Olhares Cruzados, Piore, Michael and Sabel, Charles F. Radcliffe-Brown, A. Radcliffe-Brown and D. Rattray, R. Robertson, A. Rosaldo, Michelle Z. Schweider and R. Salaff, J. Tratado da Nobreza Hereditaria e Politico, Lisbon. Sarbah, J. Clowes and Sons. Schneider, David M. McCormack and M. Parry and M. Toren, Christina , Making Sense of Hierarchy.
Coppet and A. Iteanu eds , Cosmos and Society in Oceania. Oxford: Berg. Walter, Michael A. Gerth and C. Talcott Parsons, trans. West, Bob , Danger! Wilks, Ivor , Wa and the Wala. Islam and Polity in Northwestern Ghana. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wilks, Ivor , 'Founding the Political "Kingdom". Wright Mills, C. Collier and S. Yarak, L. You can suggest to your library or institution to subscribe to the program OpenEdition Freemium for books.
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Another possible source of religious names were orphans who were abandoned in the churches and raised in Catholic orphanages by priests and nuns. They were usually baptized with a name related to the date near when they were found or baptized. Another possible source is when previous religious given names expressing a special devotion by the parents or the god-parents, or the child's birth date were adopted as family names.
A surname such as Xavier could have originated from someone baptized after Saint Francis Xavier or from the old Portuguese family Xavier.
Some surnames are possible descriptions of a peculiar characteristic of an ancestor, originating from nicknames. These include names like Peixoto "little fish", applied to a nobleman who used a fish to trick his enemies during a siege [ citation needed ] , Peixe fish, i.
Portuguese surnames that originated from professions or occupations are few, such as Serrador sawman , Monteiro hunter of the hills or woods guard , Guerreiro warrior , Caldeira cauldron, i. Some Portuguese names originated from foreigners who came to live in Portugal or Brazil many centuries ago. They are so ancient that, despite their known foreign origin, they are an integrated part of Portuguese and Brazilian cultures.
It is a popular belief [ citation needed ] that the Jews living in Portugal up to , when they were forced to choose between conversion or expulsion, substituted their surnames with the names of trees that do not bear edible fruits, such as Carvalho oak tree and Junqueira reed, bulrush, junk. However, even these names were already used by Christians during the Middle Ages, these surnames were mostly used by the converted Jews conversos, new Christians during the inquisition. The rationale is that Jews would adopt as a family name an apparently Christian concept as a deception.
In fact, they were choosing the most incorporeal Trinity person, that is, the one that offended least their secret Jewish faith. This theory is not totally unfounded, as there is evidence  that the cult around the Holy Spirit flourished after , especially among New Christians.
The Portuguese Jews living in Portugal up to bore given names that could distinguish them from the Christian population. A few names are not distinct from old Portuguese surnames like Camarinha, Castro, Crespim. Some scholars proved [ citation needed ] that the converted Portuguese Jews usually chose a patronymic as their new surname and, when the conversion was not forced, they would choose to bear the surname of their godfather.
The Belmonte Jews crypto-Jews from the Belmonte region in Portugal also bear surnames that cannot be used to distinguish them from the older Catholic Portuguese families. Using tree names as surnames was not a common practice among converted or non-converted Portuguese Jews, before or after their expulsion in These are some most frequent surnames in Portugal:  .
According to a large scale study of names extracted from various social networking websites, the most common surnames in Brazil are: . Until abolition of slavery, slaves did not have surnames, only given names. While slavery persisted, slaves needed to have distinct names only within the plantation fazenda or engenho to which they belonged. It was a common practice to name free slaves after their former owners, so all their descendants have the Portuguese surnames of their former owner.
Indigenous people who were not slaves also chose to use their godparents' surnames as their own.
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Religious names are also more common among people with African or native Brazilian ancestors than among people with only European ancestors. A slave who had just a given name like Francisco de Assis from Saint Francis of Assisi could use the partial name de Assis as a surname, since the connective — de — gives the appearance of surname. The practice of naming Afro-Brazilians with religious surnames was proved even by some indirect approaches. Medical researchers demonstrated that there is a statistical correlation between a religious name and genetic diseases related to African ancestry such as the sickle-cell disease.
Due to miscegenation , the correlation exists even among white people that have religious surnames. It was also common to name indigenous people and freed slaves with surnames which were already very common such as Silva or Costa. That is why [ citation needed ] Silva is the most common surname in Brazil. In the years following Brazil's independence, some old Brazilians families changed their surnames to surnames derived from Tupian languages as a patriotic way to emphasize the new Fatherland.
Some of these names are still spelled with Portuguese old orthography , but some are spelled according to the new rules. These names, following the old orthography , include:. Due to emigration, nowadays one can find these surnames even in Portugal. Some Brazilian surnames, like some old Portuguese surnames, are locative surnames that denote the original place where the ancestor who first used it was born or lived.
Like surnames that originated from words, this practice started during the patriotic years that followed Brazil's Independence. Some of these are toponyms derived from Tupian languages such as:. Due to immigration, nowadays one can find these surnames even in Portugal. Some locative surnames derived indirectly as the result of its incorporation by the family after the Imperial nobility title of an ancestor. During the times of Emperor Pedro II, non-hereditary nobilities titles would be granted to notable persons, generally statesmen. The title but no lordship would be granted and named after a location, as in Europe, generally owned by the notable.
At their death, the family in order to maintain the reference to the title would adopt them, to the point that many Brazilians still believe these are hereditary. Some misspelled foreign surnames are hardly recognized by speakers of the original language such as Collor from German Koeller , Chamareli from Italian Sciammarelli and Branquini from Italian Bianchini. Thus there are extensively adapted or misspelled foreign surnames used by Brazilian descendants of non-Portuguese immigrants.
Due to emigration, nowadays one can find these misspelled surnames even in their original country. Although not so widely used as in the United States , immigrants used to change their surname to show assimilation or to avoid social discrimination in Brazil.
This practice was most used during World War II by Italian immigrants because Italy was an enemy country for a few years. The new Portuguese surname was generally chosen based on the original meaning of the foreign surname Olivetto , Olivetti or Oliva sometimes changed to Oliveira.
Sometimes the new surname had only a phonetic resemblance with the foreign one the Italian surnames Livieiro and Salviani sometimes were changed to Oliveira and Silva. Although an American president could be called Bill Clinton or Jimmy Carter by the press, this practice was used in Brazil as a much more respectful treatment and never in a formal way. Some sociologists [ who? In Brazil, descendants of famous people sometimes use a surname composed of both the given name and the surname of their ancestor, like Ruy Barbosa , Vital Brasil , Miguel Pereira and Lafayette Rodrigues families.
Such practice allows them to be easily recognized by other people as descendants of their famous ancestor. Such a pattern is rare. In Portugal , newborn children can only be named from a list of given names  permitted by Civil Law. Names are required to be spelt according to the rules of Portuguese orthography and to be a part of Portuguese-language onomastic traditionally names in Portugal were based on the calendar of saints.
Thus in Portugal the given names show little variation, as traditional names are favoured over modern ones. If one of the parents is not Portuguese or has double citizenship, foreign names are allowed, as long as the parents present a document proving the requested name is allowed in their country of origin.
In the past, immigrant children who were born abroad were required to adopt a Portuguese name in order to become Portuguese citizens — an example is tennis player Michelle de Brito , whose legal name is Micaela. This practise no longer applies. In Brazil, there is no legal restriction on naming a newborn child, unless the given name has a meaning that can humiliate or embarrass those who bear it. Brazilians living far from the big cities or lower-class people are prone to create new given names, joining together the given names of the parents or classical given names, changing the spelling of foreign names or even using foreign suffixes that — they may believe — give a sophisticated or modern sound to the new name e.
Maurren — from Maureen -, Deivid — from David, Robisson. See also Spelling section of this article. At this time, Brazilian people started to use Native Brazilian names as given names. Some are among the most popular until nowadays. According to the Chicago Manual of Style , Portuguese and Lusophone names are indexed by the final element of the name, and that this practice differs from the indexing of Spanish and Hispanophone names.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Economic restrictions fell and thoughts of the country's interests moved to the front of government policy. But first it was necessary to provide accommodations for the newcomers, a difficult problem to resolve given the cramped proportions of the city of Rio at that time. Though large, it was comfortless and nothing like Portuguese palaces.
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As large as it was, it was not enough to accommodate everyone, so neighboring buildings were also requisitioned, such as the Carmelite Convent, the town hall, and even the jail. To meet the needs of other nobles, and to install new government offices, innumerable small residences were hastily expropriated, their proprietors arbitrarily ejected, at times violently in the face of resistance. Carlota Joaquina, for her part, preferred to settle on a farm near the beach of Botafogo , continuing her habit of living apart from her husband.
The city, which at that time had about 70, inhabitants, saw itself transformed overnight. The additional populace, full of new requirements, imposed a new organization in the supply of food and other consumer goods, including luxury items. It took years for the Portuguese to settle in, causing years of chaos in the daily life of Rio; rents doubled, taxes rose, and food was in short supply, requisitioned by the imported nobility. This soon dispelled popular enthusiasm over the prince regent's arrival.
Uma Pedra no Sapato
The very shape of the city began to change, with the construction of innumerable new residences, villas and other buildings, and various improvements to services and infrastructure. Likewise, the presence of the court introduced new standards of etiquette, new fashions and new customs, including a new social stratification. The long lines waiting to pay their respects and receive favors were a mix of nobles and commoners. The vulgarity of the manners, the familiarity of speech, the insistence of some, the prolixity of others, none of this bored him.
He seemed to forget that he was their master, and remember only that he was their father. Throughout his stay in Brazil, John formalized the creation of a huge number of institutions and public services and boosted the economy, culture and other areas of national life. All these measures were taken principally because of the practical needs of administering a large empire in a territory previously lacking of these resources, because the predominant idea continued to be that Brazil would remain a colony, given that it was expected that the court would return to its old metropolis once the European political situation returned to normal.
However, these advances became the basis for Brazil's future autonomy. A series of political crises began shortly after his arrival with the invasion of Cayenne in French Guiana in in retaliation for the French invasion of Portugal,  serious economic problems, and a painful trade agreement imposed in by the British, which in practice flooded the small internal market with useless trinkets and disadvantaged exports and the creation of new national industries.
Also, the court was extravagant and wasteful, accumulated privileges on privileges and maintained a legion of sycophants and adventurers. British consul James Henderson observed that few European courts were as large as that of Portugal. Laurentino Gomes writes that John granted more hereditary titles in his first eight years in Brazil than had been granted in the previous three hundred years of the Portuguese monarchy, not even counting more than five thousand insignia and commendations of the honorific orders of Portugal. When Napoleon was defeated in , the European powers held the Congress of Vienna to reorganize the political map of the continent.
Portugal participated in these negotiations, but given British machinations contrary to the interests of the House of Braganza , Portugal's ambassador to the Congress, the Count of Palmela , counseled the regent to remain in Brazil, as did the powerful Prince Talleyrand , in order to strengthen the ties between metropolis and colony, including the suggestion to elevate Brazil to the condition of a kingdom united to Portugal. The representative of the United Kingdom also ended up supporting the idea, which resulted in the effective foundation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves on 16 December , a juridical institution rapidly recognized by other nations.
John's mother Queen Maria died 20 March , opening the road for the regent to assume the throne. Though he began to govern as king on that date, he was not immediately consecrated as king; he was acclaimed only on 6 February , with grand festivities. This made any meaningful marriage to John impossible, despite his show of patience, and only the force of convention had them appear together in public. While Dona Carlota gained many sympathizers, her plots uniformly failed. Despite that, she managed to influence her husband to involve himself more directly in Spanish colonial politics.
These efforts led to the capture of Montevideo in and the annexation of Cisplatina Province in During the same period, problems arose in finding a wife for John's heir apparent, the future Pedro I of Brazil. Europe at the time considered Brazil distant, backward and unsafe, so it was not a simple task to find suitable candidates. Meanwhile, the situation in Portugal was by no means tranquil. Absent its monarch and devastated by the Peninsular War and the consequent mass hunger and enormous exodus of emigrants,  the country in practice had become a British protectorate upon the final expulsion of the French.
It was administered by Marshall William Carr Beresford , who governed with an iron fist. From the time John ascended the throne, the Portuguese pressed for his return, initiated liberal rebellions, and formed secret societies with the objective of bringing into session the Portuguese Cortes , which had not met since Similar liberal agitation occurred in Brazil. In , the Pernambucan Revolt broke out in Recife , a republican movement that established a provisional government in Pernambuco and spread into other Brazilian states; it was put down severely.
A governing junta was set up, with repercussions in Lisbon. It led even to an uprising by the military garrison of Rio de Janeiro itself. On 30 January , the Cortes met in Lisbon and decreed the formation of a Council of Regency to exercise power in the name of King John. It freed many political prisoners and demanded the king's immediate return. On 20 April, King John convoked a meeting in Rio to choose deputies to the Constituent Cortes, but the following day, protests in the plaza were put down violently. In Brazil, the general opinion was that the king's return to Portugal could mean loss of the autonomy Brazil had gained and a return to its prior colonial status.
Under pressure, John tried to find a middle way by sending his son Prince Pedro to Lisbon to grant a constitution and establish the basis of a new government. The prince, however, already leaning toward liberal ideas, refused. The crisis had gone too far and there was no turning back. John named Pedro regent for Brazil in his name and left for Lisbon on 25 April after a stay of thirteen years in Brazil, a country he would always miss. The ships bringing John and his court arrived in Lisbon on 3 July His return was orchestrated in such a manner as not to imply that the king had been coerced, but in fact a new political environment had already been established.
It called for him to surrender various prerogatives. Dona Carlota refused to follow her husband in agreeing to this, and thus was dispossessed of her political rights and deposed of her title as queen. Meanwhile, the king lost out in Brazil as well. His son Pedro, opting to stay in that country, led a revolt that proclaimed Brazilian independence on 7 September ; as part of this action, he assumed the title of emperor of Brazil. In any event, later correspondence between the two shows the prince's concern not to disturb his father.
The liberal constitution to which the king had sworn loyalty was in effect only for a few months. Not everyone in Portugal supported liberalism, and an absolutist movement arose. On 27 May, the infante Dom Miguel, instigated by his mother Dona Carlota, led another revolt known as the Vilafrancada , with the intent of restoring absolutism.
John changed the game by supporting his son to avoid his own deposition which was desired by the party of the queen and appeared in public on his birthday alongside his son, who wore a uniform of the National Guard, a military corps that had been disbanded by the liberals, receiving the applause of the militia. The king personally went to Vila Franca to better administer the uprising, ultimately returning to Lisbon in triumph. The political climate was undecided, and even the staunchest defenders of liberalism feared to take a strong stand on its behalf.
Before its dissolution, the Cortes protested against any change in the recently approved constitution, but the absolute regime was restored,   the queen's rights re-established, and the king acclaimed for a second time on 5 June John repressed demonstrations against this restoration, deported some of the liberals and arrested others, ordered the restoration of judiciary and institutions more in line with the new political orientation and created a commission to draft a basis for a new charter to replace the constitution.
The alliance with the infante Miguel did not bear fruit. Influenced as always by his mother, Miguel led the April Revolt or Abrilada by the Lisbon military garrison on 29 April The revolt started on the pretext of crushing the Freemasons and defending the king from threats of death that the Masons has supposedly made against him, but John was taken into custody at the Bemposta Palace , while several of Miguel's political enemies of Miguel's were also imprisoned elsewhere.
The infante's intent was to force his father to abdicate. Alerted to the situation, the diplomatic corps managed to enter Bemposta Palace. Those who held the king could not resist such authorities and restored a measure of freedom to the king. On 9 May, on the advice of friendly ambassadors, John pretended to travel to Caxias but, in fact, sought refuge with a British fleet anchored in the port. From aboard the ship HMS Windsor Castle , he reprimanded his son, deposed him from command of the army, and ordered him to release his political prisoners.
Miguel was exiled. With the defeat of the rebellion, both liberals and absolutists came out into the streets to celebrate the survival of the legitimate government.
Still, this did not dissuade the queen from further conspiracies. The police discovered another rebellion planned for 26 October, on the basis of which John placed his wife under house arrest in Queluz Palace. At the end of his reign, King John ordered the creation of a free port in Lisbon, but the measure was not implemented. On 5 June he granted amnesty to those involved in the Porto uprising, except for nine officers who were exiled.
On the same day, the old constitution of the kingdom came back into force, and the Cortes reconvened to prepare a new text. The change of constitution faced several obstacles, mainly from Spain and from supporters of the queen. Portugal's biggest problems at this time, however, related to the independence of Brazil, which had been the country's largest source of wealth. The loss of Brazil had a great negative impact on the Portuguese economy.
An expedition to reconquer the former colony was even considered, but the idea was soon abandoned. Difficult negotiations and consultations undertaken in Europe in Rio de Janeiro with British mediation and pressure resulted in the final recognition of the independence on 29 August At the same time, the king freed all the Brazilians who were prisoners and authorized trade between both nations.
Brazil was required to pay certain funds that it had borrowed from Portugal. Nothing in the treaty spoke of the succession of the two crowns, but Pedro, still acting as the Prince Royal of Portugal and Algarve, implicitly remained heir to the Portuguese throne. On 4 March , John returned from the Hieronymites Monastery where he had lunched and retired to Bemposta Palace feeling poorly. He was racked for several days by symptoms including vomiting and convulsions. He appeared to be getting better, but by way of prudence designated his daughter, the infanta Isabel Maria , as regent.
On the night of 9 March, he took a turn for the worse and died at approximately 5 a. The infanta immediately assumed the internal government of Portugal, and Pedro was recognized as the legitimate heir as Dom Pedro IV of Portugal. Doctors could not definitively determine a cause of death, but it was suspected that he had been poisoned. Fragments of his heart were rehydrated and submitted to an analysis that detected enough arsenic to kill two people, confirming longstanding suspicions of assassination by poison.
As a youth, John was a retiring figure, heavily influenced by the clergy, and lived surrounded by priests and attending daily Mass in the church. Nonetheless, Oliveira Lima affirms that rather than being an expression of personal piety, this merely reflected Portuguese culture at that time, and that the king Because of this, he was repeatedly the guest of monks and patron to composers of sacred music , but none of these Epicurean or artistic demonstrations compromised his free thought or denatured his skeptical tolerance.
He made more use of the refectory of the monastery than of its chapel, because [the latter] was about observance and in [the former] one thought of gastronomy, and in terms of observance the pragmatic one was enough for him. In the Royal Chapel he more took pleasure with the senses than he prayed with the spirit: andantes took the place of meditations. He had a great appreciation of sacred music and was a great reader of works about art, but he detested physical activity. He appeared to have suffered periodic crises of depression.
He suffered from panic attacks when he heard thunder, staying in his rooms with the windows shut and receiving no one. John's marriage was never a happy one.
SUSANA DE SOUSA DIAS AND THE GHOSTS OF THE PORTUGUESE DICTATORSHIP
She became pregnant, and John was suspected of being the father. The case was hushed up, and the young woman was sent to Spain to bear the child. She gave birth to a daughter, whose name is unknown.