations, extending the sharing of the common table into all areas of socio-economic interaction. All together, these insights clearly place the church at the center of Christian theopolitical identity. Yoder also draws on certain elements of the Old Testament narrative for understanding how the church should approach its mission. No special hierarchy or liturgy is necessary; the texts ground worship, and ordinary, daily practices hold the community together.

Cartwright and Peter Ochs, eds. This is discussed by Yoder himself on p. McKie appears to turns things around to blame the Dad. Tells him to take a different approach.

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Bundy wanted these documents to be seen. He wanted to prove that Social services is not doing its job and needs an honest, genuine shake-up and change, not just fluffy talk and pretend. Especially share this last audio, the longest one. It really shows the attitude of tribal social services and the BIA. Senator Hoeven and Rep. Now we need to know now what they are going to do to push for genuine change in tribal social services.

We want the people of Spirit Lake to finally get some honest respect and real action. So please call their offices and ask them what is going to be done to change tribal social services.

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Be persistent. Cramer was very good to call the BIA on the carpet in June. His office actually asked Bundy to testify at the hearing that month, but Bundy was nervous about the Custody battle and thought the tribal government might use his kids against him if he did that. That was very understandable — as many of us have seen that kind of thing happen. We are very grateful to Rep. He has been a hero doing things others have been too afraid to.

We want to know what Rep. Sage was 4-years-old and one of the first children to be hurt by the Indian Child Welfare Act in She was 6-years when she and the family she loved went on the run to protect her from the law that intended to force to live with an abusive birth parent. She was 13 when she was finally forcibly taken from her family to be placed on the reservation with the birth mother who had almost killed her. She tells her story of going on the run with her chosen parents, her trauma of being taken from them, and ultimate relief when she was finally released from the reservation and allowed to return home.

To this day, thirty-some years later, she is upset by what the government and ICWA put her through. I keep telling him that it seems like something is broken inside of him how he just shuts down and stops thinking or caring about what he is doing. Especially when it comes to gambling and money issues that he tries to hide from me….

They are prone to doing what pleasures them most at the moment, without the ability to see outcomes. When he gets caught, it is like a deer in the headlights. So he lies in the hope of getting out of trouble. Yes — like a child. He craves pleasure. The FAS plus the way he was raised leads him to think that he needs and deserves constant pleasure.

But God knew all this when he created him. And God has also put something very special and beautiful in him. A skill or characteristic. You probably already have a feeling for what it is. As his wife, you can nurture that special thing and help him to grow and walk in it. We are all so much more content and fulfilled when walking in the gifts and purpose God has given us. I just wanted to thank you from the bottom of my heart for sharing this with me. For the last years of my life with my husband, I have been guilty of emotionally abusing him in order to get him to change and realize how his behavior is hurting us all, never fully realizing that it was a physical impossibility for him to change.

Whenever I would try and confront him he would shut down and not respond, he would withdraw and literally fall asleep and the more mad I got the more he would explode in a rage, destroying anything and everything that got in his way. I always knew there was something mentally broken inside of him but no one ever confirmed with me what I was seeing …It really is heartbreaking looking back at all the years and the misery we have been through because I was trying to get him to change. I think this is why God protects my husband so much from all the mistakes his makes also because God knows my husband is trying the best he can with what he has.

He tried to do good but it seems impossible for him at times to make the right decisions and force himself to do what is right. I just wish I had known somewhat when I met him at 14 years old, but how could I have? I know I have done a lot to really screw things up for us… the great thing is, that his mother has always been there to help us, especially her son, no matter what it is, whether it be food, money, clothes, taking garbage to the dump, running errands….

God bless you. Thank you sooooo much for taking the time to write me and help me see things a little bit clearer. I just wish I had understood a lot about FAS during our more difficult years. It is only now, with the stress of all of it gone, that I can see their hearts better. I was just wondering if you could please share with me the prayer you said you were told to pray for your family. I would like to make it my personal prayer along with so much forgiveness for how insensitive I have been towards my husband and his mother over the years. It was a very simple prayer. All Scotty Butterfly told me to do was to ask Jesus to save my family — and then immediately thank Jesus for having done so.

We realize his limitations, but we still need him to become better at things. We do need to explain truth, but in a gentle way. Understanding his need for entertainment and pleasure, we can look for healthier ways he can achieve that. We can look for fun things to do as a family — picnics, fishing, camping, etc. Is he a craftsman? An artist? A hunter? A musician? A mechanic? A good listener? We can help him feel good about himself and his family life so he has pleasure in being with and doing well for his family.

Pour it on about every manly thing you enjoy. Also, the Bible has some interesting advice for husbands and wives. It tells us to honor them. Interesting difference. Perhaps the Bible is giving us encouragement in the areas we are generally weakest? Men need to be reminded to show love to their wives, as their wives hunger for that more than anything. Women, on the other hand, generally love their husbands, but struggle with honoring them — something men have a deep need for.

It is true that our husbands have shortcomings. WE are usually the first to point that out But God is the one who knit them together in the womb, even while knowing their mother was drinking. People hurt each other in all kinds of way, in all stages of life. But God still has a purpose for and a gift in every child. Kind of like the Snow White story. The evil witch cast a curse, and the good fairy came behind and altered it. God a whole lot better than a silly fairytale witch has a special gift in everyone. Praise God my husband found his purpose — things of God that gave him true pleasure — and walked in it.

Yours will, too.


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ONE other thing I might note… for a long time, in our early years in the church, I resented what I saw as weakness in him. Finally someone told me… those men have always been in the church. They were raised in the church and their father was a pastor, etc… They have had their entire lives to walk toward the line of perfection.

Now look at your husband. He came out of the gutter. He has come ten times farther than any of those other men in just the short time he has been walking with the Lord. Think about that. He might still be way behind those other men, but look how incredibly far he has come. He has traversed things those other men have no clue about.

What a Godsend those words were. They turned my entire perspective around. It was the beginning of my appreciation for him. Finally, after more than two years, 13 Mandated Reports and numerous emails to ACF leadership about the lack of safety for Spirit Lake kids, someone, other than me, is saying safety of children is of concern. Of course that contradicts an exchange I had with Mr.

I guess the leadership of ACF never has to explain their position nor apologize when that position is proven wrong. If the BIA had addressed the safety checks prior to placement, Laurynn Whiteshield would be alive today, soon to celebrate her fourth birthday with her twin sister, Michaela. Instead she has been in the ground for more than a year, dead at the hands of her step-grandmother, who, it was well-known by most families on Spirit Lake, beat and abused her own children so badly they were removed from her home.

At the Subcommittee Hearing Ms. That means that after 13 Mandated Reports, numerous detailed, factual emails about continuing abuse of children at Spirit Lake, 21 months after the BIA Strike Team arrived with much fanfare and ten months after Chairman McDonald was elected Chair there are still more kids unaccounted for than accounted for.

How many of these unaccounted for children have been trafficked into the man camps of the Bakken oil fields, just a few hours down the road from Spirit Lake? When asked a question about how often I had been at Spirit Lake, Ms. Chang seemed eager to offer her lying answer, saying that I had never been there, giving the impression we had discussed that question just the night before.

Chang has never sought me out to ask me any question of any kind. Why would a woman of her stature lie so blatantly about me? Was she seeking to tarnish my reputation? I have been to Spirit Lake three or four times in the last four years. Prior to that time each year I routinely met a couple of times a year in Bismarck with all of the child welfare directors from the four North Dakota reservations. I attended their meetings, spoke when asked and sought to assist them to develop more productive relationships with state human services staff to assist them in reducing their caseloads per worker to the levels prevalent in the majority community.

Thomas F. Chairman Don Young, Congressman Kevin Cramer, and other distinguished committee members, I want to thank you for this opportunity to address child protection and the justice system on the Spirit Lake Reservation. My name is Elizabeth Sharon Morris. I am the widow of Roland John Morris, a U. I am the birth mother, grandmother, foster and adoptive mother to several enrolled or eligible members, and an aunt and sister-in-law to dozens. I was an accepted ICWA home for seventeen years. I am also the Chairwoman of the Christian Alliance for Indian Child Welfare, a national non-profit founded by my husband and myself in Our interest in Spirit Lake stems from not only having been contacted by several Spirit Lake residents asking for our help and prayers, but from a very personal level as well.

Violent crime goes often unreported, or when it is reported, nothing is done. We look forward to and request an investigation into the real facts. The family talk is that Jr. The two started physically fighting in the field, and family members report that Jr. It is unclear whether it was his Dad or uncle who shot him. Some might say that Jr. Prosecutors said the case was important not only because of its size, but because the racketeering charge is rarely used against gangs.

It is made up of mostly American Indian men and boys, and started in Minneapolis in the s as members fought for turf to deal drugs.


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The Native Mob is also active in prison. Authorities said McArthur would direct other members to carry out beatings, shootings and other violent acts to intimidate rivals. As far as the Leech Lake family knows, nothing has happened since. It is these very organizations that, in our experience, are a huge part of the problem in Indian Country as they continually infer that leaving children in dangerous homes on the reservation rather than providing them with safety and stability is not only better for the children — but somehow an inherent need.

They advocate leaving defenseless children in dangerous situations, arguing that only tribal government truly knows what they need and can care for them. They have convinced society that interference is akin to child abuse on the rescuers part — and possibly even a form of genocide. This argument is made even if the tribal government does not have a working system to care for the children.

This argument is made so often and so forcefully that it is believed, even as real evidence shows to the contrary. The study referred to by Mr. Rushing and Mr. Moddelmog, just as with a NPR series purporting to investigate ICWA abuse Ombudsman, , was seriously flawed and came to extremely questionable conclusions.

Interestingly, without any concern for psychological effect, ICWA is frequently used to remove children from non-Indian homes that better reflect the cultural heritage they are most comfortable with ethnicity does not determine cultural heritage than a home on the reservation. Morris, That statement is not only offensive and insulting, but untrue. Again, as a mother and representative of many families, I can attest that most of the children we are connected to would prefer a bed over a floor. Further, these children were fostered due to abuse, neglect, or abandonment. Many suffer with fetal alcohol related issues.

How can one assume the sole reason for struggle is due to non-native homes? This line of reasoning appears to be believed even as it flies in the face of common sense. There is factually no DNA to make children need a particular heritage or upbringing. In fact, the Human Genome Project has proven that no separate classifiable subspecies race exists within modern humans. In other words, there is no genetic racial difference between a person of Indian heritage and a person of English heritage. There exists only familial genes for facial structure, hair texture, eye color, and similar individual traits.

This means it impossible for any entity to know the emotions and needs of a child if they do not have active knowledge of or relationship with that particular child. This is far more important than understanding the customs of a particular tribe. To believe that one group of children is inherently more comfortable with and accepting of less safety and security than any other group of children is the epitome of racism.

Believing such things might make it easier for federal government officials to deal with the human crisis on many reservations, but it is not unlike the degrading claims made against persons of Jewish heritage as part of Nazi rationale for putting them in slums.

It is shocking that these unfounded assertions are coming from tribal leaders and their supporters — the very people who claim to represent the best interest of U. This is a huge disservice to the well-being of children — including my own and those we represent — who are individuals, not tribal assets, and who have their own voices, feelings, thoughts, goals, motivations and needs — none of which appear to be described accurately by these entities. As the birth mother to several children of heritage, I strongly attest that my children have needed and thrived on safety, stability, and love.

Like most people, they have had some interest in the various heritages of ancestors, but there has been no inherent need to be raised within Native American culture any more than that of their German Jewish or Irish Catholic heritages. As the chairwoman of an organization representing families across the country — I attest the same for the families we represent. Safety, security and love are the vital needs of their children. Former ND Lt. Omdahl, The child was forced to stay there about 6 months before he was moved somewhere else.

Belford, 2. Within three weeks, the oldest was permanently brain damaged from being beaten. Smart, 3. Tevlin, Quoting Mr. Further, casino money on reservation land is more profitable, and money can be made with drugs on the reservation. As these criminal elements moved in, many non-criminal tribal members have purposefully taken their families and moved out.

According to the last two U. The lack of safe homes of relatives is what brings tribal governments to make placement in the homes of unsafe relatives. The almost 40 children returned to on-reservation placements in abusive homes, many headed by known sex offenders, at the direction of the Tribal Chair. These children remain in the full time care and custody of sexual predators available to be raped on a daily basis.