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Glycobiology and Medicine Axford, John S. Goodwillbilanzierung und Lopatta, Kerstin Informationsvermittlung nach internationalen Rechnungslegungsstandards. Governance as a Trialogue Roux, Dirk J. The second part looks at the company BMW in particular, and how it can utilize change theories in order to increase market share in the Chinese market. The automobile market is locally and mostly globally at the maturity stage of the life cycle, due to an increased number of competitors from domestic and foreign markets.

The automobile market in general is characterized by a low potential for market growth, but high sales and profit potential Murtagh, The overall automobile market can be organized in geographic as well as product segments, but competitive forces are high in each segment of the overall market. The market structure of the luxury car manufacturer segment, which BMW belongs to is a differentiated oligopoly. The actions of each company in this oligopoly affects the other manufacturers in the market. Although BMW is the only luxury car manufacturer that produces locally in China, major competitors are fighting over the market share in China.

Therefore, the key issue is how BMW can win more market share over its competitors. BMW claims quality products that are engineered in Germany. Quality manufacturing in China is therefore crucial for the success and market share of BMW in China. The question now is how well Chinese employees are able and trained to manufacture the high quality cars of BMW in order to keep the claimed quality promise.

The process of personnel development is based on company leadership and management that must competently handle continuous change and use human resources for a positive company image and future success. By controlling the product quality in the production process in China and therefore ensuring customer satisfaction, BMW can do better branding and improve margins and market share for itself. M W Marion Maguire Author. Add to cart. McKinna, D. In: Hayes, P. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. Scherrer, P. International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol.

Spawton, T. Adelaide: SATC. Annex Annex 1 Sample socio-demographic characteristics Gender Male Abstract Farmers, producers, marketers and research institutes in the wine business seem to be interested and involved in changing the production of wine towards more sustainable methods. Recent studies in the sustainable wine field have heightened the need for exploring winegrowing and winemaking practices and the influence of the eco-label in wine choice decisions.

However, even though consumers seem interested in environmentally friendly issues, it is not clear whether they add value to sustainable wines and pay attention to organic labels. This paper aims to examine, through a research background and focus groups, the personal attitudes and expectations of young German and Italian consumers in the purchase of organic wine. Even though the results suggest that there is a positive image of sustainable products, consumers do not strongly relate wine with environmental issues. No significant differences were found between the two groups, which seem very unfamiliar with the term organic when it is related to wine products.

However, it seems that the German consumers were more involved and interested in organic products compared to the Italian group. Further studies in quantitative research are needed to clarify the attitudes and values which trigger the purchasing of sustainable wine. Despite this, previous studies have shown that consumers are confused by the different terms used to describe sustainable viticulture and wine making. At present, there is no officially and universally accepted definition of sustainable wine. According to Dlott et al.

As reported by Lock viticulture and the wine making industry have been important for the development of sustainability practices in the agricultural sector in general. At present, wine business is one of the most advanced sustainable agriculture systems worldwide. In recent years, wineries have shown a growing interest in sustainable production methods. Although there are several studies about the production and implementation of sustainable winegrowing practices, not many researchers have focused on the promotion of sustainable wine and on the perception by the public opinion.

One of the major challenges is the need to understand whether the consumer is motivated to buy organic, biodynamic or sustainable wines. In the last years, there has been an active debate about the meaning of sustainable wine and differences between organic, biodynamic and other environmentally friendly farming practices have been emphasized.

Furthermore, organic wine bottles must show the European organic logo on the label, which is the same for every country. On the other hand, other environmentally friendly practices may not have certification systems and their logos are not compulsory on the bottle. The above mentioned issues suggested focusing our research especially on organic wine which may increase its relevance in the future among European consumers.

It will then describe the methods used for the data collection. The themes identified via focus group analysis will then be presented and discussed. Finally, the paper will provide arguments for a substantial debate over this topic, suggesting some future research directions. All these elements influence wine quality perception Loveless et al.

Background research has shown that consumers generally like the idea of sustainable winemaking, but they actually do not know enough about it, its meaning and the processes behind it Zucca et al. Furthermore, even though it has been demonstrated that there is a general positive perception and awareness of organic wines, no significant purchasing demand has been revealed Scott, Previous research has shown that indication of values and beliefs about environmental protection is needed to motivate the purchasing decision of organic wine Olsen et al. However, Bazoche et al. In general, organic products are considered safer and healthier compared to conventional ones because of the absence of synthetic chemical products like pesticides Brennan et al.

However, other studies identified consumers who do not look for organic wines because they believe such products have no environmental benefits compared to conventional products Olsen et al. Generally, the willingness to pay WTP a premium for organic wine may be related to a higher household income and gender status. For instance, women tend to pay more attention to such products compared to men Loureiro, ; Remaud et al. The effect of age in shaping buying decision and willingness to pay a premium for sustainable wine is controversial. Cicia et al.

On the other hand, Fotopoulos el al. Finally, other studies indicated that consumers are willing to pay a higher premium price for unlabelled eco-certified wines than for eco-labeled wines Delmas et al. Also Loureiro found that consumers do not consider an eco-label as a strong element of differentiation and identify these wines with a low overall quality Fotopoulos et al.

This research is exploratory in nature, applying qualitative methods of data collection and analysis. Based on these questions, the aim of the research is two- fold: 1 to explore the attitudes, interest and awareness of German and Italian wine consumers towards organic and sustainable wine; and 2 to examine the perception of organic and environmentally friendly claims on the label.

Individual semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions involving young German and Italian participants were used for the primary data collection. The participants were recruited among university students by the researching staff. The focus group technique is well accepted in the field of qualitative research when the topic of investigation is not well known among the participants. A series of pilot individual interviews were carried out to better assess the type and sequence of questions used during the focus group. The group discussion followed a semi-structured interview guide in order to cover all the topics the researchers wanted to investigate.

Besides, several different sustainable claims and organic wine bottles were shown to stimulate the participation. The discussions opened with a short introduction to welcome the subjects and to thank them for participating. Finally, a brief questionnaire was given to the participants to establish the socio demographic characteristics of the sample in order to identify the main attitudes towards wine consumption and perception of organic wine; and as a cross-reference to the verbal data.

However, attitudes towards purchasing sustainable products may be different among countries due to personal history, culture and the level of progress about sustainable practices Loveless et al. In addition, also the wine tradition of Germany and Italy is quite different. The reason for choosing young consumers in our study is the idea that their opinion and attitudes about organic products would probably influence the purchasing behaviour of organic wine in their life.

The Italian focus groups were held in the Italian language, whereas the German discussions were conducted in English. This could be seen as a limitation point because the use of a non-native language could reduce and limit the quality of the discussion. However, each group has been voice recorded and additional notes have been taken by assistant moderators in order to be more accurate during the analysis process. Nevertheless, it has been stressed that information was strictly confidential.

The presence, meanings and relationships of comments as emerged from the discussion across different themes were investigated. This work is a preliminary stage of a Ph. Some of them have consumed organic wine at least once. At the beginning of the focus groups, participants were asked to describe their opinion about organic products in general.

Secondly, habits about the purchasing behaviour of wine were explored. Production methods are not taken much in consideration during the purchasing making process , as also reported by Fotopoulos who considered wine consumption primarily motivated by pleasure, regardless of whether the wine is organically produced or not. Some respondents have indicated that they do not usually look at the back label of a wine bottle and this can be seen as a drawback for organic claims, which often are not displayed on the front label.

In addition, after moderators showed to the group several organic and environmentally friendly labels, respondents explained that there are too many logos on the label and they do not know their meanings. These findings are in line with previous research of Teisl et al. This consensus is in line with Cicia et al. For instance, organic meat seems a product for which most participants would be willing to pay a premium price compared to wine. In addition, organic wine is not perceived to be of a superior quality, even if some respondents, who have tried it at least once recently, think it tastes better.

Participants generally agreed that organic wine is not considered as an every-day product, but instead as something to offer as a present or to share with other people. In this context, they reported the recent scandals and frauds in the food business. All these events may be the cause of a lack of trust of the consumers.

However, the organic statement appears to be the most trusted environmentally friendly claim. On the other hand, all focus group participants have reported a very low awareness about biodynamic wine. Biodynamic agriculture, which is another type of non- conventional agriculture, is often better known within wine business than in other food sectors; however, it still remains a smaller niche market than the organic one. No sustainable wine claims were mentioned and recollected during the conversations; however, participants perceived and identified a significant difference between organic and sustainable claims of food products.

Yet, one of the reasons to buy organic products is to support farmers in their aspiration and efforts. Finally, the major themes of the German and Italian focus groups were compared but no significant differences were found between the two groups. However, it seems that the German respondents were more involved and interested in organic food and seemed more willing to pay in the future for such products.

On the other hand, Italian participants perceived organic wine as having a lower amount of sulphites, which is considered as a health benefit. Concluding discussion In the next years, the wine industry will likely face issues such as a clearer definition of sustainable wine meaning, the role of organic and environmentally friendly claims as well as future scenarios of sustainable development in winegrowing and winemaking practices. Although nowadays sustainable wines are still a niche market, a change in marketing strategy to communicate the positive image of environmentally friendly wineries may turn into a competitive advantage.

Young generations are seen as more sensitive to environmental issues and more conscious of the sensory quality of wine than in the past; their interest for the organic wine seems to have increased over the last years. In the future, when these young consumers will become more financially independent, they may pay a premium price for more expensive wines.

On the other hand, also wines produced in a broader sustainable way could gain attention because consumers like the idea of supporting farmers who try to address sustainability themes. To achieve all this, marketers need to better communicate the idea that the production of organic and sustainable wines has meaningful benefits to protect the environment. Finally, it may be expected that interest in environmentally friendly wines differs considerably among consumer segments.

For instance, our investigation was performed with a specific segment of consumers, i. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank all the participants who took part in this study as well as the staff that helped to facilitate the focus groups, in specific to Clara Gallicani who conducted the focus groups in Italy. Besides, we would like to thank the Universities of Parma and Newcastle for giving the support to carry out the research project.

Bazeley, P. Bazoche, P. British Food Journal, Vol. Brennan, C. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. Cicia, G. Delmas, M. Dlott, J. Forbes, S.

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Fotopoulos, C. Food Quality and Preference, Vol. Frewer, L. Govindasamy, R. Journal of Food Products Marketing, Vol. Harper, G. Jones, G. International Wine Marketing Colloquium. Loureiro, M. Food Policy, Vol. Loveless, K. Magnusson, M. Mann, S. Morgan, D. Sage, Newbury Park, CA. Remaud, H. Scott, J. Teisl, M. Evidence from dolphin-safe labeling. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol.

Thach, L. Journal of Consumer Policy, Vol. Tobler, C. Appetite, Vol. Worner, F. Zucca, G. International Journal of Wine Research, Vol. Abstract For the last couple of years, Morocco has been endeavouring to broaden its tourism basis and diversify its products. Since winegrowing is wide spread in the northern part of the country, this article focuses on the potential of using wine as a further complementary element of the tourism product portfolio.

However, a closer look at the situation during a fact-finding mission in spring revealed that approaches in this direction are in their infancy and that structural aspects prevent the more comprehensive integration of viniculture into the tourism industry. Keywords Wine tourism, Morocco Introduction Morocco has been a traditional tourism destination on the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea for a long time. In the past decade, the country actively endeavoured to intensify and diversify its tourism offer.

New segments of tourism products were developed and attempts were made to stimulate tourism development in parts of the country that had not yet been exploited for tourism purposes. Since the northern part of the country has a Mediterranean climate, wine is cultivated in several regions. We therefore asked ourselves whether viniculture could be added to the tourism portfolio, enriching it. In spring , the authors went on a fact-finding mission to the Mediterranean part of Morocco. The aim of the mission was to determine whether there were any initiatives that seek to approach wine tourism and, at the same time, to analyse future potentials and constraints of a more comprehensive integration of wine tourism into the tourism product portfolio.

Development of tourism in Morocco Although the first initiatives to establish a tourism offer date back to the time of the French Protectorate cf. This occurred in the s and s. These products must be characterised as niche segments. In the same period, smaller coastal cities in the Rif region such as Essaouira, El Jadida and Chefchaouen also experienced a certain expansion of their accommodation capacities cf. Kagermeier, Despite failing to meet the ambitious target, visits by international tourists more than doubled in this decade owing to the three main approaches.

Royaume du Maroc, Due to the important role that the tourism industry will play in the national economy in the decade from to , a new tourism strategy was developed. The aim of this strategy is to further develop tourism all over the country by enhancing the natural and cultural potentials of those parts of the country that have not yet been exploited for tourism purposes cf.

In this context, a special focus was placed on niche tourism. Despite not being mentioned explicitly in the current tourism strategy, wine tourism would fit quite nicely into the general attempt to develop niche tourism by referring to the specific cultural potentials of regions that have not yet benefited from tourism revenues. Before addressing current practices and potentials for developing wine tourism, the next section will give a brief overview of the situation of winegrowing in Morocco.

Viniculture in Morocco Although winegrowing in Morocco dates back to the Phoenician and Roman period and viniculture was never totally abandoned after becoming a Muslim country mainly due to a significant Jewish community living in the country in historic times , the roots of present-day viniculture in Morocco lie in the period of French colonisation during the first half of the 20th century.

Several wine- growing districts developed following the expropriation of tribal land in the northern part of the country, which has suitable climatic conditions for agriculture, especially along the Atlantic coast. In addition to the Atlantic fringe on the Mediterranean coast, another wine region was established along the Oued Moulouya. By the end of the colonial period, some 50, hectares of wine were cultivated. Although wine cultivation experienced a significant decline following independence and despite the fact that the legal conditions for cultivating and commercialising wine changed, today wine is still grown on some 10, hectares of land for more details, cf.

El Fasskaoui, Official policy became more restrictive between the s with the expropriation of colonial farms and the s higher taxes on wine. Since the end of the s, the government has slightly altered its policy again, and now attempts to restimulate wine production to a certain extent, attracting foreign wine producers.

At the same time, members of the Moroccan elite engaged in wine production by acquiring former colonial vineries. Since the wine-producing districts are geographically around or close to tourism destinations, the question arises whether wine tourism could be an additional segment for pursuing the Moroccan tourism strategy of fostering niche tourism. Wine and tourism: a natural synergy?

*updated as of April, 2008

A closer look at the positive interplay between tourism which might receive positive repercussions when including wine into the portfolio and wine-growers who can address Fig. In Germany, as well as in Northern France and Northern Italy, 1 wine is mainly cultivated along valleys where the landscape itself is attractive to visitors. Thus winegrowing regions are usually also tourism destinations because the landscape is attractive and the picturesque villages offer cultural.

The situation in the Mediterranean is often quite different. Due to their greater isolation, vineyards are not necessarily found on slopes, but often on plains, making it much easier to farm them. At the same time, large vineyards are much more common than in the aforementioned regions, which look quite different to smaller-scale parcels on slopes cf.

Since valleys are usually considered by tourists to be more attractive than mere plains, the natural scenery of wine-growing districts in the Mediterranean region is not necessarily regarded as attractive for tourism. Whilst wine production on the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea mainly targets the national market, wine-producing countries on the Southern coast are much more oriented towards international customers. To a certain extent, wine is also consumed by international tourists in these destinations.

Hence the aspect of direct marketing plays a much less important role than in Central Europe. Nevertheless, even regions that — unlike Tuscany — are not attractive tourism destinations may try to develop wine tourism, as the case of Alentejo in Portugal shows cf. Most wine-growing districts in Morocco meet these basic prerequisites. Since these basic requirements can be met, we will now proceed to take a closer look at the situation of wine tourism offers in Morocco. Current wine tourism initiatives in Morocco During a fact-finding mission in March , the wine-growing districts of Morocco were visited in order to determine whether any wine tourism initiatives existed.

In this region, almost one third of the land belongs to one single businessman who took over a large number of former colonial farms in recent decades. This entrepreneur dominates the national wine market and, at the same time, is oriented towards the international export market, using a number of well-known brands. The main reasons for running this wine cellar are to promote the different brands and to foster intermediate trade. The farm Fig. Although this key player in the Moroccan wine market offers no facilities aimed at wine tourism in the Meknes region, facilities that pursue the idea of receiving visitors in the vinery were identified on another wine-growing estate of the same owner located in the hinterland of Casablanca.

In this case, the main target group is not, of course, international tourists, but the international community living in the Fig. In this case, a French investor, whose family has a French wine business, has established a vinery. Wine tasting facilities are available, and an old farm house is about to be transformed into a guest house to accommodate visitors.

Even a Facebook account has been created as a reluctant first step towards electronic marketing although it is not yet very convincing. It has to be stated that the main objective of this wine-growing estate is to cultivate a broad variety of grapes. The third example can be called the only existing true wine tourism establishment in Morocco. In , a French wine- grower whose relatives go back to the colonial period started testing the suitability of different varieties of grape under Moroccan climatic conditions.

Production commenced at the end of the s, and the cultivated surface has increased steadily ever since cf. The orientation towards direct marketing with tentative steps towards wine tourism was brought about by the construction of a restaurant in the middle of the last decade cf. Owing to demand, a guesthouse was constructed a few years later to accommodate wine tourists cf. At the same time, it must be said that the wine produced — despite being tailored to the international tourism market — is mainly distributed via the large hotel chains in Morocco. Hence the wine produced in Essaouira can be found in national and international hotel chains in Agadir, Marrakech, Casablanca, Rabat and Fes, but is virtually unavailable in small hotels, ryads and Fig.

Thus another motive for vineries in Central Europe and along the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea to engage in wine tourism activities — gaining future clients for their wine whether via direct marketing or for purchase from retail wine distributors — does not exist in the case of this vinery.

Missing preconditions and constraints to wine tourism in Morocco Having conducted an overview of the very few wine tourism-oriented activities in Morocco, it can be concluded that, even though the basic conditions are met, i. The preconditions in Central European and North Mediterranean vine-growing districts that suffice to induce wine tourism there are met in the case of Morocco, but are not enough.

One could suppose that the societal frame conditions in Morocco are the central factor preventing the more widespread existence of wine tourism. And, of course, the fact that Morocco belongs to the Muslim world means that there is only a very limited domestic market for wine tourism. Of course, it has to be admitted that the production and consumption of wine in Morocco is limited by basic legal conditions that are more restrictive than in Europe.

Since the end of the s, however, these conditions have been relaxed. The production of wine is now encouraged, as is the consumption of wine by international tourists, reflecting the tolerance and openness of Moroccan society, as well as its historical development. If the supposed most likely constraint to wine production and wine consumption by international tourists plays no role as a key limiting factor, one has to look for other aspects to explain the rarity of wine tourism activities in Morocco.

The wine-producing sector in Morocco is characterised by three factors: 1 It is a highly monopolised market. Apart from the central private key player who dominates about a quarter of the wine-growing area, due to its colonial heritage most of the cultivated area is in the hands of a few owners, most of whom belong to the Moroccan elite. Although SODEA has since given away and sold the majority of its farmland, it still owns some 5, hectares of vineries, i. This means that former vineries are reduced to the function of supplying grapes to the small number of monopolistic private or public sector vineries.

The result of these internal structural conditions is that the dominant wine-producing enterprises are almost exclusively geared towards producing and trading wine to intermediaries. Introducing wine tourism as an additional activity does not seem to interest them because it would mean having to take on additional employees.

Such employees would have to possess other skills to those of the simple agrarian labour force or the often foreign cellar masters. It is simply more profitable for enterprises to concentrate on their primary product — the production of wine — and to increase the volume produced or to raise the quality. Given the abundant availability of cultivable land at reasonable conditions, increasing the volume produced seems to be the more attractive option for Moroccan wine producers.

This means they have employed managers and cellar masters to run production without being present at the vineries themselves. Even if these white collar employees may be highly qualified for running an agrarian business or cultivating wine, they are usually not interested in fostering wine tourism. Wine production and commercialising the product for intermediaries are the main motives for running many of the great wine cellars in Morocco. Regarding market conditions, this behaviour is considered quite rational. In fact, demand — especially from national and international hotel chains operating in Morocco — is so high that current production is unable to satisfy demand.

It can therefore almost contradictorily be stated that the presence of a large number of tourists in Morocco who consume wine in coastal resorts or cultural tourism city hotels without any reference to wine tourism can be considered one of the unfavourable factors impeding the necessity for producers to seek direct marketing opportunities in wine tourism. This aspect can be generalised to a certain extent. Even in Germany, vine producers, relying on an assured demand for their specific product e.

On the other hand, the dominance of a few wine-producing cellars that encourage smaller former wine-producing farms to restrict themselves to producing grapes, play an important role. A similar tendency can be observed in Central Europe, where grape farmers who deliver their grapes to wine-producing cooperatives usually have little interest in wine tourism. Large entrepreneurs can import the necessary know-how mainly from France by employing skilled specialised labour forces.

The production conditions of smaller wine-producing farmers have not really developed in recent decades, putting them at a disadvantage concerning the quality of their products. From the perspective of wine tourism, state-owned SODEA also plays a role that is not conducive to wine tourism. Regardless of whether they continue to produce wine in centralised units or whether they have switched to merely producing grapes that are sold to one of the large private wine producers, the business model of SODEA farms is unsuitable for wine tourism — not least because government employees show no initiative towards this economic sector.

This behaviour can also be observed to a certain extent in Central European wine-producing cooperatives and state-run vineries, although this cannot be generalised, as many counter-examples show. The central lesson learned from this case study on Morocco is that the model proposed by Haart concerning postulated synergies between viniculture and tourism must be complemented by a number of crucial preconditions on the wine-producing side before wine tourism can be thought of as an option for a wine-growing district: 1 Apart from the basic and evident fact that a certain adequate tourism demand must be present in wine-producing regions, 2 Market conditions where demand exceeds supply, so-called seller markets, do not seem to be conductive to wine producers becoming involved in wine tourism.

Wine producers will only show an interest in engaging in wine tourism if they see an economic advantage of improving the commercialisation conditions regarding volume or price of their products by direct marketing. Reduced competition often leads to a continuation of traditional behaviour, inhibiting the search for innovative new product lines such as wine tourism.

Hence the situation in Central Europe, featuring smaller farms where direct marketing is an attractive option for wine producers to increase their revenue, seems to be a positive frame condition. Hence a mixture of medium-sized farms where wine can actually be produced on the farm seems to be another positive factor for wine tourism. Therefore privately owned, owner-run wine farms — as can be found in most parts of Central Europe and to a great extent on the northern coast of the Mediterranean — are another favourable factor for establishing wine tourism.

With regard to the case study of Morocco, the central conclusion that can be drawn is: at first sight, quite promising options for establishing wine tourism seem to exist — given the fact that the production of wine and its consumption by foreigners in this country is not generally frowned upon or stigmatised and the necessary tourism demand is present in and around the wine-producing regions. However, the structural conditions of the wine-producing market significantly hinder the creation of a flourishing wine tourism market. It cannot yet be predicted whether the few existing examples of wine tourism will attract followers.

But even if it seems quite likely that several private initiatives predictably owned and run by foreign investors will be created in the years ahead, the unfavourable structural market conditions will impede the widespread distribution of this economic activity, diminishing the potential for intended growth in the tourism sector. The only way wine tourism would have a chance would be for SODEA to sell much of its grape-producing areas and to change into a facilitator of wine production by offering systematic training facilities for medium- sized wine farmers, applying quality certificates and facilitating distribution opportunities.

However, it seems unlikely at present that this will be realised and implemented. In: Popp, H. Bayreuth: Selbstverlag der Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft, pp. Haart, N. In: Becker, Ch. In: Meyer, G. Abstract The globalization of the wine industry has created a market for long-established methods of wine production, regional and endemic areas of viticulture, a need to preserve traditional customs including viniculture.

The purpose of this report is to stimulate discourse leading to the recognition of Canadian Sparkling Wine as a distinct brand and creating Destination Tourism supporting Canadian Sparkling Wine. Keywords Wine, Wine Tourism, Canadian Wine, Sparkling Wine, Destination Marketing Introduction The purpose of this research paper is to reinforce the Canadian appellation of origin system by recognizing Canadian sparkling wine production as an exclusive and distinctive micro-industry, within the Canadian wine industry.

A secondary objective is to continue discourse supporting the benefits of inimitable labeling supporting product placement and consumer recognition. Finally, opportunities supporting Sparkling Wine tourism through culture and Destination Tourism will be presented. The globalization of the wine industry has created a market for long-established methods of wine production, regional and endemic areas of viticulture, a need to preserve traditional customs including viniculture.

The diversity of Terroir creates a unique opportunity for viticulture. Background Terroir The discussion of Terroir is relevant in global agriculture. In , Somewhereness. Stevenson, By the late 19th Century, the significant distinguishing features Champagne were recognized as i. Liqueur de Tirage; the addtion of sugar to finished wine that creates the secondary fermentation withing the fortified bottle. The reference to terroir supporting Champagne as a distinct wine is lacking in historic record.

Editor in Chief, Anthony Gismondi stated the growth in Canadian winery development and wine production as follows: Fig.


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With respect to the top 10 producing countries, there has been an overall increase of 8. This growth is supported in demand by an increase overall in consumption of sparkling wines. This is significant, as women are quickly becoming a valued consumer in this industry. Women are reportedly increasing their opportunity to imbibe, according to Gallup poll reports for American woman.

In the same article it is noted that consumption by men has reached a plateau in North America.