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There were, of course, other Germans — as Bleibtreu noted — who were convinced of the need to compete with the British Empire in material terms. In Alfred von Tirpitz he found a brilliant collaborator, who skillfully manipulated both political and public opinion in favor of naval expansion. The mobilization of commercial, industrial, and agrarian interests in support of the new naval policy became a new literary industry. Quite predictably, a new branch of popular fiction blossomed at this time, dripping with salt water and the tang of sea air.

On the niveau of the comparable English yarns published at the time in Gem and Magnet, Bernstorff tells the story of a great sea battle somewhere off the German coast, following the surprise attack on Danzig by an unnamed enemy. While the enemy is unnamed, England is clearly intended, and Bernstorff ascribes the success of the German fleet both to the courage of the German commanders and to the inferiority of the opposing ships, many of which are of an older construction.

Der Mund der Diplomaten schweigt. The die is cast! War is declared! The diplomats have fallen silent. In their place the artillerymen will open fire and speak in words of thunder! Mit Muth hinaus zum Kampf! Mit Gott hinaus zum Siege! The German people greets its boys in blue, its victorious sons who sallied forth to bloody strife in defense of fatherland and honor! Marching with courage to battle! Marching with God to victory! Fly, German eagle, fly across the ocean blue! Yours it is and ever more will be so! Karl Eisenhart, in Die Abrechnung mit England , describes how German sea power wrests Gibraltar from Britain, together with all her African possessions.

With the reconciliation of Britain and France in and the beginning of the entente, Anglo-German animosity became more focused. The growing tension between the two leading European powers produced a bumper crop of novels prophesying war. In Germany, as in Britain, was an annus mirabilis of the genre. As already noted, The Invasion of appeared in German translation shortly after its publication in English. The translated version enjoyed considerable success, and 30, copies were sold within the first few months of publication. Part of this success may be attributable, however, to the happy ending that was added by the translator, Traugott Tamm.

In the English original, the resistance of the English population finally drives out the German conquerors, and an unsatisfactory peace is concluded. In a year the book sold , copies, and an English translation was published in The plot diverged from the usual North Sea invasion fare and involved a conflict on a much wider scale. The global pretensions of the plot are immediately apparent in the first few pages, set in Samoa — a location with some significance for advocates of German colonial expansion.

Russia remains neutral, as does America, and both eventually emerge from the conflict as the only real winners. The wreckage in the plot is fairly extensive, with set-piece naval battles off Cuxhaven home win for Germany , in the Mediterranean a victory for the British over the Italians , and off Heligoland an away win for the British, in which all but one of the German ships are sunk. On land the Germans are more successful and push the French and British back to Bordeaux. After eight months of carnage, the war finally comes to an end when the news arrives in Europe of a series of uprisings in Africa and Asia against the colonial powers.

Following an armistice generously offered by the Kaiser, the European powers are free to put down the black and yellow rebellions. This does not mean a return to the prewar order, however, since the decimation of the French, German, and British fleets meant that naval domination had passed over to America, and power on the land to Russia — St Petersburg and Washington had taken the places of London and Berlin. Under American pressure, the British were to withdraw from their Caribbean colonies, and the European governments forced to observe the terms of the Monroe Doctrine.

Two extracts make this clear. Als die kaiserliche Familie ihre Loge betrat, ging ein Gemurmel durch die Versammlung. Ein metallisches Klirren und Knirschen des kriegerischen Schmuckes, aller Augen wandten sich einen Moment dem Herrscher zu und eine rauschende 61 Bewegung ging durch die Menge. As the imperial family entered their pew a murmur went up through the company. A metallic clinking and chinking of military regalia, the eyes of all turned for a moment to the ruler and a rustling movement stirred through the company.

Mensch zu Mensch, nur verschieden nach dem Volksempfinden und nach den Farben der Uniform. Man to man, different only in their sense of belonging and the color of their uniform. The bullet is indeed blind, this little piece of metal, it knows not whence it comes nor whither it goes, nor the crop of tears that will blossom from the soil on which its victims bleed to death.

Speculation has variously ascribed his work to the Emperor, to different distinguished naval officers, and — less frequently — to promi63 nent journalists. The first-mentioned guess is of course not correct. This debate was generally conducted in non-fictional terms, although there were semi-fictional contributions. Mai Even with the assistance of the French and Italian navies, which could hardly be relied upon, a naval war against England could only ever end unhappily.

Seid einig, einig, einig! Be united, united, united! Although informed opinion saw no prospect of a successful water-borne invasion of England, the fantasists had an exciting new weapon in their armory, the airship. Here too, informed opinion was skeptical. The invention of air-borne dirigibles serves to increase nervousness amongst the English people.

The leader in the genre was Rudolf Martin. This was technically possible, said Martin, in aluminum Zeppelins with a fourteen-meter diameter, each carrying seventy soldiers. Flying at a height of 1, meters, the German airships could float over the English maritime defenses, merely pausing to destroy the home fleet in a hail of aerial bombs and torpedoes. Such visions of the power of the airship naturally lent themselves to even more extravagant fantasies. Maurus, the pseudonymous author of Ave Caesar!

Deutsche Luftschiffe im Kampfe um Marokko, avenged the diplomatic defeat suffered by Germany in the Moroccan crisis by sending in the airships. With a shiver they sensed the secret whispering of that great moment when the eternal glow in the forge of nation-growth bursts into flame — for bane or blessing. The King of the Oceans received the Lord of the Skies. The King procrastinated. Look above: the war-eagles are preparing for battle. The King paused again. I stand guarantee for peace with my royal word. The king smiled dully. Seeliger was a very productive writer, who favored tales of the sea, and novels set in and around Hamburg.

His airship novel, in contrast, is set principally in Funchal, and the early plot evolves around the efforts of Waldemar Quint, a German inventor, to build an effective airship motor. This he achieves, using a machine driven by a Wasserstoffkristall. The British send a battleship and two more cruisers to the same spot, to find out the identity of the mysterious aggressor. Once again, Quint strikes, the two cruisers are sunk, and the battleship is allowed to limp back to England. Sammeln alle Schiffe auf der Reede von Portland, wo ich sie in einer Nacht vernichten werde.

Meine Kampfmittel sind in ihrer Wirkung unbegrenzt. Weil England die erste Macht war, die schwimmende Mordmaschinen auf das freie Meer hinausgeschickt hat. Why are you fighting against us? Disarm your fleet. Assemble all your ships in the roads off Portland where I shall destroy them in one night.

My weaponry is unlimited in its effects. Because England was the first power to send floating vessels of destruction out into the free ocean. Because England has stolen half the globe. After endless further complications, some involving the American newspaper proprietor, William Randolph Hearst, and his star reporter, Horace Toddy, the day of reckoning approaches. Wir erwarten deine Hilfe! We expect your assistance. At the last moment, however, her resolve weakens, and her love for Quint proves stronger than her patriotism. She urges him to flee, but in vain, for the British shoot him out of the sky as he tries to escape in his last remaining airship.

The British fleet survives, continuing to rule the waves, but the message is clear: Even capital ships are defenseless against the new technology of the air. Although the Zeppelin threat existed more in the minds of the literary fantasists than of the military strategists, it had a potent effect on the British imagination, and the theme flourished after the outbreak of war. In Zeppelin Nights — a book described by J. Indeed, the conflict between national and personal loyalty, a question also thrown in by Seeliger towards the end of Englands Feind, points to another favored vehicle for fictional discourse on Anglo-German animosity in the years leading up to the First World War.

Die Institutionen sind teilweise mittelalterlich feudal. Gesellschaftlich haben die Deutschen bekanntlich die schlechtesten Manieren, wie man an allen internationalen Kurorten beobachtet. Sie kleiden sich schlecht, schwatzen laut, sind unreinlich, essen unappetitlich, meist noch mit dem Messer. Irrespective of how much education is pursued there, the country remains politically backward, bound to fill every free-born Briton with profound distaste.

Its institutions are, in part, medieval and feudal. Socially, the Germans are the clumsiest of all, as can be witnessed at any international spa. They dress badly, talk loudly, lack cleanliness, eat noisily, still using their knives by and large. Their cuisine is ghastly. Beer is their national dish. In character they are arrogant, quarrelsome, brutal, consumed by a particularly stupid rage at all things English — out of envy, of course. Student pranks come across as medieval, so does their godless dueling. The crass stupidity of the so-called Junkers, a miserable class of people with antediluvian attitudes, is proverbial.

Ordinary citizens count for nothing, their only right: to pay high taxes. Sie pochen auf ihren Geldbeutel, denn sie haben ja meistens viel Geld, und Geld allein gilt bei ihnen, nur der Kaufmann regiert. Mostly the people are tall and strong, they step out with bold self-confidence as if asking: what price the world? They point to their wallets, for they mostly have lots of money, and money is the only thing that counts: the merchant is king. Regardless of all appeals to racial affinity, to cousins across the water and related monarchs, two nations with such different characters would appear to be entirely irreconcilable.

For those happy to stay at home, comfortably cocooned in their national prejudices, these differences were of little personal import. As soon as the borders were crossed, however, and emotional links established, the differences took on an existential significance. The difficulties involved in trying to resolve or accommodate these national conflicts within a marriage became a popular fictional theme in the prewar years, a favored vehicle for airing wider prejudices. Abandoning both Edith and her country, Merker returns to Germany and atones for his sins of omission by serving in a remote garrison on the Eastern borders.

The bankruptcy of his father-in-law obliges him to renounce his commission, however, and return to England. Reunited with his wife, now reformed by her new-found poverty, Merker succeeds as a businessman in England thanks to his application and Zielstrebigkeit. He is saved from this profitable but unworthy existence, however, by an inheritance from a rich uncle in Frankfurt, and with these new means he is able to return to the service of the Kaiser as an officer in the German navy. Implied, but not stated in this resolution of the plot, is the probability that his checkered life will be given an ultimate purpose when, at some time in the future, he gets the chance to blow his English relatives out of the water.

Haben sie recht? Are they right? There were, however, a number of novels written at this time in English on the theme of AngloGerman marriages, which shun the black and white of the propagandist in favor of more subtle differentiations. These novels allowed for criticism of both nations, and any praise for one side carried with it an explicit or implicit criticism of the other. Most were the result of first-hand experience in Germany by the English-speaking writers.

In a descending sequence of quality, one could draw up a list of novels that would include: E. Further examples of fiction, which do not directly involve mixed marriages, but nevertheless throw light on British attitudes to German society, include Jerome K. Close links exist between the Anglo-German books of Forster, von Arnim, Lawrence, and Mansfield, and between their authors.

These books have also, to varying degrees, been the subject of scholarly enquiry and are all still available in paperback. The novels of Wylie and Spottiswoode, by contrast, have vanished from view, and deserve some attention. Rather than describe each of these novels individually, it would perhaps be more profitable to look for shared motifs — motifs that helped form the fictional stereotypes of the two countries.

In My German Year, she dismisses the large cities and points to the medium-sized towns like Karlsruhe as typically German. To walk through such a town is to gain an impression of light, fresh air and cleanliness. A whole army of neatly uniformed individuals are busy morning, noon and night sweeping, watering and sand-strewing according to orders. And over everything the policeman watches with a paternal, wakeful eye. If you wish to prove his wakefulness you need only leave your particular piece of pavement in an untidy state, and in a few minutes a polite but firm arm of the law will spring apparently from nowhere 81 to recall you to a sense of duty.

Thanks to the policeman, says Wylie, there are no beggars, street musicians, or rowdies to upset the prevailing sense of calm and order. While Wylie found this entirely positive, an earlier visitor, Jerome K. Indoors and out of doors, in sickness and in health, in pleasure and in work, we will tell you what to 82 do, and we will see to it that you do it. We Germans are permitted to call ourselves citizens, but it seems we are obliged to feel ourselves subservient. An Englishman knows that every civil servant, the army, and the navy exist to serve and to assist him, not to treat him like a child or humiliate him.

Fortunate Englishman! Although invested with endless power to obstruct, the Beamte, when viewed as an individual rather than as a representative of the state, is portrayed by the British novelists as a poor specimen. Nor were they ever late. They were always at their post, weaving their little pattern into the vast national design with absolute efficiency and dignity, without haste or disorder. At the bottom of the pile, in contrast to British practice, are the businessmen, and the stereotype of the fat, greedy German tends to be limited to this class.

I am im88 mediately forced to —. This is particularly galling to Patience, the heroine, as the subject of his speech is the decline 89 of England. The disparaging treatment accorded to the commercial classes is explained in terms of anti-Semitism. In her non-fictional account Eight Years in Germany, Wylie writes: For a long time German trade was almost exclusively in the hands of Jews, thus becoming doubly distasteful to a people whose antipathy to the Jewish population, as unfortunate as it is fundamental, was in90 evitably increased by an unreasonable if natural bitterness.

The exclusion of the Jews from polite society in Germany, and their total rejection by the military caste, is a recurring theme in the novels of Wylie and Spottiswoode. It also carries an implicit critique of the British, for their more liberal treatment of the Jews. She says Jews rule soci91 ety, and everyone runs after them there. Here Spottiswoode merely reverses the plot, and allows her visiting German girl to be amazed and shocked that her English hostess should not only dine with Jews, but speak of them in flattering terms.

It was a central argument in a book published in the same year as the Hedwig novel by Alexander von Peetz, and entitled England und der Kontinent. It should also be remembered, however, that the English could indulge in anti-Semitism in the other direction. The plots of both books are strikingly similar. An English girl, from narrow, provincial circumstances, goes to Germany and is courted by an officer in the German army.

Nora falls for her future husband, Wolff von Arnim a happy coincidence of name!

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She saw Arnim in a new light, as the worker, the soldier, the man of action and iron purpose. Wolff von Arnim, however, is altogether a more thoughtful person, and his developing love for Nora is accompanied by Tristan, played by the two lovers as a piano duet. On completing the first act: He turned and looked at her. I feel that there are many more wonders to fathom which are yet too deep for me.

But I understand enough to know that they are there — and to be glad. Compared to the muscular German supermen, with Wagner ringing in their ears, the English menfolk are given a very bad press. Both men are only able to function thanks to their strong, competent wives, and the novels share a distinctly feminist reading of the unfair lot of these oppressed wives, nobly suffering under the folly of doltish husbands. A German bounder in the family! Many 99 thanks! This challenge is issued simultaneously with a German ultimatum to England, and the duel echoes on the private level the crisis that looms on the international stage.

Dueling and the concept of honor clearly had considerable attraction to both authors. An insult to the nation involves either war or dishonour. An insult to an individual bearer of the symbol involves, logically, death or dishonour. Ilford yawned. What was behind this concept of military and family honor?

This impression strikes home most forcibly when the respective husbands appear for the first time in civilian clothing. The appalling dress sense of German womanhood is a theme that crops up frequently in both books.

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It is the parvenu and the business classes who love a fashionable show and display. There were other fronts too. Furnishings, too, prove a point of bitter contention. Both in the small garrison town and later in Berlin, Nora finds her surroundings ugly and uncomfortable, only made bearable by her love for her husband. I cannot, as a German officer, stand by and hear my beloved country disparaged. Although resolved to change her ways and support her husband in all his Germanness, and against her native inclinations, she is able to return to her roots because of the death of her husband in a riding accident.

The British government backs down, however, since the army is totally unprepared for a war with Germany. If there had been a war it would have been a repetition of , with London for Sedan, and they knew it. No horses, reduced regiments, a crowd of half-trained men pitted against a nation which has been ready for war any day in the last years! We have grown too easygoing, too fond of smooth comfort.

You will fight the unhappy influence of the narrow-hearted fools and braggarts who have helped to bring catastrophe into your life and upon whole nations. Only connect the prose and the passion, and both will be exalted, and human love will be seen at its highest. Yet as Firchow has shown, it also corresponds to Bifrost in the Norse Myths, the scene of apocalyptic destruction on the judgment day.

In Howards End the destruction of the present race of gods at Bifrost is symbolized by the destruction of the Wilcox dynasty, and the reader is left with a slight hope for a new race in the child of Helen Schlegel and Leonard Bast. In this battle of words, both sides measure strength against strength, ship against ship, in a conflict of two avowedly incompatible systems.

In the mixed-marriage novel, by contrast, neither side is granted an absolute monopoly of virtue, and the possibility of reconciliation is held open to the very end. In all the mixed-marriage novels female frailty in some way threatens male superiority and the empty concepts of honor and of national pride. While it is certain that the invasion novels actually encouraged the war psychosis on both sides of the Channel, there is little evidence that the novels of reconciliation had any effect as an antidote.

Duncker, , 64— October 7, : — Und ich kann mir das Lachen der Feldwebel und Gefreiten denken, als diese dicke Masse die Treppe heraufkeuchte. Sie schickten ihn sofort weg. And I can just imagine the sergeants and corporals laughing as this podgy figure panted up the stairs. They immediately sent him away. Lissauer in despair. Berlin: Carl Heymanns Verlag, Subsequent references to this work are cited in the text using the page number alone.

Craig, Germany, — Oxford: Clarendon, , Subsequent references to this work will be given in the text using the page number alone. Rowland Thirlmere, The Clash of Empires, trans. Wells, The World Set Free ; repr. Paulis Nachf. Bernstorff continued to write similar nautical nonsense right up to the outbreak of war. In Ran an den Feind Leipzig: C. Thomas, Berlin: Verlag Dr. Wedekind, , Sponholtz, Berlin: Karl Curtius, , Lawrence, Mr. Noon London: Grafton, , Wylie, Towards Morning London: Cassell, , 9.

Noon, Wylie, Eight Years in Germany, Jerome, Three Men on the Bummel, — The fruits of his studies were published in three volumes as Das englische Haus Berlin: Wasmuth, I would like to kill a million Germans — two 1 million. However, what is perhaps not quite so typical is that he based his view on firsthand experience of German militarism rather than on mere stereotypes. This experience he gained from his visit to Metz with Frieda Weekley, with whom he was having a clandestine affair, and whose family still lived there.

There was such a to-do. They vow I am an English officer. I am reduced to my last shilling again. So are the essays really so warmongeringly anti-German — or was the Westminster Gazette getting in a stew over nothing? Let us look in more detail at the two offending essays. They are not like English soldiers. As we watch our soldiers go flaunting down the street, we feel the pride of the human creature.

With the German soldiers it is not so. There marched past me this morning a squad of men with stumpy helmets and trousers bagging over their boots, short, thick men, and they looked for all the world like a division of bears shuffling by. I wonder to myself if my dislike of these German officers is racial, or owing to present national feeling, or if it is a temperamental aversion. I decide on the last. So, far from coming to understand Germany better during his stay there during and , it seems that Lawrence discovered a new dislike of the country.

The moment you are in Germany, you know. It 14 feels empty, and, somehow, menacing. Trust the tale. On the face of it, yes. Take The Prussian Officer. Published in , it is the story of a sadistic Prussian officer who beats and humiliates his orderly to the point that the said or18 derly kills him before destroying himself too. Similarly, Mr Noon does little to bridge the Anglo-German gap. The first ambassador of Germany we find in the text is Alfred, the Herr Professor. It was an insulting display of militaristic insolence and parvenu imperialism.

The whole thing was a presumption, a deliberate, insolent, Germanistic insult to everybody, even to the simpler Germans themselves. The spirit was detestably ill-bred, such a mechanical heelclicking assumption of haughtiness without any deep, real human pride. When men of a great nation go a bit beyond themselves, and foster a cock-a-doodling haughtiness and a supercilious insolence in their own breasts, well, then they are asking for it, whoever they may be.

MN, —60 The anti-German — warmongering? In order to escape, though, Gilbert is doomed to have a final encounter with German rules and regulations: he fails to pay his Zuschlag supplementary fare , and an altercation ensues with a ticket-collector. Indeed, Gilbert rages, the whole of Germany bows down before the gods of order, system, and officialdom: Dear Gilbert mused on the god-almighty ferocity of Prussian officials.

Nay, the shabbiest porter was an olympic — or at least a Wotan God — once he had put his holy cap on. And all the mere civilians grovelled before a peak-official-cap as before some nimbus. What a funny world! They saw in it the symbol of Germanic Over-Allness. MN, D. Goethe began millions of intimacies, and never got beyond the how-do-you-do stage, then fell off into his own boundless ego. He perverted himself into perfection and God-likeness. But do do a book of the grand orthodox perverts.

But if Goethe fares badly in his perverted perfection and boundless ego, Thomas Mann fares even worse. But his complaint is deeper: it is of the soul. The man [Aschenbach? Or Mann himself? It is not clear] is sick, body and soul. He portrays himself as he is, with wonderful skill and art, portrays his sickness. And since any genuine portrait is valuable, this book has its place. It portrays one man, one atmosphere, one sick vision. Thomas Mann seems to me the last sick sufferer from the complaint of Flaubert. The latter stood away from life as from a leprosy.

There he is, after all these years, full of disgusts and loathing of himself, as Flaubert was, and Germany is being voiced, or partly 25 so, by him. So the position seems pretty clear: Lawrence was a patent warmonger who did his utmost to reinforce all the stereotypes of Germany: Ordnung, Pflicht, brutality, petty-minded bureaucracy — not to mention its lack of Life.

Forster, he wrote that the kind of fate she was cut out for was to be 26 killed by a bomb dropped by her own countrymen. But is it really that simple?

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And we all went mad. Watching the firing practice, Lawrence is particularly struck by the fact that the man who D. This was the glamour and glory of the war: blue sky overhead and living green country all around, but we, amid it all, a part in some insensate will, our flesh and blood, our soul and intelligence shed away, and all that remained of us a cold metal adherence to an iron machine.

TI, 82 The essay ends on a grim note: But what is it all about? I cannot understand; I am not to understand. My God, why I am a man at all, when this is all, this machinery piercing and tearing?

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It is a war of artillery, a war of machines, and the men no more than the subjective material of the machine. It is so unnatural as to be unthinkable. Yet we must think of it. But he knew it was all cant. He was out to kill and destroy; he did not even want to be an angel of salvation. Some chaps might feel that way. All he could feel was that at best it was a case of kill or be killed. As for the saviour of mankind: well, a German was as much mankind as an Englishman. What are the odds? This is made even clearer in the revision of the story. Here, Evelyn, now called Egbert, sins on two counts: he rejects the war, and — even worse — contradicts all the prevailing anti-German sentiments.

He had not the faintest desire to overcome any foreigners or to help in their death. He had no conception of Imperial England, and Rule Britannia was just a joke to him. He was a pure-blooded Englishman, perfect in his race, and when he was truly himself he could no more have been aggressive on the score of his Englishness than a rose can be aggressive on the score of its rosiness. No, he had no desire to defy Germany and to exalt England. The distinction between German and English was not for him the distinction between good and bad. It was the distinction between 41 blue water-flowers and red or white bush-blossoms: just difference.

The difference between the wild boar and the wild bear. And a man was good or bad according to his nature, not according to his nationality. In fact, England also comes in for some fierce criticism. As for the German threat — what threat? What of that other anti-German tract, Mr Noon? MN, The glamorous vast multiplicity, all made up of differences, mediaeval, romantic differences, this seemed to break his soul like a chrysalis into a new life.

Such a little bit among all the vast rest. Whereas till now she had seemed all-in-all in herself. Now he knew it was not so. Her all-in-allness was a delusion of her natives. Her marvellous truths and standards and ideals were just local, not universal. They were just a piece of local pattern, in what was really a vast, complicated, far-reaching design. His tight and exclusive nationality seemed to break down in his heart.

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Brown, Molly: "Children's Literature Matters. Huntington: Our Sunday Visitor Pub. London: I. Tauris, Consumer Reflections on the Harry Potter Phenomenon. London: Sage, , Brown, Stephen: "Harry Potter and the fandom menace. Amsterdam, London: Butterworth-Heinemann, , Brown, Stephen: Wizard! Harry Potter's Brand Magic. London: Cyan Books, Forget the Customer, Develop Marketease. Oxford: Capstone, ,. Brown, Stephen: "Who moved my Muggle? Harry Potter and the marketing imaginarium. Brown Stephen: "Marketing for muggles: Harry Potter and the retro revolution. Strong ed. Cardiff ,.

Brunjes, Ann: "Living with Harry. Bruun, Kai: " Bryan, Charles S. Bryfonski, Dedria ed. Rowling's Harry Potter series. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, New York: Lantern Books, Avon: Adams Media, Buddecke, Wolfram: "Harry Potters Lehrjahre. Unvorgreifliche Bemerkungen zu Joanne K. Rowlings Bestseller. Lesen - Verstehen - Vermitteln. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, , Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Ljubljana: Sophia, Lanham: Lexington Books, Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, Burkart, Gina L.

Relire les productions pour la jeunesse. Burkhart, Claudia: "Harry Potter. Bern: Peter Lang, , Eine qualitative Inhaltsanalyse aus germanistischer Sicht. Butler, Rebecca P. Butler, Rebecca R. Byatt, A. Steen eds. Amsterdam: Benjamins, , Byrman, Gunilla: "'Den har ju Harry Potter-medicin! Byron, Jonathan ed. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, , Chesterton Institute , Camden, Vera J. Ipswich: Salem Press, Campbell, Lori M. Jefferson: McFarland, Zollikofen: Walking Tree, , Barcelona: , Cani, Isabelle: "Voldemort, ultime avatar de Peter Pan.

Paris: Autrement, , Cani, Isabelle: "Harry Potter contre l'enfant roi. Pour en finir avec la magie de l'enfance. Paris: Fayard, Cantrell, Sarah K. Rowling's 'Harry Potter' Series. Capuano, Romolo Giovanni: errori di traduzione che hanno cambiato il mondo.

Carman, William F. Carney, John J. Muggles: Literary criticism and legal challenge. Granada: Editorial de la Universidad de Granada , Carriero, Antonio: Elementi di psicopedagogia nell'antica scuola di Hogwarts: Harry Potter e la magia dell'educazione. Rimini: Il cerchio, Carstensen, Christine-Sarah: Devenir Magicien de sa vie. Mode d'emploi. Paris: Dervy, Chicago: American Library Association, Korbach: Helmer, A Literary Analysis of Children in School.

Amsterdam: Rodopi, Contemporary Cinema 2 ,. Santa Monica: Flydiver Press, Casares, Allyson J. Research into the Realities of Translation Fiction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, , Intertextuality in 'Harry Potter'. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, , Paris: Ellipses, Manchester, Kinderhook: St. Jerome, Paris: M. Manchester: Manchester UP, , Barrie, C. Dickens, C. Lewis, P. Travers, E. Nesbit et J.

Cherrett, Lisa: The triumph of goodness. Biblical themes in the Harry Potter stories. Oxford: Bible Reading Fellowship, Approach: Ethical Criticism. Sheffield: Sheffield Hallam University, Chippendale, Lisa A. Philadelphia, PA: Chelsea House, Aalborg: Aalborg Universitetsforlag, , Chumo, Peter N. Rowling's "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone". Clarnette, Lynley: A Wizard lit master to J. Illustrated by Caanan Grall, Valerie den Ouden. Ballarat: Wizard Books, Cochran, Tanya R.

Coen, Annette: "Rummel um Harry Potter. Die Vermarktung einer Fantasiefigur zum 'Star'. Leiden, Boston: Brill, , Spellbinding Map and Book of Secrets. London Colebatch, Hal G. Christchurch; Cybereditions, University of Reading, July Reading: Accio UK, ISBN Compson, William: J. Conrady, Peter ed. Der unheimliche Erfolg eines Best- und Longsellers. Oberhausen: Athena Lesen und Medien Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, I libri, i film, i personaggi, i luoghi, l'autrice, il mito.

Milano: Vallardi, Magid ed. Corrigan, Paul T. Berlin: Springer, Corriveau, Kathleen H. Coward, Jo: "The Harry Potter challange to children's literature. Crabtree, Sara: "Harry the Hero? Craig, Jeffrey M. Fordsburg: Zabalaza Books, Croffie, Alexis L. Lewis, Charles Williams, and Mythopoeic Literature 28 , Lewis, Charles Williams, and Mythopoeic Literature 27 , Cromer, Julie D. Hawthorn: Zadok Institute for Christianity and Society, Anthroposophie im Dialog 11 , 35ff.

Crysel, Laura C. Cuntz-Leng, Vera: "Alles im Fluss? In: Cinema Verwandlung.

Bielefeld: transcript, Cuntz-Leng, Vera: "Harry Potter transmedial. Cuntz-Leng, Vera: "Frodo auf Abwegen. Das queere Potenzial des aktuellen Fantasykinos. Cusack, Carole M. Cusack, John W.

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Morehead, Venetia Laura Delano Robertson eds. Literackie, Czubek, Todd A. Dachs, Heidi: "Kristen modstand mod Harry Potter. Formen und Wege einer neuen Literatur. Dallerice, Marisa ed. Dalton, Russell W. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, Das, Ranjana: "'To be number one in someone's eyes Davies, Alison E. Melbourne M. Thesis, University of Melbourne, Australia. Davies, Eirlys E. Davies, Richard: "Like a Rowling Stone? Ann Arbor: Nimble Books, An Unauthorized Guide to the Book. Kulturelle und epochenspezifische Diskurse aus Sicht der Fachdisziplinen. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren "Klassiker" der internationalen Jugendliteratur 1 , Eine magische Zeitreise von Merlin bis Harry Potter.

Bloomington: AuthorHouse, Greensboro: Carson Dellosa, Milwaukie: Dark Horse Books, , Heidelberg: Winter, Amherst: Cambria Press, DeMitchell, Todd A. The First Amendment and the reading curriculum. Children's Reflections on their 'Potter Experience'. Keith Booker ed. Denton, Peter H. Desilet, Gregory E. Leicester: Troubador, , Paris: Bayard jeunesse, Les petits guides j'aime lire 5. Dickerson, Matthew T. Grand Rapids, Mich.

Rowling: Harry Potter im Unterricht. Klassen Paderborn Praktisch-theologische und religionsdidaktische Analysen. Distelmeyer, Jan: "Finite Incantatem! Abschied von Harry Potter. Dixey, Brenda P. Dodd, Antony N. Dolan, Frances E. Shahani ed. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, , Akten der gleichnamigen internationalen Arbeitstagung Leipzig, 4.

Band 2. Bonn: Romanistischer Verlag, , Dorst, Monique: Ensnaring Tales: Two problematic hypodiegetic narratives and some possible solutions. Doughty, Amie A. Doughty, Amie a. Rowling's Magical System. Dresang, Eliza T. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, , Auf theologischer Spurensuche in Harry Potter. Implizite Theologie als hermeneutisches Instrument zur Analyse aktueller Kinder- und Jugendliteratur.

Drotner, Kirsten: "Harry Potter og den moderne magis hemmelighed. Dubiel, Peter: "Harry Potters Quidditch. Dudink, Peter: "Harry Potter anti-hero. From mis-education to conflict mismanagement. Duffy, Edward: "Sentences in Harry Potter: students in future writing classes. Zur Harry Potter Kontroverse. Reactions letters to the editor in vols. London: Puffin Books, Partridge, Eric Christianson ed. London, Oakville, CT.

Stroud: Sutton, Duska, Ronald F. Kovac, Inspiration til at arbejde med Harry Potter og kristendommen. Frederiksberg: Unitas, Lesefaszination und literarische Raum- und Figurenkonstellationen. Ehnenn, Jill R. Att arbeta med fantasy i skolan. Engdahl, Erica: "The foulest creatures that walk this earth.

Lund Engels, Rafke: Harry Potter en het magische erfgoed. De omgang met het verleden en erfgoed in de boeken en films van Harry Potter. Epletveit, Torill: Harry Potter - venn eller fiende? In: Law and Social Inquiry 21 3, S. Zur politischen Kultur des Konstitutionalismus in Deutschland. Probleme und Perspektiven aus der Sicht des Historikers. In: Helmut Neuhaus Hrsg. Volume 1: — In: Rainer Wahl Hrsg. In: Neuhaus Hrsg. In: Heinz Reif Hrsg. Entwicklungslinien und Wendepunkte im In: Alois Schmid Hrsg. Dies zeichnete sich auch in den Bildungsdebatten ab.

Geschichte und Geschichtsschreibung. In: Johannes Koll Hrsg. Jahrhunderts in Deutschland. Unter anderem deshalb waren die Bildungsdebatten auch Verfassungsdebatten. In: Lehnert Hrsg. Bielefeld , S. Beide II. In: Francis M. Thompson Hrsg. In: Historisches Jahrbuch , S. Das Board of Education wurde erst eingerichtet.

Norman: Church and Society in England — A Historical Study. In: Midland History 3 2, S. Birmingham , S. Welche Legitimationsstrategien wandten die Ligen an, um eine Stimme in den Bildungsdebatten zu erlangen? Die Legitimationsstrategien und -praktiken der Ligen Die Garantie der Vereinigungsfreiheit war sowohl in der englischen als auch in der belgischen Verfassung verbrieft. Jahrhunderts gezeigt hat, erfolgte in dieser Zeit eine Disziplinierung der politischen Kommunikation, die vor allem in deren Verschriftlichung aber auch in gesetzlichen Restriktionen bestand.

Jahrhundert besonders in England keine Seltenheit mehr war. An Introduction. In: Kirsch et al. In: Purvis Hrsg. Women in English Local Government — Oxford—New York Linz , S. Im Jahr jedoch versandte sie eine Einladung an die Ehefrauen ihrer Mitglieder, worin sie diese ausnahmsweise zur Teilnahme an der Jahresversammlung einlud.

In: Ute Behning Hrsg. Vor allem die herausragende soziale Stellung der katholischen Kirche zwang die belgische Liga zu einem Legitimationsdiskurs. Auch ein Mitglied aus Nil St. Gislain an Charles Buls. Nil St. Vincent Robert an Charles Buls, Bequette an Charles Buls. Lathny Frings an Charles Buls. Luicent Die belgische Liga suchte vor diesem Hintergrund nach alternativen Legitimationsquellen. Nord Hrsg. Der oftmals neidische Blick, den die belgischen Akteure somit nach England lenkten, richtete sich auch auf die von der NEL angewandten kommunikativen Praktiken, insbesondere das Petitionieren.

Eine Petition mit dem Ziel der Verbesserung der sozialen Stellung der Grundschullehrer richtete sich an beide Kammern des Parlaments;58 dies tat auch eine Petition zur Reglementierung von Kinderarbeit aus dem Jahr LB ; dies. In: Bulletin de la Ligue belge de l'enseignement. Jahrhunderts noch nicht erfolgt war. In: Bulletin. The Lords Spiritual and Temporal in Parliament assembled.

The Humble Petition of […] Sheweth that […] Wherefore your petitioners pray that your honourable House […] And your petitioners [as in duty bound], will ever pray. Das Petitionieren entsprach hier eher einer sozialen Praxis als, wie im Falle Belgiens, einer bewussten, demonstrativen Nutzung oder gar Einforderung eines Verfassungsrechts.

Perspektiven einer kulturwissenschaftlich-institutionalistischen Verfassungstheorie. Der Widerstreit zwischen Unterrichtspflicht und liberaler Verfassung Die Ligue belge de l'enseignement bildete zusammen mit den Freimaurerlogen auch innerhalb des liberalen Spektrums eine der Minderheitengruppen, in denen die staatliche Unterrichtspflicht bereits in den er Jahren nicht nur akzeptiert, sondern nahezu unumstritten war.

Die NEL sah ihrerseits die Unterrichtspflicht als einen integra- 3. In: Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire 63 2, S. Birmingham Termonde Ar. Aufruf zur Beteiligung an Petitionsaktion. In : Documents Parlementaires de Belgique. Die Ligue de l'enseignement interpretierte die Verfassungsartikel 14 und 15 jedoch auch im Sinne einer garantierten Gewissensfreiheit, die sie wiederum zu keiner Gelegenheit klar definierte. Leaflet No. Birmingham BCL. Its Gains. Its Wants. Birmingham ; dies. Dixon's Motion. Declarations of Ministers. Proposed Amendment of the Elementary Education Act Birmingham, ; dies.

A Letter addressed to the Right Hon. Gladstone, M. John W. Caldicott, M. Pamphlet No. Jahrhundert deuten — und zwar sowohl hinsichtlich der Art und Weise ihrer Austragung als auch im Hinblick auf die darin verhandelten Inhalte. Jahrhundert aufzeigen. Elke Seefried Hrsg. In der Defensive. Wilderotter: Richard Freudenberg. In: Badische Heimat. Die Entwicklung eines Familienunternehmens von der Gerberei zur internationalen Firmengruppe. Weinheim Ein Familienunternehmen in Kaiserreich, Demokratie und Diktatur. Jahrhunderts zu einem der wichtigsten Lederhersteller Europas.

An das Handwerk des Gerbens und das Renommee eines weltbekannten Lederherstellers wird im Unternehmen heute nur noch historisch erinnert. Der Aufstieg einer erfolgreichen Gerberei, die seit der Mitte des Mit Gewerkschaften und Sozialdemokratie konnte er hingegen nichts anfangen. Richard Freudenberg wurde am 9. Februar in Weinheim als siebtes Kind seiner Eltern Hermann Ernst und Helene Freudenberg geboren und besuchte seit das dortige Realgymnasium, das er mit dem Abitur abschloss. Der Export, der inzwischen eine geradezu atemberaubende Quote von fast siebzig Prozent erreicht hatte, brach zusammen.

Weinheim , S. In: Weinheimer Anzeiger vom Dies war erstaunlich: Anders als noch im In: Weinheimer Anzeiger vom 7. Teilweise auch abgedruckt in: Richard Freudenberg 80 Jahre, o. Grundriss der verstehenden Soziologie, 5. In: Dies. Jahrhundert, Stuttgart , S. November ihre Mitglieder auf, in die DDP einzutreten. Bei den Wahlen zur Badischen Nationalversammlung vom Richard Freudenberg 15 Vgl.

In: Jahrbuch zur Liberalismus-Forschung 25 , S. Bangert: Das Postulat wie Anm. Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Innenpolitik, Berlin In: Rudolf von Thadden Hrsg. In: Der Freudenberger 2 , S. Wilderotter: Richard Freudenberg wie Anm. Zur Geschichte des deutschen Liberalismus im In: Historische Mitteilungen 7 , S. Landtagsperiode, 2. Sitzungsperiode, Karlsruhe , Januar , Sp. Er hatte Sibille Sternberg, eine Karlsruher Arzttochter, kennengelernt und geheiratet. In: Wolfgang Hardtwig Hrsg. Zur Politischen Kulturgeschichte Deutschlands Lebensversuche moderner Demokratien.

Hamburg ; ders. Baden- Baden , S. In: BArch N , Nr. Der Erste Weltkrieg hatte der deutschen Lederwirtschaft einen Schlag versetzt, von dem sie sich niemals wieder erholte. Adelheid von Saldern: Hermann Dietrich. Dieter Schuster: Die Lederarbeiter und ihre Gewerkschaften bis In: Klaus Tenfelde Hrsg. Chemie — Bergbau — Leder. Industriearbeiter und Gewerkschaften in Deutschland seit dem Zweiten Weltkrieg.

Die Belegschaften im Wandel der Zeit, hrsg. Die Darstellung folgt hier der auf Zeitzeugenangaben beruhenden Darstellung in Jahre Freudenberg. Die Belegschaften wie Anm. In: Richard Freudenberg 70 Jahre. In: Spruchkammerakte Richard Freudenberg vom 6. Juni , Generallandesarchiv Karlsruhe , p Nr. Josef Schober, dem Partei- und Fraktionsvorsitzenden des badischen Zentrums, ausgefochten. September In: Weinheimer Nachrichten vom Paul Sauer: Staat, Politik, Akteure. In: Otto Borst Hrsg. In: Thomas Schnabel Hrsg.

Stuttgart u. Ethnicity, national identity, and the decline of German liberalism New York u. Liberal Democrats in the Third Reich. New Haven In: Andreas Wirsching Hrsg. Politik, Literatur, Wissenschaft. Die Geschichte der Wirtschaft im Nationalsozialismus. Mai Jones: Sammlung oder Zersplitterung? Richard Freudenberg wurde badischer Landesvorsitzender der DStP, aber mit Wahlerfolgen war das nicht verbunden, im Gegenteil, wie die deprimierenden Ergebnisse der Reichstagswahl im September zeigten, bei der die neue Partei nur 3,8 Prozent der Stimmen erhielt.

Propaganda und Programme der politischen Parteien bei den Wahlen zum Deutschen Reichstag von bis In: Stadtarchiv Weinheim, S. Der Weg zur Macht. In: Schnabel Hrsg. In: Central European History 23 , S. Wir haben hiervon z. Der vom Das NS-Regime und seine Gegner. In: Peter Steinbach Hrsg. Ein Problem zwischen Theorie und Geschichte. Freudenberg wurde zwar erneut als Ratsherr berufen, meldete sich aber kaum noch zu Wort.

In: Stadt Weinheim Hrsg. In: Stadtarchiv Weinheim, Rep 1, Nr. Berlin , bes. Sibille Freudenberg: Gesammeltes Leben wie Anm. Abgedruckt auch in Jahre Freudenberg wie Anm. Neuausgabe Hamburg , S. Auch in anderer Hinsicht erweiterte die Unternehmensleitung den Aktionsradius durch richtungsweisende Impulse. Wir waren den Weg aus freier Unternehmer-Entschlusskraft schon einleitend vorher gegangen. Auf der schiefen Bahn, von der Richard Freudenberg keinen Absprung fand, ging es unerbittlich weiter bergab. Kapitel 6, 10 und Scholtyseck: Freudenberg wie Anm. Die sog.

Das Unternehmen Freudenberg war zwar nur eines von mehreren Dutzend Firmen, die an den Materialtests beteiligt waren, aber auch eines der wichtigsten. Gesammeltes Leben wie Anm. Eine Produktgeschichte im deutsch-britisch-amerikanischen Vergleich. Aber dies kann nicht als Entschuldigung dienen und unterstreicht nur die Perfidie, mit der das NS-System so reibungslos funktionierte. Hierin liegen seine Verantwortung und sein Versagen. Aber er war auch kein knorriger Hitlergegner wie der liberale Robert Bosch, der allerdings in mancher Hinsicht noch ein Unternehmer des Jahrhunderts war.

Studien zur deutschen Geschichte und internationalen Politik. Es folgte eine Odyssee durch zahlreiche Lager, bis er nach fast zwei Jahren in amerikanischer Ermittlungshaft entlassen wurde. Die deutsche Wirtschaftselite im In: ebd. Freudenberg erhielt mit rund 5. Ein 89 Vgl. Stuttgart , bes. Bernfeld vom Jahrhunderts erinnerte. Als ungebundener Kandidat wollte Freudenberg zudem seine Entscheidungen ohne Partei- bzw.

Freudenbergs Hauptaugenmerk galt fortan wieder der Firma, die er, nicht anders als vor , gegen Rivalen wie Salamander industriepolitisch und strategisch in Position zu bringen wusste. Der Fabrikant Freudenberg war ein Wegbereiter des Landes. In: Momente , Heft 4, S. Bonn, Freitag, den 5. Dezember , Bonn , S. Richard Freudenberg an Ludwig Erhard vom 8. Nach seinem Aber es ist nicht zu spekulativ zu vermuten, dass er den Eindruck hatte, nicht nur sein Familienunternehmen prosperiere.

Ganz offenkundig war auch die liberale Demokratie der Bundesrepublik auf einem guten Weg. Ein nationalliberaler Jurist und Staatsmann Baden-Baden In: Vom Reichsjustizamt zum Bundesministerium der Justiz. Deutschen Demokratischen Partei politisch aktiv gewesen war,3 musste nach um sein Leben bangen. Zu Schiffers Karriere bis vgl. In: Berlin in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Jahrbuch des Landesarchivs Berlin , S. In: Berlin.

Quellen und Dokumente Berlin West , 2. In: Gerhard Keiderling Hrsg. April bis Juni Eine Dokumentation. Wir haben einen verschiedenen Weg gehabt und wir haben sicher verschiedene Ziele. II: Berlin Ost , S. Rede im Nationaltheater Weimar. In: Neues Deutschland, 1. In: VfZ 45 , S. In: Telegraf, Berlin West , S. Juli auf Antrag Schiffers aufgenommen, der bei dieser Gelegenheit auf rechtsstaatlichen Verfahren auch bei Enteignungen beharrte. In: Siegfried Suckut Hrsg. Die Sitzungsprotokolle des zentralen Einheitsfront-Ausschusses.

In: Der Morgen, 3. Wege und Ziele der Liberal-Demokratischen Partei. In: Der Morgen, Ramm: Schiffer und die Reform wie Anm. In: Kritische Justiz 21 , S. Personalpolitik bis Anfang der 50er Jahre. Dokumente aus den Jahren Transformation und Rolle ihrer zentralen Institutionen. Und da Bertz aufgrund seiner mangelnden juristischen Kompetenz keinen fachlichen Einfluss geltend machen konnte, Melsheimer nur als Leiter der Abteilung Gesetzgebung und Benjamin lediglich als Referentin in die Personalabteilung eingestellt wurden, konnten die Kommunisten die Arbeit der DJV vorerst nicht dominieren.

Schiffer konnte hoffen, seine Vorstellungen durchzusetzen. Nathan: Aus der Geschichte wie Anm. Januar aus der DJV aus. Schiffer hatte es nicht vermocht, die beiden mit untergeordneten Funktionen abzuspeisen. Amos: Justizverwaltung wie Anm. Schiffer hingegen strebte eine zentralisierte Justizverwaltung an. Entstehung, Entwicklung, Struktur. Daraufhin forderte dieser am Karassjow, Schiffers Antrag am November ablehnte, ohne freilich die Kompetenzen der regionalen und der zentralen Justizverwaltung voneinander abzugrenzen.

In: Archivmitteilungen 36 , S. Verordnung betr. Hier dachte er vor allem an die Rechtspfleger. Damit biss er bei Karassjow allerdings auf Granit, der ihn am November auf- IV. Damit war klar, dass Schiffer mit seinen Vorstellungen gescheitert war.

Sein Wimpel zeige die Worte: Demokratischer Rechtsstaat. Denn dieser wollte V. In: Neue Justiz 1 , S. Im Zuge des aufziehenden Kalten Krieges und der damit verbundenen Blockbildung wurde ihr dies von der Besatzungsmacht auch zugestanden. Melsheimer ist ja jetzt der Leiter der Deutschen Justizverwaltung. Denn Schiffer hatte Becker Mitte Juli noch beschworen, in der SBZ zu bleiben, und ihm zugesichert, ihn gegebenenfalls aus der Haft zu befreien, was sich allerdings angesichts von dessen Verschleppung durch die sowjetische Geheimpolizei als illusorisch erwies.

Darin spielte er auch 48 Vgl. Aber gerade in diesem Kampf wurde aus These und Antithese die Synthese geboren. Er muss noch am 4. In: Neue Justiz 2 , S. Eugen Schiffer und die liberalen Parteien in Deutschland bis In: Ramm Hrsg. So beschloss der DDR-Ministerrat am Juli , des Tages, an dem wir 56 Vgl. In: VfZ 39 , S.

In: Dokumente zur Deutschlandpolitik. Reihe, Bd. Oder wollte er Ulbricht verdeutlichen, wie weit sich dieser von der damaligen Verpflichtung auf Rechtsstaatlichkeit entfernt hatte? So beklagte sich ein Delegierter auf dem In: Christ und Welt, Nr. Sozialpolitik erhielt Verfassungsrang. Dieses Sozialstaatspostulat wurde von der Politik als Verpflichtung zu sozialpolitischem 3 Vgl. In: Hans-Dietrich Genscher Hrsg. So bekannte sich die FDP zwar in dem vom Bundeshauptausschuss am 5.

Juli beschlossenen Sozialprogramm zur Sozialen Marktwirtschaft und zu den sozialen Grundrechten der Menschen. Auch wurden ein modernes Arbeitsrecht und eine Neuausgestaltung und Neuorganisation des tradierten Sozialversicherungssystems reklamiert. Aufgabe des Staates ist es, zu die- ser Sicherung beizutragen. Nicht minder wichtig aber ist die Selbsthilfe und die freiwillige Zusammenarbeit im Geiste der sozialen Gemeinschaft. Januar beschlossene Berliner Programm, die sozialpolitischen Vorstellungen der Partei. Sie will die Furcht vor Krankheit, Not und Alter nehmen und allen unverschuldet in Not Geratenen rasch und ausreichend helfen.

Der sozialen Dimension der liberalen Wirtschaftsordnung gaben einige Forderungen scharfe Konturen. Ein guter Arbeitsplatz ist mehr wert als die beste Rente. Juni , d. Volker Hentschel: Sozialpolitik in Deutschland — Soziale Sicherung und kollektives Arbeitsrecht. Zum Gesetzentwurf der Bundesregierung vgl. BT Drs.

Dezember vgl. Bundesgesetzblatt BGBl. Oktober und am 9. In: ADL, A; und am Hier ging es anfangs nicht um eine Erweiterung, sondern um eine Konsolidierung der betrieblichen Mitbestimmungsrechte. Golitscheks Rede am Als die Bundesregierung mit ihrem im Oktober eingebrachten Gesetzentwurf zur Neuordnung der Beziehungen zwischen Arbeitnehmern und Arbeitgebern in den Betrieben nur wenig Entgegenkommen in der Frage der wirtschaftlichen Mitbestimmung zeigte,15 drohten die Gewerkschaften mit Streik.

Michael Schneider: Kleine Geschichte der Gewerkschaften. In: VfZ 33 , S. Der Entwurf wurde am Archiv der Gegenwart AdG , S. Zu den koalitionsinternen Auseinandersetzungen vgl. Adenauer und die FDP. Die Kabinettsprotokolle der Bundesregierung wie Anm. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung vom Januar , S. Zum Montanmitbestimmungsgesetz vgl. In: ebd.. Das Betriebsverfassungsgesetz vom Betriebsverfassungsgesetz vom Oktober ; BGBl. Februar vgl. Oktober ; BT Drs. Zur Frage der innerfraktionellen Geschlossenheit vgl.

Opladen , bes. In: ADL, A, und am Sie sollte den individuell erworbenen Lebensstandard sichern und an die allgemeine Lohnentwicklung gekoppelt werden. Mit der Dynamisierung der Renten, d. Die Rentenreform von stand am Ende eines sozialpolitischen Diskurses, dessen Ansatz und Ziele weit umfassender und grundlegender waren. Hentschel: Sozialpolitik wie Anm. Alliierte und deutsche Sozialversicherungspolitik bis Hockerts: Sozialpolitische Entscheidungen wie Anm. Ferner Wilfried Schreiber: Existenzsicherheit in der industriellen Gesellschaft.

Dies wurde am Dehler am Hammer am 4. Den Freidemokraten ging die Reform insgesamt zu weit. Staatliche Leistungen sollten sie deshalb wieder in die Lage der eigenen Leistung und eigenen Verantwortung versetzen. Januar in zweiter und dritter Lesung beraten. Becker am Januar vgl. September mit der Union die absolute Mehrheit der Stimmen und Mandate gewann.