Your name. Your email. Send Cancel. Check system status. Toggle navigation Menu. Name of resource. Problem URL. Describe the connection issue. SearchWorks Catalog Stanford Libraries. Responsibility Rich Korb. Imprint Thousand Oaks, Calif. Physical description xii, p. Online Available online.
Full view. Education Library Cubberley. K Unknown. More options. Find it at other libraries via WorldCat Limited preview. Bibliography Includes bibliographical references p. Recent trends in behavioral research emphasize not only the principles of behavior but their application with understanding of the social contexts in which they are applied and attention to how research can be translated into practices that are usable by parents and teachers. Rich Simpson provided a thoughtful review of the initial draft of this chapter, and Jere Brophy and Carolyn Evertson each provided extensive and insightful feedback.
Invalid Search. Enter keywords, authors, DOI etc. Search History. Search history from this session 0. Metrics Views Prevention and Early Intervention. School-Wide Behavior Management. Abstract A behavioral view of the management of behavior in classrooms has been and continues to be a dominant and influential paradigm in both educational research and the preparation of teachers. Introduction A behavioral view of the management of behavior in classrooms has been and continues to be a dominant and influential paradigm in both educational research and the preparation of teachers.
Five Basic Behavioral Operations Virtually all classroom management applications of behavioral theory involve one or a combination of the following five basic operations: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction, response cost punishment, or punishment involving presentation of aversives.
Positive Reinforcement The term positive reinforcement refers to the effect that is observed when a behavior is strengthened i. Negative Reinforcement Negative reinforcement is perhaps the most misunderstood of all behavioral operations, probably due to the incorrect connotations associated with the word negative. Extinction If a behavior has come to be maintained by reinforcement, whether positive or negative, it can be predicted that the cessation of that reinforcement will result in a decline in the occurrence of the behavior.
Response Cost Punishment Like reinforcement, the term punishment refers to an effect; namely the reduction in likelihood of occurrence of a behavior due to some contingency.
Punishment Involving Presentation of Aversives It is unfortunate that the general term punishment has come to connote a single type of punishment: the application of aversives. Applied Behavior Analysis The behavioral procedures outlined in the preceding sections were well established in laboratory and clinical settings in the first half of the 20th century e.
Multiple Baseline Designs Multiple baseline designs allow repeated demonstrations of a functional relationship between independent and dependent variables without necessarily invoking a reversal or withdrawal of the intervention. Changing Criterion Designs Although the scope of behaviors to which it can be applied is somewhat limited Rusch et al. Multielement or Alternating Treatments Designs The multielement or alternating treatments design is used when researchers wish to evaluate the relative effects of two interventions in a single experimental phase, something that is not possible in other single-case designs.
Concerns about a Behavioral Approach to Classroom Management We have touched briefly on the extensive literature base underlying a behavioral approach to classroom management and have also noted that a research-to-practice gap plagues classroom management just as it does all of education. Generalization The failure of researchers to produce treatment effects that routinely generalize to other settings, times, and responses has been a sharp and essentially legitimate criticism of behavioral programming since its early application to classroom settings.
Control, Coercion, and Bribery Among the more frequent criticisms of the behavioral view of classroom management are concerns that teachers become too controlling, and merely coerce or bribe students to behave in ways that the teacher chooses. Ethics and the Potential for Misuse The procedures we have outlined here provide teachers with powerful tools that can have a profound impact on the behavior of others.
Contemporary Issues Recent Trends in Behavioral Research Although the conceptual roots of behavioral approaches to classroom management are now many decades old Kauffman, a ; Kauffman et al. Functional Assessment. Failure to Train Teachers in Effective Practices In spite of calls for evidence-based practices, most teachers are not trained to identify, much less use them. Controversy Regarding Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation As we have seen, the behavioral approach suggests a focus on rewarding appropriate behavior i.
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Motivating Defiant and Disruptive Students to Learn | Corwin
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Motivating Defiant and Disruptive Students to Learn: Positive Classroom Management Strategies
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