The female creates a powerful downdraught of water with her tail near the gravel to excavate a depression. After she and a male fish have eggs and milt sperm , respectively, upstream of the depression, the female again uses her tail, this time to shift gravel to cover the eggs and milt which have lodged in the depression. Unlike the various Pacific salmon species which die after spawning semelparous , the Atlantic salmon is iteroparous , which means the fish may recondition themselves and return to the sea to repeat the migration and spawning pattern several times, although most spawn only once or twice.
This variety of ages can occur in the same population, constituting a ' bet hedging ' strategy against variation in stream flows. So in a drought year, some fish of a given age will not return to spawn, allowing that generation other, wetter years in which to spawn. When in shared breeding habitats, Atlantic salmon will hybridize with brown trout Salmo trutta. This is the highest rate of natural hybridization so far reported and is significantly greater than rates observed elsewhere in Europe. In its natal streams, Atlantic salmon are considered prized recreational fish, pursued by fly anglers during its annual runs.
At one time, the species supported an important commercial fishery and a supplemental food fishery. However, the wild Atlantic salmon fishery is commercially residual; after extensive habitat damage and overfishing, wild fish make up only 0. Sport fishing communities, mainly from Iceland and Scandinavia , have joined in the North Atlantic Salmon Fund to buy away commercial quotas in an effort to save the wild species of Salmo salar. Adult male and female fish are anaesthetised ; their eggs and sperm are "stripped" after the fish are cleaned and cloth dried.
Sperm and eggs are mixed, washed, and placed into freshwater. Adults recover in flowing, clean, well- aerated water. Fry are generally reared in large freshwater tanks for 12 to 20 months. Once the fish have reached the smolt phase, they are taken out to sea, where they are held for up to two years. During this time, the fish grow and mature in large cages off the coasts of Canada, the US, or parts of Europe. Generally, cages are made of two nets. Inner nets, which wrap around the cages, hold the salmon. Outer nets, which are held by floats, keep predators out.
Farmed Atlantic salmon are known to occasionally escape from cages and enter the habitat of wild populations. Interbreeding between escaped farm fish and wild fish decreases genetic diversity and introduces "the potential to genetically alter native populations, reduce local adaptation and negatively affect population viability and character. On the west coast of the United States and Canada, aquaculturists are generally under scrutiny to ensure that non-native Atlantic salmon cannot escape from their open-net pens, however occasional incidents of escape have been documented.
Despite being the source of considerable controversy,  the likelihood of escaped Atlantic salmon establishing an invasive presence in the Pacific Northwest is considered minimal, largely because a number of 20th century efforts aimed at deliberately introducing them to the region were ultimately unsuccessful. Historical records indicate, in a few instances, mature sea-run Atlantic salmon were captured in the Cowichan River ; however, a self-sustaining population never materialized. Similarly unsuccessful results were realized after deliberate attempts at introduction by Washington as late as the s.
Farming of Atlantic Salmon at sea in open cages has been linked to the decline in wild stocks. On exposure to farmed salmon, abundance of all wild migratory salmonid e. It has been shown that this decline can be attributed to both the interbreeding of farmed and wild salmon and the passing of parasites from farmed to wild salmon. Atlantic salmon were once abundant throughout the North Atlantic.
European fishermen gillnetted for Atlantic salmon in rivers using hand-made nets for at least several centuries. Human activities have heavily damaged salmon populations across their range. The major impacts were from overfishing and habitat change, and the new threat from competitive farmed fish. Salmon decline in Lake Ontario goes back to the 18th—19th centuries, due to logging and soil erosion, as well as dam and mill construction. By , the species was declared extirpated from the lake. In the s, salmon from rivers in the United States and Canada, as well as from Europe, were discovered to gather in the sea around Greenland and the Faroe Islands.
A commercial fishing industry was established, taking salmon using drift nets. After an initial series of record annual catches, the numbers crashed; between and , catches fell from four million to , Beginning around , the rates of Atlantic salmon mortality at sea more than doubled. In the western Atlantic, fewer than , of the important multiple sea-winter salmon were returning. Rivers of the coast of Maine , southern New Brunswick and much of mainland Nova Scotia saw runs drop precipitously, and even disappear.
To find out more about the increased mortality rate, a concerted international effort has been organized by the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization. Possibly because of improvements in ocean feeding grounds, returns in were positive. On the Penobscot River in Maine, returns were about in , and by mid-July , the return was 1, Similar stories were reported in rivers from Newfoundland to Quebec.
In , more than 3, salmon returned to the Penobscot, the most since , and nearly ascended the Narraguagus River , up from the low two digits just a decade before. Strict catch limits, catch and release practices and forced fly fishing are examples of those regulations.
Around the North Atlantic, efforts to restore salmon to their native habitats are underway, with slow progress. Habitat restoration and protection are key to this process, but issues of excessive harvest and competition with farmed and escaped salmon are also primary considerations.
In the Great Lakes , Atlantic salmon have been introduced successfully, but the percentage of salmon reproducing naturally is very low. Most are stocked annually. Atlantic salmon were native to Lake Ontario, but were extirpated by habitat loss and overfishing in the late 19th century. The state of New York has since stocked its adjoining rivers and tributaries, and in many cases does not allow active fishing.
Historically, the Housatonic River , and its Naugatuck River tributary, hosted the southernmost Atlantic salmon spawning runs in the United States. In the early s, Carlson challenged the notion that Atlantic salmon were prehistorically abundant in New England, when the climate was warmer as it is now. This idea was based on a paucity of bone data in archaeological sites relative to other fish species and claimed that historical observer records were exaggerated.
In New England , many efforts are underway to restore salmon to the region by knocking down obsolete dams and updating others with fish ladders and other techniques that have proven effective in the West with Pacific salmon. There is some success thus far, with populations growing in the Penobscot and Connecticut Rivers. Lake Champlain now has Atlantic salmon. In Ontario , the Atlantic Salmon Restoration Program  was started in , and is one of the largest freshwater conservation programs in North America. It has stocked Lake Ontario with over , young Atlantic salmon.
Recent documented successes in the reintroduction of Atlantic salmon include the following:. Atlantic salmon still remains a popular fish for human consumption. The decline in anadromous salmonid species over the last two to three centuries is correlated with the decline in the North American beaver and European beaver , although some fish and game departments continue to advocate removal of beaver dams as potential barriers to spawning runs. Migration of adult Atlantic salmon may be limited by beaver dams during periods of low stream flows, but the presence of juvenile Salmo salar upstream from the dams suggests the dams are penetrated by parr.
The importance of winter habitat to salmonids afforded by beaver ponds may be especially important in streams of northerly latitudes without deep pools where ice cover makes contact with the bottom of shallow streams. In fact, two-year-old Atlantic salmon parr in beaver ponds in eastern Canada showed faster summer growth in length and mass and were in better condition than parr upstream or downstream from the pond.
The first laws regarding the Atlantic salmon were started nearly years ago. Edward I instituted a penalty for collecting salmon during certain times of the year. His son Edward II continued, regulating the construction of weirs. Enforcement was overseen by those appointed by the justices of the peace. Because of confusing laws and the appointed conservators having little power, most laws were barely enforced.
Based on this, a royal commission was appointed in to thoroughly investigate the Atlantic salmon and the laws governing the species, resulting in the Salmon Fisheries Act. The act placed enforcement of the laws under the Home Office 's control, but it was later transferred to the Board of Trade , and then later to the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries. Another act passed in imposed charges to fish and catch limits. It also caused the formation of local boards having jurisdiction over a certain river. The next significant act, passed in , allowed the board to charge 'duties' to catch other freshwater fish, including trout.
Despite legislation, board effects decreased until, in , the River Boards Act gave authority of all freshwater fish and the prevention of pollution to one board per river. In total, it created 32 boards. In , the 32 boards were reduced to 10 regional water authorities RWAs. Although only the Northumbrian , Welsh , northwest and southwest RWA's had considerable salmon populations, all ten also cared for trout and freshwater eels. The Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act was passed in Among other things, it regulated fishing licences, seasons, and size limits, and banned obstructing the salmon's migratory paths.
Salmon was greatly valued in medieval Scotland , and various fishing methods, including the use of weirs , cruives, and nets, were used to catch the fish. Fishing for salmon was heavily regulated in order to conserve the resource. The volume of the early Scottish salmon trade is impossible to determine, since surviving custom records date only from the onward, and since Aberdeen burgesses enjoyed an exemption on salmon customs until the s.
During the 15th century, many laws were passed; many regulated fishing times, and worked to ensure smolts could safely pass downstream. James III even closed a meal mill because of its history of killing fish attracted to the wheel. More recent legislation has established commissioners who manage districts. Furthermore, the Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act in required the Secretary of State be given data about the catches of salmon and trout to help establish catch limits.
Returns in have been around 2,, more than double the return of Section 9 of the ESA makes it illegal to take an endangered species of fish or wildlife. The definition of "take" is to "harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or to attempt to engage in any such conduct". The federal government has prime responsibility for protecting the Atlantic salmon, but over the last generation, effort has continued to shift management as much as possible to provincial authorities through memoranda of understanding, for example.
A new Atlantic salmon policy is in the works, and in the past three years, [ when? Federal legislation regarding at-risk populations is weak. As of , no recovery plan is in place. It takes constant pressure from nongovernmental organizations , such as the Atlantic Salmon Federation, for improvements in management, and for initiatives to be considered. For example, the technology for mitigation of acid rain -affected rivers used in Norway is needed in 54 Nova Scotia rivers. The annual catch limit is seven Atlantic salmon of any size.
In Lake Ontario, the historic populations of Atlantic salmon became extinct, and cross-national efforts have been under way to reintroduce the species, with some areas already having restocked naturally reproducing populations. They work to restore habitat and promote conservation of the salmon. In , Greenpeace International has added the Atlantic salmon to its seafood red list.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about a particular species of fish. For the food, see Salmon as food. Conservation status. Linnaeus , Atlantic salmon are among the largest salmon species.
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Ocean migration of Atlantic salmon . Life cycle of the Atlantic salmon. See also: Juvenile salmon. Newly hatched alevin feed on their yolk sacs. See also: Salmon run. See also: Salmon in aquaculture. Retrieved 26 August The Atlantic Salmon. Halstead Press. Chanticleer Press. Connecticut River Coordinator's Office. Fish and Wildlife Service. Archived from the original on 15 January Retrieved 30 April Horreo; G. Machado-Schiaffino; A. Griffiths; D. Bright; J.
Stevens; E. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. Dempson; C. Schwarz; D. Reddin; M. O'Connell; C. Mullins; C.
Fishing and fishermen: a guide for family historians
Bourgeois Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 26 November Toronto Star , November 9, , page GT1. Ecology of Freshwater Fish. Salmon Aquaculture. Spawning of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar : hybridization of females with brown trout Salmo trutta. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Incidence of hybridization between Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Fisheries Management and Ecology, Communications Biology. Salmon Farming Handbook. Bromage Broodstock Management and Egg and Larval Quality.
Blackwell Science. World Wildlife Fund, Inc. Retrieved 25 August Bellingham Herald. Retrieved 23 August The Seattle Times. Retrieved 27 December State of Washington. Summer BC Studies : He was re-positioned to the outfield. He was an indifferent scholar, barely achieving a minimum average. Outside class he spent his time on baseball, swimming, and creative writing, especially poetry. Grey struggled with the idea of becoming a writer or baseball player for his career, but unhappily concluded that dentistry was the practical choice.
During a summer break, while playing "summer nines" in Delphos, Ohio , Grey was charged with, and quietly settled, a paternity suit. He concealed the episode when he returned to Penn. Grey went on to play minor league baseball with several teams, including the Newark, New Jersey Colts in  and also with the Orange Athletic Club for several years.
Fishing and Fishermen: A Guide For Family Historians
Romer played a single major league game in for the Pittsburgh Pirates. Zane Grey in It was a competitive area but he wanted to be close to publishers. He began to write in the evening to offset the tedium of his dental practice. Grey was a natural writer but his early efforts were stiff and grammatically weak.
Whenever possible, he played baseball with the Orange Athletic Club in New Jersey, a team of former collegiate players that was one of the best amateur teams in the country. Grey often went camping with his brother R. When canoeing in , Grey met seventeen-year-old Lina Roth, better known as "Dolly. After a passionate and intense courtship marked by frequent quarrels, Grey and Dolly married five years later in Grey suffered bouts of depression , anger, and mood swings , which affected him most of his life.
As he described it, "A hyena lying in ambush—that is my black spell! I conquered one mood only to fall prey to the next I wandered about like a lost soul or a man who was conscious of imminent death. But I love to be free. I cannot change my spots. The ordinary man is satisfied with a moderate income, a home, wife, children, and all that. But I am a million miles from being that kind of man and no amount of trying will ever do any good I shall never lose the spirit of my interest in women.
After they married in , Dolly gave up her teaching career. They moved to a farmhouse at the confluence of the Lackawaxen and Delaware rivers, in Lackawaxen, Pennsylvania , where Grey's mother and sister joined them. Grey finally ceased his dental practice to work full-time on his nascent literary pursuits. Dolly's inheritance provided an initial financial cushion. While Dolly managed Grey's career and raised their three children, including son Romer Zane Grey , over the next two decades Grey often spent months away from the family.
He fished, wrote, and spent time with his many mistresses.
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While Dolly knew of his behavior, she seemed to view it as his handicap rather than a choice. Throughout their life together, he highly valued her management of his career and their family, and her solid emotional support.
In addition to her considerable editorial skills, she had good business sense and handled all his contract negotiations with publishers, agents, and movie studios. All his income was split fifty-fifty with her; from her "share," she covered all family expenses. The Greys moved to California in In Altadena Grey also spent time with his mistress Brenda Montenegro. The two met while hiking Eaton Canyon. Of her he wrote,. I saw her flowing raven mane against the rocks of the canyon. I have seen the red skin of the Navajo , and the olive of the Spaniards, but her I thought it was an apparition.
She seemed to be the embodiment of the West I portray in my books, open and wild. With the help of Dolly's proofreading and copy editing, Grey gradually improved his writing. His first magazine article, "A Day on the Delaware," a human-interest story about a Grey brothers' fishing expedition, was published in the May issue of Recreation magazine. I cannot stand life as it is. After studying its style and structure in detail, he decided to write a full-length work.
He self-published it, perhaps with funds provided by his wife Dolly or his brother R. He also began the habit of taking copious notes, not only of scenery and activities but of dialogue. He gained the confidence to write convincingly about the American West, its characters, and its landscape. Treacherous river crossings, unpredictable beasts, bone-chilling cold, searing heat, parching thirst, bad water, irascible tempers, and heroic cooperation all became real to him.
He wrote, "Surely, of all the gifts that have come to me from contact with the West, this one of sheer love of wildness, beauty, color, grandeur, has been the greatest, the most significant for my work. Upon returning home in , Grey wrote a new novel, The Last of the Plainsmen , describing the adventures of Buffalo Jones. Harper's editor Ripley Hitchcock rejected it, the fourth work in a row.
He told Grey, "I do not see anything in this to convince me you can write either narrative or fiction. I don't know which way to turn. I cannot decide what to write next. That which I desire to write does not seem to be what the editors want I am full of stories and zeal and fire The book was later published by the American magazine, Outing , which provided Grey some satisfaction. Grey next wrote a series of magazine articles and juvenile novels.
With the birth of his first child pending, Grey felt compelled to complete his next novel, The Heritage of the Desert. He wrote it in four months in It quickly became a bestseller. Grey took his next work to Hitchcock again; this time Harper published his work, a historical romance in which Mormon characters were of central importance.
Two years later Grey produced his best-known book, Riders of the Purple Sage , his all-time best-seller, and one of the most successful Western novels of all time. As Zane Grey had become a household name, after that Harper eagerly received all his manuscripts. Other publishers caught on to the commercial potential of the Western novel. Max Brand and Ernest Haycox were among the most notable of other writers of Westerns. Herbert Dunton , W. Koerner , and Charles Russell. Grey had the time and money to engage in his first and greatest passion: fishing. From until , he was a regular contributor to Outdoor Life magazine.
As one of its first celebrity writers, he began to popularize big-game fishing. Several times he went deep-sea fishing in Florida to relax and to write in solitude. The lure of the sea is some strange magic that makes men love what they fear. The solitude of the desert is more intimate than that of the sea. Death on the shifting barren sands seems less insupportable to the imagination than death out on the boundless ocean, in the awful, windy emptiness.
Man's bones yearn for dust. Over the years, Grey spent part of his time traveling and the rest of the year wrote novels and articles. Unlike writers who could write every day, Grey would have dry spells and then sudden bursts of energy, in which he could write as much as , words in a month. He visited the Rogue River in Oregon in for a fishing expedition, and fell in love with it. He returned in the s, eventually setting up a cabin on the lower Rogue River. From to , he spent a few weeks a year at his cabin on the Mogollon Rim , in Central Arizona.
After years of abandonment and decay, the cabin was restored in by Bill Goettl , a Phoenix air conditioning magnate. He opened it to the public as a free-of-charge museum. The Dude Fire destroyed the cabin in It was later reconstructed 25 miles away in the town of Payson. During the s, Grey continued to write, but the Great Depression hurt the publishing industry. His sales fell off, and he found it more difficult to sell serializations. He had avoided making investments that would have been affected by the stock market crash of , and continued to earn royalty income, so he did better than many financially.
Nearly half of the film adaptations of his novels were made in the s. From to his death in , Grey traveled more and further from his family. He became interested in exploring unspoiled lands, particularly the islands of the South Pacific, New Zealand and Australia. He thought Arizona was beginning to be overrun by tourists and speculators. The so-called civilization of man and his works shall perish from the earth, while the shifting sands, the red looming walls, the purple sage, and the towering monuments, the vast brooding range show no perceptible change.
The more books Grey sold, the more the established critics, such as Heywood Broun and Burton Rascoe , attacked him. They claimed his depictions of the West were too fanciful, too violent, and not faithful to the moral realities of the frontier. They thought his characters unrealistic and much larger-than-life.
Broun stated that "the substance of any two Zane Grey books could be written upon the back of a postage stamp. Whipple praised a typical Grey novel as a modern version of the ancient Beowulf saga,. It lacks fluency and facility. Grey based his work in his own varied first-hand experience, supported by careful note-taking, and considerable research.
In , a reviewer said Grey's "moral ideas Dolly warned him against publishing the treatise, and he retreated from a public confrontation. Grey portrayed the struggle of the Navajo to preserve their identity and culture against corrupting influences of the white government and of missionaries. This viewpoint enraged religious groups. Grey contended, "I have studied the Navaho Indians for 12 years.
I know their wrongs. The missionaries sent out there are almost everyone mean, vicious, weak, immoral, useless men. With this book, Grey completed the most productive period of his writing career, having laid out most major themes, character types, and settings.
His Wanderer of the Wasteland is a thinly disguised autobiography. Several of his later writings were based in Australia. Grey co-founded the "Porpoise Club" with his friend, Robert H. Davis of Munsey's Magazine , to popularize the sport of hunting of dolphins and porpoises. They made their first catch off Seabright, New Jersey on September 21, , where they harpooned and reeled in a bottlenose dolphin. Grey's son Loren claims in the introduction to Tales of Tahitian Waters that Zane Grey fished on average days a year through his adult life.
Grey and his brother R. Zane Grey was its president from to He pioneered the fishing of Boohoo fish sailfish. Zane Grey Creek was named for him. Grey indulged his interest in fishing with visits to Australia and New Zealand. He first visited New Zealand in and caught several large fish of great variety, including a mako shark , a ferocious fighter which presented a new challenge.
Grey established a base at Otehei Bay, Urupukapuka Island in the Bay of Islands , which became a destination for the rich and famous. He wrote many articles in international sporting magazines highlighting the uniqueness of New Zealand fishing, which has produced heavy-tackle world records for the major billfish , striped marlin , black marlin, blue marlin and broadbill.
He held numerous world records during this time  and invented the teaser, a hookless bait that is still used today to attract fish. Grey made three additional fishing trips to New Zealand. The second was January to April , the third December to March , and the last from December to February Grey fished out of Wedgeport, Nova Scotia , for many summers. Grey also helped establish deep-sea sport fishing in New South Wales , Australia, particularly in Bermagui , which is famous for marlin fishing.
Patron of the Bermagui Sport Fishing Association for and , Grey set a number of world records,    and wrote of his experiences in his book An American Angler in Australia. From on, Grey was a frequent visitor to Tahiti. He fished the surrounding waters several months at a time and maintained a permanent fishing camp at Vairao.
He claimed that these were the most difficult waters he had ever fished, but from these waters he also took some of his most important records, such as the first marlin over 1, pounds. Zane Grey died of heart failure on October 23, , at his home in Altadena, California. Grey became one of the first millionaire authors.
Zane Grey was a major force in shaping the myths of the Old West; his books and stories were adapted into other media, such as film and TV productions. Grey wrote not only Westerns, but two hunting books, six children's books, three baseball books, and eight fishing books. It is estimated that he wrote more than nine million words in his career. There were other Western writers who had fast and furious action, but Zane Grey was the one who could make the action not only convincing but inevitable, and somehow you got the impression that the bigness of the country generated a bigness of character.
Grey was President Dwight D. Eisenhower 's favorite writer. It eagerly adapted Western stories to the screen practically from its inception, with Bronco Billy Anderson becoming the first major western star. After his first two books were adapted to the screen, Grey formed his own motion picture company. This enabled him to control production values and faithfulness to his books. After seven films he sold his company to Jesse Lasky who was a partner of the founder of Paramount Pictures. Paramount made a number of movies based on Grey's writings and hired him as advisor.
In Grey appeared as himself in a feature film shot in Australia, White Death At the same time he provided a story that was filmed as Rangle River Grey became disenchanted by the commercial exploitation and copyright infringement of his works. He felt his stories and characters were diluted by being adapted to film. Its costars were Randolph Scott and Robert Young. The period of the s and s included the great works of John Ford , who successfully used the settings of Grey's novels in Arizona and Utah.
The success of Grey's The Lone Star Ranger the novel was adapted into four movies: , , and , and a comic book in and King of the Royal Mounted popular as a series of Big Little Books and comics, later turned into a film and three film serials inspired two radio series by George Trendle WXYZ , Detroit.
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