You identify the major components that make up the system and their interactions , and then may organize the components using an architectural pattern e. Identifying object classes is often a difficult part of object oriented design. There is no 'magic formula' for object identification. Object identification is an iterative process.
You are unlikely to get it right first time. Approaches to object identification include:.
Design models show the objects and object classes and relationships between these entities. Static models describe the static structure of the system in terms of object classes and relationships. Dynamic models describe the dynamic interactions between objects.
Subsystem models show logical groupings of objects into coherent subsystems. These are represented using a form of class diagram with each subsystem shown as a package with enclosed objects. Subsystem models are static structural models. Sequence models show the sequence of object interactions. These are represented using a UML sequence or a collaboration diagram.
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Sequence models are dynamic models. State machine models show how individual objects change their state in response to events. These are represented in the UML using state diagrams. State machine models are dynamic models. State diagrams are useful high-level models of a system or an object's run-time behavior. Object interfaces have to be specified so that the objects and other components can be designed in parallel.
Designers should avoid designing the interface representation but should hide this in the object itself. Objects may have several interfaces which are viewpoints on the methods provided. The UML uses class diagrams for interface specification but Java may also be used. A design pattern is a way of reusing abstract knowledge about a problem and its solution. A pattern is a description of the problem and the essence of its solution. It should be sufficiently abstract to be reused in different settings.
Pattern descriptions usually make use of object-oriented characteristics such as inheritance and polymorphism.
From the s to the s, most new software was developed from scratch, by writing all code in a high-level programming language. The only significant reuse or software was the reuse of functions and objects in programming language libraries. Costs and schedule pressure mean that this approach became increasingly unviable, especially for commercial and Internet-based systems.
An approach to development based around the reuse of existing software emerged and is now generally used for business and scientific software. Configuration management is the name given to the general process of managing a changing software system. The aim of configuration management is to support the system integration process so that all developers can access the project code and documents in a controlled way, find out what changes have been made, and compile and link components to create a system.
Configuration management activities include:. Most software is developed on one computer the host, development platform , but runs on a separate machine the target, execution platform. A platform is more than just hardware; it includes the installed operating system plus other supporting software such as a database management system or, for development platforms, an interactive development environment IDE.
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Development platform usually has different installed software than execution platform; these platforms may have different architectures. Mobile app development e. Open source development is an approach to software development in which the source code of a software system is published and volunteers are invited to participate in the development process. Its roots are in the Free Software Foundation , which advocates that source code should not be proprietary but rather should always be available for users to examine and modify as they wish.
Open source software extended this idea by using the Internet to recruit a much larger population of volunteer developers. Many of them are also users of the code. The best-known open source product is, of course, the Linux operating system which is widely used as a server system and, increasingly, as a desktop environment. Other important open source products are Java, the Apache web server and the mySQL database management system. A fundamental principle of open-source development is that source code should be freely available , this does not mean that anyone can do as they wish with that code.
The code block can be expanded by clicking. The remaining columns are previous maximum and minimum temperature. Last time we used the crude but easily understood Mean Average Error as our accuracy metric, we will report this figure and the Root Mean Squared Error RMSE so we may directly compare the results with those of Holmstrom et al. We can extend the function above to include other weather phenomenon; humidity, wind, rain, radiation and evapotranspiration me neither.
NCDC NOAA Engineering Weather Data
As above, we use the function in a loop to build features for the past seven days for each of the phenomenon. We can plot the actual values against the predicted: Actual vs predicted maximum temperature values. And we can plot just the difference. Difference between actual and predicted maximum temperature.