If we put the insulation on the inside of the structure the insulation does not protect the structure from heat and cold. Remember we really do want to protect that darn structure—especially for the sake of making the structural engineers life more happy. Expansion, contraction, corrosion , decay, ultra violet radiation , and almost all bad things all are functions of temperature. So all the control layers go on the outside.
Keep the structure from going through temperature extremes and protect it from water in its various forms and ultra violet radiation and life is good. The claddings function is principally to act a an ultra-violet screen. Oh, and architects might consider the aesthetics of the cladding to be important.
What about this air control thing? Well air can carry a lot of water and water is bad for the structure. So we have to keep air out of the structure as well because of the air-water thing—or if we let it get into the structure we have to make sure it does not get cold enough to drop its water.
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Now, just one other thing, tends to be important if you intend on living in the building or working in the building or keeping things safe in the building, we might want to control the interior environment. We especially ought to be concerned about what is in the interior air because when we are in the interior we tend to breathe it. So we need an honest to god airtight enclosure in order to provide conditioning such as filtration and air change and temperature and humidity control.
And once again the best place to control this air thing is on the outside of the structure—but under the insulation layer so the air does not change temperature. Presto: the perfect wall.
A water control layer , air control layer and vapor control layer directly on the structure and a thermal control layer over the top of the other control layers see Figure 1 again. This was figured out long before I was born—I think the Canadians figured it out first [ 1 ], but the Norwegians have some claims to this plus the Russians.
I am going to go with the Canadians on this one because I am biased and proud of it. For a more detailed discussion of the physics of all of this go to the old masters: Hutcheon and Handegord [ 2 ] and the new kids on the block Burnett and Straube [ 3 ]. In a beautiful bit of elegance and symmetry if you lie the perfect wall down you get the perfect roof Figure 2 and then when you flip it the other way you get the perfect slab Figure 3.
The physics of walls, roofs and slabs are pretty much the same—no surprise Figure 4. This insight was shone into a whole generation of practioners by Max Baker [ 4 ] when I was first getting started. Those other folks got it wrong by locating the membrane exposed on the top of the insulation—it is they that are inverted. Figure 3: "The Perfect Slab" —The perfect slab has a stone layer that separates it from the earth that acts as a capillary break and a ground water control layer.
This stone layer should be drained and vented to the atmosphere— just as you would drain and vent a wall cladding. Figure 4: A Wall is a Roof is a Slab —The physics of walls, roofs and slabs are conceptually the same. Notice in the perfect roof assembly the critical control layer or membrane for rainwater control and air control and vapor control is located under the thermal insulation layer and the stone ballast i.
Why we put the most critical control layers on roofs on the very, very top where they can be trashed by these damage functions never fails to amaze me. Yes, I know, they are easier to replace when they are located there. Standard answer for our disposable, unlimited resource available society. Most problems in building enclosures occur where roofs meet walls. The classic roof-wall intersection is presented in Figure 5 will both credit and apologies to Max Baker. One Way: Discipleship.
The Sound Barrier & Modern Sprawl
Please note: Only the first 15 registrants for each three-week topic will be admitted. Sunday , September 15 , One Way: Discipleship for Young Adults. Young adults in their 20's and 30's are welcome to join this interactive, small-group experience which aims to bring each participant to a new understanding of Jesus and His Church. Being Single, Being Faithful.
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Catholicism from Scratch. A course in Basic Catholicism for those who need a brush-up, those who missed it the first time around, or those who never heard it before.
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Sunday , September 22 , Diocesan Youth Pilgrimage to the Tomb of Bl. Miriam Teresa Demjanovich. Walk with us to the tomb of the first beatified in New Jersey and be inspired by the example of holiness of Bl. Miriam Teresa!
BSI-001: The Perfect Wall
Tuesday , September 24 , Our addictions do not make us less loved by God. They created a warmer microclimate 24 hours per day. Fruit walls also protected crops from cold blasts of winds from the north as we are experiencing today. They would also use mats suspending then from the walls in case of bad weather. He wrote of the effect of the Fruit Walls which then popularized them in Europe.
The French began to improve the technology by pruning the branches of the fruit trees in such ways that they could be attached to a wooden frame on the wall. Today, Holland grows more food in greenhouses than any other country.