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For much of the remainder of the war, Washington's most important strategic task was to keep the British bottled up in New York. Although he never gave up hope of retaking the city, he was unwilling to risk his army without a fair prospect of success. In the end, therefore, the allied generals concluded, that an attack on New York could not succeed. Depending on Clinton's inactivity, Washington marched south to lay siege on Cornwallis.

On October 19, , he accepted the surrender of Cornwallis's army. To the world's amazement, Washington had prevailed over the more numerous, better supplied, and fully trained British army, mainly because he was more flexible than his opponents. He learned that it was more important to keep his army intact and to win an occasional victory to rally public support than it was to hold American cities or defeat the British army in an open field. Over the last years revolutionary leaders in every part of the world have employed this insight, but never with a result as startling as Washington's victory over the British.

On December 23, , Washington presented himself before Congress in Annapolis, Maryland, and resigned his commission. He left Annapolis and went home to Mount Vernon with the fixed intention of never again serving in public life. This one act, without precedent in modern history, made him an international hero. Although Washington longed for a peaceful life at Mount Vernon, the affairs of the nation continued to command his attention. He watched with mounting dismay as the weak union created by the Articles of Confederation gradually disintegrated, unable to collect revenue or pay its debts.

He was appalled by the excesses of the state legislatures and frustrated by the diplomatic, financial, and military impotence of the Confederation Congress. By Washington had concluded that reform was essential. In , Washington ended his self-imposed retirement and traveled to Philadelphia to attend a convention assembled to recommend changes to the Articles of Confederation. He spoke very little in the convention, but few delegates were more determined to devise a government endowed with real energy and authority.

My wish, he wrote, is that the convention may adopt no temporizing expedients but probe the defects of the Constitution to the bottom and provide a radical cure. After the convention adjourned, Washington's reputation and support were essential to overcome opposition to the ratification of the proposed Constitution.

He worked for months to rally support for the new instrument of government. It was a difficult struggle. Even in Washington's native Virginia, the Constitution was ratified by a majority of only one vote. Once the Constitution was approved, Washington hoped to retire again to private life. But when the first presidential election was held, he received a vote from every elector. He remains the only President in American history to be elected by the unanimous voice of the people. Most popular revolutions throughout history have descended into bloody chaos or fallen under the sway of dictators.

So how did the United States, born of its own 8-year revolution, ultimately avoid these common pitfalls? Washington served two terms as President. His first term was occupied primarily with organizing the executive branch of the new government and establishing administrative procedures that would make it possible for the government to operate with the energy and efficiency he believed were essential to the republic's future. An astute judge of talent, he surrounded himself with the most able men in the new nation.

James Madison was one of his principal advisors. He administered the government with fairness and integrity, assuring Americans that the President could exercise extensive executive authority without corruption. Further, he executed the laws with restraint, establishing precedents for broad-ranging presidential authority. His integrity was most pure, Thomas Jefferson wrote, his justice the most inflexible I have ever known, no motive of interest or consanguinity, friendship, or hatred, being able to bias his decision.

Washington set a standard for presidential integrity rarely met by his successors, although he established an ideal by which they all are judged. During Washington's first term the Federal Government adopted a series of measures proposed by Alexander Hamilton to resolve the escalating debt crisis and established the nation's finances on a sound basis, concluded peace treaties with the southeastern Indian tribes, and designated a site on the Potomac River for the permanent capital of the United States.

But as Washington's first term ended, a bloody Indian war continued on the northwestern frontier. The warring tribes were encouraged by the British, who retained military posts in the northwest. Further, the Spanish denied Americans use of the Mississippi River. These problems limited the westward expansion to which Washington was committed.

Growing partisanship within the government also concerned Washington. Many men in the new government -- including Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and other leaders of the emerging Republican party -- were opposed to Hamilton's financial program. Washington despised political partisanship but could do little to slow the development of political parties.

During his first term Washington toured the northern and southern states and found that the new government enjoyed the general support of the American people. Convinced that the government could get along without him, he planned to step down at the end of his first term. But his cabinet members convinced him that he alone could command the respect of members of both burgeoning political parties.

Thomas Jefferson visited Washington at Mount Vernon to urge him to accept a second term. Although longing to return home permanently, Washington reluctantly agreed. Washington assumed the Presidency on the eve of the French Revolution, a time of great international crisis. The outbreak of a general European war in forced the crisis to the center of American politics. Washington believed the national interest of the United States dictated neutrality.

War would be disastrous for commerce and shatter the nation's finances. The country's future depended on the increase in wealth and opportunity that would come from commerce and westward expansion. One of Washington's most important accomplishments was keeping the United States out of the war, giving the new nation an opportunity to grow in strength while establishing the principle of neutrality that shaped American foreign policy for more than a century.

Although Washington's department heads agreed that the United States should remain neutral, disagreements over foreign policy aggravated partisan tensions among them. The disagreements were part of the deepening division between Federalists and Republicans. Washington directed the army to restore order, a step applauded by Federalists and condemned by Republicans. Despite Washington's disappointment with the rise of partisanship, the last years of his Presidency were distinguished by important achievements.

The long Indian war on the northwest frontier was won, Britain surrendered its forts in the northwest, and Spain opened the Mississippi to American commerce. These achievements opened the West to settlement. Justice Kennedy talks about the vital role Washington played in establishing the office of the President…. Finally retired from public service, George and Martha Washington returned to their beloved Mount Vernon.

Unfortunately for Washington, his time at the estate would be short lived. On Thursday, December 12, , George Washington was out on horseback supervising farming activities from late morning until three in the afternoon. The weather shifted from light snow to hail and then to rain. Upon Washington's return it was suggested that he change out of his wet riding clothes before dinner. Known for his punctuality, Washington chose to remain in his damp attire. Washington recognized the onset of a sore throat and became increasingly hoarse.

After retiring for the night Washington awoke in terrible discomfort at around two in the morning. Martha was concerned about his state and wanted to send for help. James Craik , the family doctor and Washington's trusted friend and physician for forty years. Washington called for his two wills and directed that the unused one should be burned. Between ten and eleven at night on December 14, , George Washington passed away.

He was surrounded by people who were close to him including his wife who sat at the foot of the bed, his friends Dr. The entire region of the Hudson Highlands, stretching west from Danbury CT, crossing to the west shore of the Hudson and south to Pompton NJ was heavily mineralized with iron ore. Prior to the war, the man who would become Washington's chief of mapmaking for the army, Robert Erskine, was employed as manager of the Ringwood Furnace NJ which had operated for a number of years before A bit south was the Charlottenburg Furnace, named for a now-extinct town of that name just north of Pompton.

In fact, several of Washington's daily General Orders during the summer of refer to units being rotated to more foreward position at "the furnace" then already abandoned as to operation from the Smith's Clove camps of the VA, MD and PA Lines. References to the "furnace road" also appear within the spy reports Beverly Robinson prepared for Clinton in the latter's planning of the October invasion and reduction of Forts Montgomery and Clinton.

One of the largest iron production facilities of the colonial period was the Batsto Furnace in the "pine barrens" area of southern NJ. The site has become an educational tourism site and presents a great deal of informaton on colonial period iron foundry operations. Roger Bacon, in his Epistolae de Secretis Operibus describes gunpowder, and gives a description of how to make it, but the actual invention remains shrouded in the mists of history.

Chemically, gunpowder is a "mixture. The ingredients are saltpetre, sulphur, and charcoal, in equal parts by weight more saltpetre in the mixture will produce powder for muskets, even more will give you pistol powder. These ingredients are moistened to avoid sparks,and the mixture is then ground between the great stone wheels of a powder mill, similar to grinding grain into coarse flour.

Childhood and Education

The resulting mixture is then moistened into a paste, and pushed through a sieve, a process known as corning the powder, to produce small grains, the size and shape of which determine the quality of the powder. If you've ever seen a colonial powder mill, you've no doubt noticed it was situated far from any habitation, and surrounded by a high dirt berm, for obvious reasons. For most of the 18th century and well into the 19th, the world saw an "arms race" to develop a better gunpowder.

One of the important needs of the Continentals was an adequate domestic supply of saltpeter and a satisfactory grade of gunpowder. The defects of the powder made in the United States were well known to the scientists of the day, and the military forces had difficulty when impurities that absorbed moisture from the air itself made it all but impossible to "keep your powder dry. This question was indeed one of international importance. The best powder was Swiss, having the most uniform grain. In France selected M.

Biography of George Washington

Lavoisier to be superintendent of the National Powder Works. Coleman was investigating the properties of charcoal in England, and thanks to his research, British powder was of superior quality. Bowles, Dillon, and Townshend had studied the Spanish niter deposits, and the Indian supply was also the subject of investigation. The Second Continental Congress encouraged the manufacture of saltpeter by offering twenty pounds for every hundred-weight made. Powder tester. France conducted extensive tests in the arsenal at Essonne in to produce a superior powder. To pass the testing, a powder had to hurl the sphere 50 toise feet.

Both the quality and quantity of the gunpowder supplied to the British Army and Navy suffered as a result. During the five years prior to government ownership the Faversham mill produced 7, barrels of gunpowder of which roughly 5, barrels met government proof standards. In the following five years under government ownership production dropped to only 6, barrels of gunpowder, of which only 4, barrels met the standards. Doing the math, this is a loss of 1, barrels of proofed powder production during the five years that Board of Ordnance had owned and operated the Faversham mill.

While the operation of the Faversham mill did little to either improve the quality of powder being produced nor reduce the government's need for civilian manufacturers. It did indicate that the Board of Ordnance had mismanaged the operation of the Faversham mill. There may also have been other factors at play in the manufacturing operations at Faversham, as a number of powdermakers acting as a political lobby were attempting to persuade Prime Minister William Pitt to coerce the Board of Ordnance into selling the Faversham mill. After the Revolution, none other than William Congreve, developer of the "Congreve Rocket", famous as in "the rocket's red glare" and as the great grand-daddy of todays space vehicles, was selected to conduct an investigation into the quality of British gunpowder.

He began conducting a broad series of tests using a barrel of virtually every type of gunpowder that he could find. The barrels of gunpowder were then reexamined and tested for proof. Despite the claims made by British civilian manufacturers their samples fared no better than the ones provided by the Faversham mill, all were found to be spoiled.

The civilian gunpowder had turned into large unusable lumps which constituted from 27 to 90 percent of the contents of the barrels. Overall Congreve indicated that this would have amounted to a serviceability rate of about 60 percent.

King of Battle and First to Fire!

What makes the GRAMPUS testing all the more interesting is that the samples from Sweden, Russia and Holland were all undisturbed by the voyage with the grains remaining separate and serviceable. Thus, the problem was narrowed down to the British manufacturing process. As Congreve put it, British powder produced a "rotton grain".

Artist's conception of the French artillery park at Yorktown. Directly behind the gun carriages are limbers, which, when attached to the gun carriage, transformed them into 4-wheeled vehicles. To the right of the horses, resembling coffins on wheels, are the powder wagons. Farther back are ammunition wagons. Early in the war most American artillery was commandeered from ships and forts. These would have been mounted on ship or garrison carriages right.

These were simply stout wooden frames that rested on four small wheels called "trucks. These were fine on a ship, where lateral re-deployment was done by changing the direction of the ship, and in a fort, where a cannon has a specific field of fire. But for fighting battles, a gun first has to get to the battle over roads with ridges and ruts, then it has to negotiate the uneven terrain of the battlefield itself. Thus, the ship and garrison carriages had to be converted by carpenters and wheelwrights into field carriages, either the block trail or the flask type.

A block trail carriage had the trailing unit formed of a single piece of timber. While this was sufficient for lighter guns, heavier guns were necessarily mounted on flask trails, made of two side pieces with the gun between them right. An interesting hybrid, a light gun with flask trails, can be seen in the photo below left.

Another indispensable piece of transport equipment, used for hauling heavy guns over long distances, was the sling cart below right. Most carriages were made of oak, but walnut, chestnut and maple were also used. The wheels were constructed of either elm or beech. The carriages were a variety of colors including gray, rust, white, and dark blue. In , Washington ordered all carriages painted a light blue in honor of France, light blue being the French royal color. American Artillery grew out of a small number of militia artillery companies in the Colonies.

When war came, the members of these companies brought to the Patriot cause their expertise and their guns. Foremost among these was Henry Knox, a Boston bookseller, volunteer artilleryman and self-taught military genius, who took charge of the foundling American artillery branch and whipped it into a formidable force, probably the most effective branch of the Continental Army.

But Knox was wide awake to the drawbacks of parochialism and in mid he re-organized the forces into four regiments of Continental Artillery. Originally, his establishment called for three regiments of twelve companies and one of eight, but this was later changed to a standard ten-company regiment. The companies varied in strength, depending upon what calibre of guns they possessed and how many of them, the usual gun strength being six to ten guns or howitzers per company.

The available guns were truly a hodge-podge. In the beginning the ordnance consisted of whatever could be "liberated" before the British Army came along and removed them - obsolete cannon from coast batteries, hand-me-down guns of volunteer companies and ships cannon. The motley collection consisted of three-pounder to pounder guns, with the larger calibers most numerous. As a result of this imbalance, and because it was inevitable that this small stock of ordnance would be insufficient, gunfounding was begun in various places.

The first to be produced were small one- and two-pounder swivel guns for naval use, but once the techniques had been mastered larger weapons were made. In some sixty pounders and pounders were cast in Pennsylvania, and shortly afterwards a standardized four-pounder light field gun was put into production. This is where the genius of Henry Knox came to the fore. Instead of having cannon of all sorts and dimensions cast all over the place, he pressed for the concentration of manufacturing effort in one place, where it could be controlled, supervised, and simplified, and he selected Springfield, Mass.

Knox was confident that the British commanders would neither appreciate the significance of Springfield nor, if they did, be capable of carrying out an operation against the town. American-manufactured guns were largely copies of British standard models, since these were the easiest to obtain for the preparation of patterns. His book, "A Treatise of Artillery," had been published in and was the standard text of the day, and a pirate copy was published in Philadelphia in , which became the handbook of the American artillerymen.

In this book Muller had published plans of cannon based on sundry theories of his own, and as a result the few cannon which were ever built to Muller's ideas were made in America. You can tell an American cast tube by looking for a liberty cap on a pole and a sunburst design cast into the metal. The letters "U. The French supplied thirty-one 4-pounders which Knox found very useful as field pieces. These were of the Swedish design. They also sent other guns of the Valliere system in the four pound size. These guns Knox found to be so heavy and over cast that he had them melted down and recast into light 6-pounders.

Each four-pounder made three light 6-pounders. Prior to the Revolution, guns were actually operated in battle by soldiers, but they were transported by civilian teamsters and carters working on contracts. And as they were not slow to point out, their contracts were solely to move guns to and from the scene of action, and didn't extend to risking their lives under enemy fire. As a result, the first people to make themselves scarce when the bullets began to fly were the artillery teamsters, taking their precious horses with them, and if the hard-pressed gunners needed to move their guns there was no means of doing so other than manpower.

This problem of civilian teamsters was one which afflicted every army of the age, since owners of armies were reluctant to foot the bill, in peacetime, for a host of non-combatants.


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During the Revolution both the British and American artillery relied upon contract teamsters for movement, but for the British, with a limited amount of horseflesh available, and with contractors reluctant to ally themselves with the Redcoats, much of the transportation capacity had to be shipped across the Atlantic. On the other hand the American teamsters, while distinct from the Army, still had a fellow-feeling for "their" soldiers and were more inclined to risk their lives and those of their horses for the "cause".

After the Revolution, more and more armies began to reorganize their artillery to do away with the contractor and bring the entire force into uniform. Matrosses first appeared on the establishment in the British Army in Originally, they were Gunners Assistants, i. Unlike their predecessors they were all on the same rate of pay, somewhat lower than the Gunner's.

The word comes from the German "matrossen," meaning "sailors," since the tasks allotted them in action, such as traversing, loading, firing, sponging, manning dragropes, etc, were deemed to be sailors' work. They were less highly trained technically than Gunners. Matrosses were armed with muskets and bayonets, as their duties included guarding the guns and wagons on the march, as well as assisting when breakdowns occurred.

Later they also took over from the Fusiliers the job of preventing the Drivers running away when the shooting started. In the rank of Matross was abolished in the British Army, all serving Matrosses being elevated to the rank of Gunner. They had earned it, for their record was no less distinguished than that of Gunners, as the following story typifies: During the Siege of Gibraltar by the Spanish a shell penetrated the hospital near where a matross lay injured, and bursting near him took off both his legs. Before he died in great pain he uttered no word except to express his regret that he had not been hit while in action on the gun position.

In the 18th century, it had a specific meaning that is almost incomprehensible to people in the 21st century. To illustrate, the series of photographs below demonstrate the amount of particulate manner generated by the discharge of a small cannon. Now, try to envision the amount of smoke that would be generated by dozens of pieces of artillery on a field of battle. Add to that the gunsmoke generated by hundreds, or even thousands, of muskets firing in vollies below.

Now, envision generals and their staffs on the nearby high ground, trying to follow the movements of the troop formations on the field below, and you can grasp the meaning of the "Fog of War. Lamb's Artillery Cannons. Arms Collecting, a quarterly journal, suspended after forty years.

One example; the proper dating of Muller's Treatise of Artillery was reported here. Royal Artillery gun sledges in early 19th century Canada. Bartenstein, Fred, and Isabel Bartenstein. Mendham, N. Biever, Dale E. Birkhimer, William E. Washington: James J. Chapman, Boatner, Mark M. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution.

NY: McKay, Borresen, Thor; Spanish Guns and Carriages , ms. Boyer, Charles S.

4th Infantry Regiment (United States) - Wikipedia

Early Forges and Furnaces in New Jersey. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Brewington, M. Brooks, Noah. New York: G. Putnam's Sons, Callahan, North. Henry Knox, General Washington's General. South Brunswick, NY: Barnes, Cippola, Carlo M. New Haven: Pantheon Books, Calvert, Monte A. Caruana, Adrian B. Bloomfield, Ont. Jean Boudriot Publications, Rotherfield, England, The Royal Navy absorbed about ninety percent of the production of the British Board of Ordnance and Carauana provides important detail on the sucessive developments in the casting of iron ordnance as well as related technical details.

This is a major expansion of an earlier work, cited frequently, by Dr. It contains the story of the Verbruggens at Woolwich. A list of surviving Verbruggens is included. The tactics was to open battle with a cannonade, which disrupted the formation of the Vijayanagar troops, followed by the coup de grace of a cavalry charge. This evidence of the use of artillery by the Bahmani kings is not accepted by all historians, but there is no doubt that by the end of fifteen century, King Mohammed Shah of Gujarat was using artillery both as naval guns and for siege craft in land operations.

Then came the Portuguese, who for the first time introduced the man -o'-war armed with cannon- and introduced the concept of "command of the seas" to Indian Ocean strategy. By the early sixteen century, Zamorin, ruler of Calicut, had begun to emulate the Protuguese and to arm his ships with naval pieces.

It was the early contact with Europeans -based on Surat- or with the Persian and Arab lands across the Arabian sea that was the main reason for the first appearance of the gun in Central and South India. North India remained innocent of the use of this arm for nearly a Century and half longer. The main cause of the latter's defeat was effective use of artillery'" estimated to be nearly guns, manned by Rumi and persian gunners who had learned the art from Osmali gunners.

Lodi's forces were estimated by Babur to be about ,including infantry, cavalry and about a thousand armoured elephants, but containing no artillery. Babur's fire- arms in the battle consisted of hand -guns and light guns resting on wooden falconets. He had no mortars because their carriage was heavy and " required four to five hundred men to haul" Later, however, some mortars were cast by his Persian ordnance chief at Agra and used in the battle of Kanwaha in At Panipat, Babur's forces were deployed in five divisions namely, vanguard, right wing, left wing, center and rear guard.

Besides, there were two flanking parties for making taughama that is, going around the enemy's flanks and attacking his rear; and two small but mobile bodies of easily dispensable reserves called It Mish. The vanguard or " park of artillery " was deployed in the front along with matchlock men in support. It was commanded by two expert gunners- the right wing under Ustad Ali and the left under Mustafa.

To provide adequate protection to musketeers and artillery - men, baggage carts was formed up in front, the wheels of every two being tied together with twisted bull-hides in Turkish fashion.

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Between every two carts about 16 yards five or six shields called mantles on wooden tripods were set up behind which matchlock men were to stand and fire. At the regular intervals gaps were left for the small cavalry parties to advance though and charge. Babur's main plan during the battle was to roll the Afghan wings on to the centre and thus create a worth- while target for his artillery men who "could inflict deadly blows if faced with a concentrated target. So, while the enemy advanced towards the front-line, Babur's enveloping troops cavalry out-flanked the Afghans from the sides and attacked the enemy's rear.

Simultaneously, the left and the right wings engaged the enemy from close quarters. Surrounded from all sides and hard-pressed the Afghan wings rolled on to the front. Thus, by means of his superior tactics and an effective combination of his highly trained cavalry and the new artillery arm Babur was able to wipe out the numerical superiority of his adversary whose mighty army "in the space of half a day was laid in dust. Next came the battle of Kanwaha Khanwa fought between Babur and Rana Sanga of Chittor on 16th March , in which once again the strong artillery fire coupled with superior tactics and efficient cavalry charges won victory for the Mughals.

To face an adversary far superior in numbers Babur had to rely on his mortars and matchlocks. Babur deployed his forces in the same manner as in Panipat, that is the baggage carts at Panipat, probably at Kanwaha tied together in Turkish fashion and arranged in front, five or six shields fixed to wheeled tripods and placed between every two carts and space left at regular intervals for horsemen to sally forth. Behind the carts were the mortars, falconets, and foot-musketeers.

Ustad Ali was posted in front of the centre with the mortars and other wheeled guns called JinsiTopkhana by the Mughals while his colleague Mustafa Khan stood apart from him in front of the centre of the right wing with his musketeers and swivel guns Zamburak or the DastiTopkhana. Babur's plan at the battle of Kanwaha was to reduce the numerical superiority of the Rajput assailants through his defensive matchlock fire and stone -hurling mortars, and to take to the offensive when the enemy's strength was decimated and worn out. The battle opened by the Rajputs attacking Babur's right wing.

Bodies of reserve were rushed to its assistance, when Mustafa Rumi, who commanded one portion of the artillery and matchlocks on the right of the centre, opened fire upon the attackers.. The Marathas were weaker in the artillery arm than any of their contemporaries - mainly because they depended almost on exclusive purchases from other sources for their cannon. Although Shivaji had a regular department of Topkhana and he was well aware of the effectiveness of artillery, he never had a foundry of his own.

He managed to obtain some guns from the foundries at Surat, while others had been captured from the muslim rulers of the south-but by and large his Topkhana was described as a collection of "old and defective' guns palmed off by the European merchant companies which carried on a regular trade in arms and ammunition. Besides cannons of European manufacture, Shivaji possessed some light pieces of Indian make called Tijala or Zamburak or Shuternal.

Cannon Crewmember (13B)

The furthest he ever went toward ensuring a regular supply of artillery was to allow a French company to build a factory at Rajapore. In the Peshwa period, some efforts were made by the Marathas to manufacture their own Artillery. Baji Rao started his own foundry. A Cannon ball factory was established at Ambegavan in during the administration of Madhav Rao I and four years later another factory was established at Poona for manufacturing cannons.

These factories, however, produced a number of anti quoted guns of a style notoriously crude and clumsy, and the Marathas still steadily looked towards the Europeans for the supply of arms and ammunition. The guns used by the Marathas in the third battle of Panipat against Abdali's mobile Artillery are described by Kasi Raj Pandit as ''very large and heavy and their level not easily altered, their shot began to pass over our Abdali's troops, and fell a mile in the rear. Like all other Indian rulers of the 18th century, Tipu aimed to organise his Army on the western model- based on the predominance of Infantry and Artillery.

Primarily an infantry soldier, he relied more on his Artillery than Cavalry- an Arm which he often neglected. The Artillery took an active part in all the battles he fought against the Marathas and the British. To face the British Army, which has highly modernised Artillery, Tippu had to improve the standard of his guns. After the siege of Seringapatam by Lord Cornwallis, Tipu paid greater attention to the casting of better quality guns and also acquired some from France.

Guns were cast both in iron and brass by his workmen under the supervision of French technicians. Tipu improvised a technique of smelting iron in clay furnaces with bellows of buffalo hide, and hammered it into gun shots. Buchanan says that Tipu had a Frenchman probably Manoud in his employ who devised an engine driven by water power for boring cannons. An observer said that the ornamental finishing of the brass guns and mortars had been "brought to some perfection".

Guru Govind Singh first conceived the idea of forming the Sikhs into a militaristic commonwealth to fight the Moghuls. The earlier Sikh Armies, however , were composed almost entirely of irregular Infantry and horsemen - the famous Misls or the Dal Khalsa. Subsequently, the proportion of horsemen increased considerably- so that at one time the strength of the Misls rose to ten thousand infantry and any where between one to three hundred thousand horsemen.

The Department of Artillery was organised into two sections Topkhana Kalan siege guns and TopkhanaKhurd field guns and was placed under a separate Darogha as early as