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STAL , 38 3 , Response to Westlund's commentary: 'Can conditioned reinforcers and variable-Ratio Schedules make food- and fluid control redundant?
The Laboratory Nonhuman Primate
Journal of Neuroscience Methods , 1 , PloS One , 7 4 , e A comparison of a manual and an automated behavioural analysis method for assessing post-operative pain in mice. Affective state and quality of life in mice. Pain , 5 , Are We Looking in the Wrong Place? PLoS One , 6 3 , e Reported analgesic administration to rabbits undergoing experimental surgical procedures. BMC Veterinary Research , 7 , In: Altex: 8th World Congress. A preliminary investigation into the practicality of use and duration of action of slow-release preparations of morphine and hydromorphone in laboratory rats.
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Chapter 11 Anesthesia and Analgesia in Nonhuman Primates. Droits d'auteur. Informations bibliographiques. John Benson Elsevier , 1 mai - pages 0 Avis Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals focuses entirely on the special anesthetic, analgesic, and postoperative care requirements associated with experimental surgery.
Chapter 2 Pharmacology of Inhalation Anesthetics. Most handling and experimental procedures imply that the subject not only is restrained, but simultaneously also removed from its cage. Non-human primates can readily be conditioned to cooperate during common handling procedures in the familiar home-cage environment. This methodological refinement eliminates both sources of uncontrolled variables: the distress associated with being removed from the home-cage, and the distress associated with being involuntarily restrained. Primatological investigators underestimate their research subjects' level of intelligence when they hesitate to train rather than restrain them.
The initial time investment becomes insignificant when animals are trained for routine procedures. Training facilitates sample collection and drug application in the subject 5 home enclosure. Working 'with' cooperative rather than 'against' fearfully resisting experimental animals also increases the safety of the handler because the interaction with the animal subject is based on trust rather than fear.
Anaesthesia seems to be an optimal alternative to restraint both from the investigator's and from the subject's standpoint. Unlike training, however, chemical restraint traditionally includes some form of involuntary restraint to allow the administration of the drug. This in turn triggers the above outlined uncontrolled physiological responses, affecting data subsequently collected from the anaesthetized research subject. Even during anaesthesia, nonhuman primates show a notable, albeit diminished stress response to injection. Training the subject beforehand to cooperate during the injection of the anaesthetic would eliminate this unnecessarily data-biasing circumstance.
The empirical evidence strongly suggests that training rather than restraining non-human primates during procedures is better for all parties: animals, handlers and investigators. The advantages of training techniques deserve more extensive exploration in the future for the sake of the research subjects and of the quality of the scientific experiments conducted on them. Training non-human primates to cooperate rather than resist during handling procedures offers a simple refinement to traditional, involuntary restraint techniques. Working with a cooperative rather than against a fearfully resisting experimental subject is a safeguard against unnecessary distress.
We are thankful to Klan Fajzi and two anonymous referees of Animal Welfare. The manuscript greatly benefited from their critical but constructive comments. The senior author very much appreciates the assistance of Doug Cowley and Russel Vertein who were instrumental during the development and implementation of various training techniques at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center. Anzenberger G and Gossweiler H How to obtain individual urine samples from undisturbed marmoset families.
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Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, Second Edition
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