See the "Compatibility Milestones" document for more information. A wiki page containing resources, migration paths, office hours, and more , is available to help developers transition to the new technologies. Create CommonJS module loaders. It can be loaded as a regular script tag in documents that have system principals note: this does not appear to work as of This will expose a single loader object containing all of the API functions described in this document.
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The loader module provides a Loader function that may be used to instantiate new loader instances:. The loader needs to be provided with a set of locations to indicate where to find modules loaded using require.
This is provided by a mandatory options. There are lots of different possibilities, but the most common setup looks like this:. All relative URL require statements those that start with ". You may still end up with a relative module ID if the entry point module ID is itself relative.
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In those cases you have to decide what the entry point module is relative to and provide an appropriate mapping for it:. The order of keys in paths is irrelevant since they are sorted by keys from longest to shortest to allow overlapping mapping. The loader may optionally be provided with a set of module exports.
In the SDK we call these "pseudo modules". This feature may be used in a few different ways:. Each loader instance comes with a set of built-in pseudo modules that are described in detail in the Built-in Modules section. To reuse module instances that are already loaded.
For example in the SDK, the loader is loaded at bootstrap as a JSM module but is then exposed as a pseudo-module to avoid the overhead of subsequent loads:. Use this feature with a great care though. While reuse may sound like a compelling idea it comes with the side effect of shared state, which can cause problems.
For example, unload of a loader won't trigger unload hooks on pseudo-modules. Each module loaded via the loader instance is secured in own JS sandbox. These modules don't share scope and get their own set of built-ins Object , Array , String But sometimes it's convenient to define a set of common globals that will be shared across modules. This can be done using the optional globals option. Be careful not to misuse this feature! In general it is not recommended to provide features via globals, it's almost always better to use pseudo-modules or, even better, modules.
The optional resolve option enables you to completely customize module resolution logic. On each require call, the supplied function is then called with the ID of the required module and that of the requiring module. The function returns a string representing the resolved module ID, which is then resolved to its location URL using the mapping provided in the paths option. This feature may also be used to implement specific security constraints.
For example, the SDK generates a manifest file at build time representing a dependency graph of all modules used by an add-on. Any attempt to load a module not listed in the manifest is unauthorized and is rejected with an exception:. Use as much or as little as you need, and replace third-party or cujoJS libraries easily without rewriting everything.
We help companies ship products from custom apps to the most battle-tested enterprise software. What is Ampersand. You npm install only what you need. Key items to understand Ampersand. Financial Times used ampersand-state and ampersand-view combined with D3.