All four were pupils of the Jesuit seminary in Kyushu. The boys would be accompanied by the youthful Jesuit priest Diego de Mesquita as guide, mentor, interpreter and guardian, as well as a Japanese Jesuit priest who would tutor them in the Japanese language and literature, and two young boys as their personal servants. Valignano chose boys of tender age for his mission aged between 1 and 14 , because he considered that their youth would help them better bear the hardships of the long voyage; then, being of an impressionable age, they would be all the more overwhelmed by the splendours of Europe.
Moreover, they might enjoy many years of life back in their own countries in which to tell of its glories. Their families were reluctant to let them go, but were eventually convinced by Valignano. With a hastily assembled wardrobe of European dress for every day, two fine sets of ceremonial Japanese robes for each, some gifts including screens of great artistic value for the Pope , and letters from the Christian daimyo addressed to the Pope, the King of Spain and other persons of importance, the party boarded a Portuguese ship at Nagasaki on 20 February and set sail for Europe.
We will not give here an account of their infinitely long and dangerous voyage, during which illness, the occasional shortage of food and water, and sometimes dire peril the threat of shipwreck and attack from pirates added to their already considerable discomfort. Some relief from tedium was obtained by the hours passed with Latin lessons from Mesquita, their studies in the Japanese language and literature, and daily practise on their musical instruments.
Fishing from the boat offered both a relaxation and a welcome addition to the diet on board. Daily prayers were said, and the Divine Office recited during the day. After a long and stressful journey via Macao and Cochin, the party reached Goa safely in October of Here, Valignano, to his chagrin, found that he would not be able to accompany the boys to Rome, since he had just been apppointed Jesuit Superior in India.
So he compiled a list of fifty-five instructions for the Rector of the College in Goa who would replace him. Amongst these were the order that the gifts prepared by the legate including the valuable screens , should be carefully preserved, and, since they were destined for the Pope, always in their possession. The boys should wear European dress while on their journey, but wear their Japanese robes when meeting dignitaries.
They must be shown all the riches of Europe - the most imposing palaces, gardens, monasteries, churches, holy relics - but nothing which might upset their sense of propriety. They should always be accompanied by a Jesuit priest who must guard them from anything unedifying, because they must return home with full esteem for the Christian faith. In particular, they must not have contact with anyone who might bring scandal to their ears regarding the church such as the success of Protestantism in the north.
They should keep a detailed written account of all that impressed them. From Goa, the legation reached Lisbon on 10 August of , a long two years, five months and twenty days after their departure from Japan. Solemn and public receptions should not be organised; everything should be kept on an intimate scale. His request was not respected. Already in Evora they were met by a welcome usually reserved for the highest dignitaries of church and state.
In Madrid, Philip of Spain received them with great ceremony and showered them with every attention. The cities and the courts of Italy could hardly receive them with less pomp than the King of Spain, or the Pope in Rome, who accorded them the formal honours due to ambassadors of state, rather than a modest legation bringing the homage of some Christian daimyo in Japan.
Letters then flew between the cities and courts. The Mantuan ambassador in Rome, Camillo Capilupi, wrote to the Duke of Mantua that he had visited the legate, and forwarded his invitation to Mantua, which they accepted with pleasure he also passed on a message from the Cardinal of Mondev warning that if the boys were to swim in the cold waters of Mantua, as did Prince Vincenzo, it would be deleterious for their health and fertility. The Venetian ambassador in Rome, Lorenzo Priuli, at first sceptical of the status of the legation, wrote later to the Senate saying they should be well received, in order to please the newly elected Pope.
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The s urces Such was public interest in the legation, that by some forty five accounts had been published: most in Spain and Italy, but others also in France, Germany and Prague. It is probable that Mesquita provided him with some of its detailed information. Besides these primary sources, archival records in the various cities where they stayed yield invaluable information, some of it as yet unpublished.
The c ncert Today's concert came about through the realisation of the role that music played in the daily lives of the four Japanese visitors. They heard some of the finest music of their time, from the moment that they arrived in Portugal until they left a year and a half later. But there is another reason to give music its due. It will come as a surprise to many of us today to know that the boys had been instructed in music in their seminaries, which taught both Gregorian chant and instrumental European music. They were taught to play the spinet and the organ, and we know that on their long sea voyages a good part of the day was passed in practicing on their instruments, which must have helped pass the time in that long, tedious and infinitely dangerous voyage.
While delayed in Cocin for a long eight months they used their time to improve their Latin and their performance of European music. From their arrival in Europe to departure, there are constant references to their musical activities. In the cathedral of Evora they admired the finest organ they had ever seen, which Mancio and Michael then played before a huge public, to the great satisfation of the Archbishop. Later, in Italy, they took detailed notes on an elaborate and innovative organ that they heard in Bagnaia.
In Ferrara they are said to have joined in the musical festivities but exactly how, we are not told. Urbano Monte, writing in Milan, noted that they practised regularly in private on their European instruments. Passing through Spain on their way home they were given an exquisite harpsichord made of mother of pearl which had been sent from Rome.
Chronicles of their visit do not give much information about what was performed for them; the only work that we are certain of - Andrea Gabriel's Mass for three choirs - requires too many musicians for it to be performed here. So we have chosen representative music from each of the major centers where they stayed: Florence, Rome, Ferrara, Venice and Mantua, with an interlude in Vicenza where an extraordinary concert was given in their honour. The Grand Duke of Tuscany sent a nobleman to invite them to Pisa, where he was residing.
Accompanied by Don Pietro de Medici, they went to see the cathedral with its numerous reliquaries, which they kissed with such devotion and reverence that all those present were greatly edified. His kindness was met with similarly courteous declarations from the legate, and they spent an evening with the ducal family, replying to their enquiries about their country and the development of the Christian faith there. From their arrival in Livorno to their departure from Genoa, the legation would be acclaimed throughout Italy for their nobility of comportment, refined manners, pleasing modesty, and the dignity shown in ceremonies requiring their participation.
It is surely remarkable that no negative comments would ever taint the memory of the behaviour of these four young men in Italy, unless we count a mildly ridiculous episode at Pisa, in which Michele, in a ballo organised in their honour, gallantly invited a lady well advanced in years to accompany him, to the ill concealed mirth of all. They were escorted to the Jesuit residence but not permitted to stay there, as sumptuous apartments had been prepared for them in the ducal palace.
The following day they were received with ceremony by the Cardinal Archbishop of Florence Alessandro de Medici, who presented them with precious devotional objects. The next five days were filled with visits to the finest sights of Florence: Palazzo Vecchio, the Duomo, the Pitti palace, the gardens, and above all numerous churches with their reliquaries, including the venerated fresco of the Virgin of the Annunciation in Santissima Annunziata.
The boy's own notes record with particular appreciation the beauty of Palazzo Vecchio, with its statues and fountain, and the Villa Pratolino, where they were exceedingly impressed and amazed by ingenious fountains in the spacious grounds: moving figures of angels, nymphs, satyrs, sea goddesses and even Neptune himself, some playing flutes or trumpets, and all miracolously driven by the power of water. While in Florence the Archduchess had invited the boys to see her collection of precious ornaments and jewels; on her request that they chose the object that they liked the most, Mancio diplomatically chose her portrait.
It was promised that a copy would be made and sent on to them. Over thirty such works have survived. Cosimo entered the city in triumph in October 15 0. Etruria, the ancient pre-Roman state north of the Tiber, corresponded roughly to area of the new Medici state; the Medici rulers allowed themselves to be addressed as agni uces truriae, hence the opening line of this madrigal. Then follows ll a arir ella le ia ra i lia , music for the elaborate festivities celebrating the marriage of the Grand Duke Francesco to Bianca Cappello in 15 , which were held in the courtyard of Palazzo Pitti.
Both madrigals are performed with instrumental participation, as was common practise in festive music of the time. Striggio later retired to Mantua, from where he would continue to send music to the Medici, on their request. They arrived in Siena the next morning, where they were met by a large crowd of military and noblemen, including the Archbishop himself, who dismounted from his horse and entered their carriage.
In Siena, too, they were not permitted to reside in the Jesuit college, but were housed sumptuously in the Palazzo del Governo. The next day they were received with fine music in the Duomo, where they revered the reliquary of the arm of Saint John the Baptist.
They spent some days visiting the various churches and venerating their relics and left for Rome on 1 March. They reached Viterbo on March 18, where they attended Mass and were again shown relics another of St. John the Baptist, this time his jawbone. At Caprarola they were entertained by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese in his splendid palace, with its exquisite gardens and fountains. Their progress to Rome was slow, as Giuliano had come down with fever, but Pope Gregory III, motivated perhaps by the prescience of his own death, urged their arrival, sending two companies of light horse to accompany them, so that at last they arrived in the sacred city on March 22, exactly three years, two months and two days since their departure from Japan.
But the guards would not leave them; they accompanied them with such loud trumpet fanfares that crowds gathered in the streets. The boys were met at the Jesuit College by the Padre Generale and accompanied into the church, where the Te Deum was sung while they knelt and gave thanks for their safe arrival. Far from the intimate reception that Valignano had hoped for, the Pope arranged a magnificent public ceremony in the presence of dozens of Cardinals and bishops in the Aula Regia.
Giuliano was still feverish, but could not be persuaded to remain in bed; he accompanied the others to Santa Maria del Popolo for their formal entry into Rome, but was so clearly unwell that he was dispatched by coach to a private audience with the Pope, who received him kindly and sent him home, telling him that he must take care of his health and that he would receive him again soon. Then came the amerieri of the Pope, with the scudieri and all the other officials, dressed in scarlet.
Manzio, Michele and Martino followed on steeds draped with black and gold velvet, in Japanese dress and wearing scimitars, surrounded by countless horsemen. Don Manzio lead the way, with two archbishops on each side; Martino and Michele followed accompanied by two bishops, with a multitude of nobility bringing up the rear, amidst the jubilation of the onlookers. Gualtieri records that the dangers and hardships that the boys had undertaken to reach their goal, together with the impression made by their exotic robes, nobility of bearing and extreme youth, caused much emotion amongst the onlookers, who were moved to devotion and tears, including the Cardinals and the Pope himself.
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They spoke to him through Padre Mesquita as interpreter, offering in the name of their kings a true and faithful obedience to the one and only high Vicar of Christ and universal shepherd of the holy Church. The crowd was once again moved to tears. The ceremony concluded, the Pope indicated to Mancio and Michael that they might carry the train of his robes, an honour normally only granted to the ambassadors of Emperors, and thus they left the chamber. The boys then banqueted with the duke of Sora and cardinals, after which the Pope summoned them to his chambers to ask them about their voyage, the affairs of Japan, the conversion of its people and the number of churches.
They were accompanied back to the Jesuit residence by Cardinal San Sisto and the Spanish ambassador and his retinue. Thus passed their first day in Rome. By kind permission of the Biblioteca Marciana, Venice. The following Monday being the Annunciation, when the Pope and his court always went to the Santa Maria sopra Minerva, the Pope requested that the boys accompany him, and gave them the place of honour, both in the procession and in the church, which is to say, immediately behind him.
This was the last time that they would wear Japanese clothes in Rome. The Pope, in his kindness, had made for them three sets of Italian clothes of black velvet and damascene trimmed with gold, and tunics for domestic wear of the same materials. They were regularly visited by ambassadors and magistrates, and envoys of the Pope to see how they were faring. He sent doctors for Giuliano, who was still ill, and enquired daily abut his progress.
The Pope eventually received the boys in an intimate audience in his own chambers, in which he promised for Japan not only spiritual, but also temporal support, to their great joy. When they wished to visit the seven churches of Rome the Pope sent orders that they be well received; reliquaries were shown and processions staged, to the accompaniment of church bells and organ music.
He was so affectionate and fatherly with them, that it was a sad shock for them when Gregorio died after a short illness on April 10 the news was briefly concealed from Giuliano, fearing that it would worsen his illness. Since the boys had already visited him in his villa, they were reassured and edified. Sisto received them with kindness and told the fathers that they must not lack for anything. Mancio then begged his support for the Christians in Japan, and the Pope replied that he would examine the matter carefully. He requested that the boys be present at his coronation — indeed, would hold the canopy along with the other ambassadors, 1 and after Mass pass him water for his hands.
He also invited them to attend the ceremony of his taking possession of the church of San Giovanni in Laterano, the episcopal seat of the Pope as bishop of Rome on May 5, and this they did. Their participation is recorded for posterity in a mural of the procession in the Vatican. On 2 May, towards the end of their visit, the boys were called by the Senate to the Campidoglio, where they were made citizens of Rome, as attested by finely decorated parchments with immense golden seals.
After dining with the Pope they celebrated Vespers in his chapel, after which, in the presence of the Cardinals and ambassadors, he made them Knights of Saint Peter, presenting them with golden swords, spurs and necklaces. Pope Sistus confirmed that papal support of Christianity in Japan would continue, adding that he would add two thousand ducats to those already promised by Gregorio.
He produced gifts of great value for the three Japanese daimyo who had sent the mission: finely worked swords with gilded sheaths, velvet hats embroidered with pearls, and — for the churches — three pluvials of golden brocade of immense value and a quantity of reliquiaries. Three thousand ducats were given for the expenses of the return journey; messages would be sent to all the papal states ordering that they be treated as honoured guests; letters would also be sent to Philip II and the Papal delegate in Spain, as well as to Venice, Genoa and other cities through which they were scheduled to pass.
On 2 June the boys took leave of the Pope, with expressions of profound devotion and gratitude on their part, and paternal affection on his. During his long period of life in Rome he worked for S. Maria Maggiore, the Cappella Giulia, S. Pietro, as well as for the major confraternities, producing those magnificent works which have assured him a reputation throughout the centuries. Already in his first book of motets we can perceive that equilibrium, perfection of form, texture of unparalleled purity and consistency of sonority, for which he became - and would remain - famous.
From this book we hear today — appropriately, since the boys were made Knights of Saint Peter, the motet Tu es etrus, in the setting for seven voices. Palestrina, however, was also highly appreciated as a madrigalist; two of his madrigals - Io son ferito and estiva i colli - were widely quoted by other composers, became the basis for many a mass, and highest compliment of all were lampooned in the comedies of Vecchi and Banchieri. Bovicelli, published in his treatise egole, passaggi di musica in 15 4. T s uis e ict ria, like Palestrina, was one of the greatest composers of church music of his day.
After training as a choirboy in the cathedral of Avila he was sent to the Jesuit Collegio Germanico as a young man; he must have known Palestrina, who was at the time the maestro di cappella of the nearby Seminario Romano, and may indeed have been taught by him.
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That he mastered the subtleties of Palestrina's style is evident from his earliest publications. Victoria was maestro di cappella at the Collegio Germanico at S. Apollinare until 15 , serving after that in various confraternities and churches until he returned to Spain in We take leave of Rome with his ravishing l a re e t ris ater, from a collection of Magnificats published in which contains some of his finest inspirations. Both Palestrina and Victoria were resident in Rome at the time of the boy's visit, and it is inconceivable that they did not hear music by both these splendid composers during their stay.
Their long trip north took them through Narni, Montefalco - where they visited with devotion the body of the Blessed Chiara, Foligno and Assisi, where they revered the relics of San Francesco. Everywhere the tumultuous sound of trumpets, drums, artillery shots and church bells heralded their approach, and they were followed by crowds of people who were not content with seeing them, but wished to touch their clothes, as if they were holy. They were at last received with great pomp in the Santa Casa of Loreto, to the sound of a triumphal Te Deum set to soavissima musica, followed by a solemn sung Mass the next day.
In Bologna they were met by the Legate Cardinal Salviati and the Archbishop Cardinal Paleotti who both wished to have them reside in their palaces. But the party preferred to stay in the Jesuit College, and this time they were allowed to do so. They were seated in the coach of the Papal Legate for their entry into Bologna, where they were met with the usual fracasso of drums, shots and church bells. Both Cardinals showered them with attention during their stay in the city, the highlight of which was the procession of Corpus Christi the day after their arrival.
This they saw from a window of the cathedral and are said to have been much moved by the experience, since in Japan these occasions could not yet be celebrated with such pomp and majesty. The Holy Sacrament concluded the procession, the boys being given the honour of carrying the first four poles of the canopy, the others being carried by magistrates since the way was long, they were eventually relieved of their burden by other magistrates.
They lunched with Cardinal Paleotti, who asked them about customs and Christianity in Japan, then paid a visit to the churches of the city, where they revered, amongst other things, the incorrupt, seated body of Saint Catherine of Bologna. Two days later, on June 22, they left for Ferrara, accompanied by a company of Light Horse and Swiss guards.
After resting they paid homage to the Duke accompanied by fine music. The next day and were given they went ondinner, a splendid a fishing expedition, served sumptuouslyafter which they were received and accompanied by fine by the music. Bishop The next in daythe they cathedral, went on which had been a fishing finely adorned expedition, after which for they the occasion, were received and where by the they Bishopparticipated in the cathedral, in a solemn which had sungbeen Mass.
After finely lunch for adorned theythewere taken and occasion, by where Duke Alfonso, with his in they participated wifea the Duchess solemn sung Margherita Mass. Afterandlunch his sister they Lucrezia, were takento by visitDuke the pleasure Alfonso, grounds with hisofwife Montagnola, the Duchess where they saw and Margherita his stable holding his sister one hundred Lucrezia, to visit andthe fifty horses pleasure and many grounds wild animalswhere of Montagnola, - amongst they sawthem hisastable tame holding deer thatone trotted hundred docilely and after fifty their horsescarriage.
The four to Genoa. We have chosen to perform this work, full of that wonderful musical impressionism for which Wert was famous, with instrumental support, placing in evidence the virtuosity of the three high voices. He became renowned as a madrigalist, his fame spreading as far as the court of Naples, where he was greatly admired by Carlo Gesualdo, who admitted to copying his style.
These testimonies to the brilliance and modernity of vocal music at the Ferrarese court are madrigals on texts by Ridolfo Arlotti, a courtier-poet of Ferrara. To conclude our musical tour of Ferrara, we return to iaches e ert, with his motet scen ente Iesu in na icula , published in They were met by the famous preacher Bishop Fiamma, and the Podest Filippo Capelli, who extended an invitation to Venice on behalf of the Signoria and requested that they join his boat.
The next day they left for Venice with the Bishop and the Podest , accompanied by a flotilla as far as the monastery of the Spirito Santo, where forty Senators dressed in scarlet were waiting for them. They entered two richly decorated piatte, and, escorted by a fleet of gondolas carrying a great quantity of people, made their entry into Venice amidst the wonders of the Grand Canal.
The Senate not only furnished them with a silver dining service, but also all kinds of domestic musical entertainments by the best musicians. Visits followed from the Papal Nuncio, the Patriarch and various ambassadors, and they were taken to see some of the sights. On the third day they had a public audience with the Doge, to which they were escorted by most of the Pregado. The Doge received them in his most ornate gown, made from brocade adorned with pearls, reserved for the highest occasions of state, which rendered even more venerable and majestic the weight of his ninety-five years.
The Senate were seated on either side, and above them the four boys, two on each side, who through an interpreter thanked the Doge for all the honours and attentions they had received in Venice. They presented the Doge with one of their kimonos, knives, a scimitar and a dagger, which the Doge declared would remain visible in a public place in memory of their visit. They took copious notes on both. Towards the end of their visit the Venetian Senate, in a frenzy of civic pride, staged a procession in their honour, which was exceptionally delayed from the feast day of the Apparizione di San Marco on June 25 until June 2 , the feast day of San Pietro e Paolo, so that the boys could see it.
He declared that it lasted for all of seven hours, and had been seen by some forty thousand spectators who must have hoped for a quick glimpse of the exotic visitors, as well as the procession itself. Then they were taken to the palace of Francesco Priuli, the Procurator of San Marco, from which they would have a fine view. The procession began with the orders of Friars, carrying torches, candles, candelabras, chalices, canopies, reliquaries and sacred vessels. Twenty eight Fathers of Saint Sebastian led off, passing before the great altar, followed by the ruciferi, the Servites and the other orders, some with images of their saints: the Dominicans, Saint Dominic and Saint Catherine of Siena; the Frati inori Saint Frances and Saint Bonaventura.
Then came the members of the Seminario, followed by choirs of boys, and the Canons with the congregation of priests with their banners and candles, all dressed in sumptuous pluviali. The procession reached a dizzying vortex with the arrival of the six Scuole randi: a never-ending sequence of friars bearing flaming torches, candles, candelabras or canopies; platforms so loaded down with reliquaries and other precious sacred objects that they required six, eight or even twelve men to carry them; musicians both instrumental and vocal; throngs of children dressed as angels; and floats representing innumerable subjects: civic themes, allegorical personages, biblical scenes from both the Old Testament and New, scenes from the lives of Saints, depictions of Heaven and of Hell.
The Scuola di San arco led elatione de gli honori et accoglien e Cremona, The Mass is predominantly for three choirs of four voices each, but the Gloria makes use of a fourth choir, bringing the voices to 1.
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We were unable to perform this today for obvious reasons. Then followed six floats depicting the six Scuole randi, and in their wake another eight showing the miracles of San Marco, the last devoted to the discovery of his body hidden in a pillar. The Scuola della arit offered, amongst other sights, the martyrdoms of saints Giovanni Battista, Erasmo and Esaia, which were so gruesomely realistic that they turned the stomachs of the more faint hearted of the observers.
The Scuola di San iovanni followed with four floats devoted to the four Evangelists, and a richly decorated float with the figure of Abundance. Their numerous floats bearing reliquaries included one with a revolving centrepiece decorated with the Four Seasons of the year, as well as another in the form of a silver ship carrying the three Virtues, sumptuously dressed in gold cloth and adorned with jewels, pearls and gold. The Scuola di San occo offered, besides its reliquaries, eight youths dressed as devils who emitted flames from their bodies; floats showing Adam, Eve and the Devil in Paradise; the sacrifice of Ibrahim and Isaac; Moses receiving the tablets; Moses drawing water from the rock; King David playing the harp; King Solomon, the ueen of Sheba and her ladies; the Annunciation; the Angel appearing to the shepherds, who played musical instruments; the Three Kings adoring the Christ Child; San Giovanni in the act of baptising; the Angel breaking the tower of Nembrot; Cupidity; Hope; the three Virtues; and to conclude, a splendidly horrific Universal Judgement, with Christ, the Madonna, the Apostles and angels in high, while below, to the sound of trumpets and drums produced by musicians hidden in the body of the float, skulls and naked youths emerged from graves in a truly terrifying spectacle.
Not to be outdone, the Scuola di San Teodoro artire followed with King Solomon, the ueen of Sheba and their courts; the Judgement of Solomon; a allegory of Faith; the Sybil showing the Emperor Octavian an image of the Madonna and Child within a cloud; San Silvestro baptising Emperor Constantine; Constantine giving alms to the poor; Christ, the Madonna, San Giovanni and the Apostles in Paradise; and a depiction of Hell with devils and hideous monsters tormenting the damned and suffering souls lamenting in the fire, realised with great artifice. A silver image of San Theodore concluded their participation.
The procession continued with yet another flurry of torches, reliquaries, priests in rich vestments and friars carrying enormous candles. Choirs intoned the Litany in the wake of a silver cross held high, and the procession wound its way through the calle and the pia e, with six Canons carrying the Evangeliary of San Marco and his ring under a canopy carried by six priests, followed by Canons dressed in gold ecclesiastical robes decorated with pearls, with the Legate, the ambassadors and the Signoria dressed in crimson silk bringing up the rear.
Franco, rocessione Calzoni reported to the Duke of Mantua that the boys were greatly impressed by this event, extraordinary even by Venetian standards. I think they must have reeled away towards their seminary, their eyes dazzled by the glitter of so much visible wealth, and their minds awhirl with candles, canopies, friars, jewels, reliquaries, torches, statues, saints, sinners, devils, angels, miracles and martyrdoms. In honour of their visit the senate commissioned Tintoretto to paint their portraits, destined to be hung in the Sala del ran onsiglio the whereabouts of these portraits remains a mystery for now, alas , and gave the boys munificent presents: lengths of gold and crimson velvet, brocade, satin and silk; two cases of fine glassware, four large crimson painted mirrors, another four of ebony, and four ivory crucifixes.
Music r enice We begin our musical tour of Venice with a motet for San Marco eus ui eatu Marcu , by n rea a rieli, organist at San Marco since 15 , who would die just two months after the visit of the boys to Venice. Typical of his vocal works for San Marco, this polychoral motet, for two choirs, reflects the clear cut spatial separation of groups of performers in the church itself. Giovanni was appointed second organist in San Marco in January of ; the two Gabrieli were thus organists together until the death of Andrea in August of that year.
As with many of his other eight part motets, the two choirs of this motet take the form of a coro superiore and coro grave, so that there is contrast of tessitura as well as texture and sonority. Since the Venetian senate supplied the boys with musicians for their private entertainment, we can take leave of Venice with a more intimate work, a musical parlour game by the Venetian composer i anni r ce, singer at San Marco from his youth, and maestro di cappella from 1 0. Il i c ell cca, based on a game of dice invented in the 1 th century, was published in his Triaca musicale, a collection of comic pieces which takes its name from the famous Venetian remedy for all ills made from sixty four ingredients: triaca, or theriaca.
The r a t Mantua a a icen a an er na Accompanied by Gabriele Calzoni, who kept the Duke informed of their progress, their diet and customs, the boys reached Padua by boat on the th of July. Two days later they progressed to Vicenza. Here they were escorted to the wonder of the city, the Teatro Olimpico, completed by Scamozzi only two years earlier, where they were received by the nobility of the city, the ladies sumptuously adorned. Two girls appeared on the stage: the famed Pellizzari sisters Lucia and Isabella, who - most unusually for women musicians of their time - played brilliantly on the cornetto and other wind instruments, and were often called to perform for the court of Mantua.
The sisters sang and played for the boys, whom Calzoni reported as being delighted by their music. Then a Latin oration in their honour was delivered by Vincenzo Paggiello, accademico limpico, who proposed that just as three kings had come from the East, following the shining light of a star to find the Saviour of the world and adore him, so the four princes had come from the far east as ambassadors for three powerful kings, drawn by the clear light of the vangelo to pay homage and offer loyalty to his Vicar on the earth, the Pope.
This ingenious speech, which pleased everyone greatly, was followed by a musical intervention by the Pellizzari sisters, this time playing viols and singing.
Italian madrigal of late 16th century
Then another n erdinand de edici sent a ovo e molto ilettevole gi oco ell oca to in hilip of pain, ho professed to be deli hted ith it. The festivities concluded with another intervention by the Pellizzari sisters, this time accompanied by an organ, who played their cornetti and tromboni so sweetly and with such virtuosity, that the boys left Vicenza the next day greatly satisfied with their reception there. The visit of the legation to the Teatro Olimpico was considered such an exceptional event as to merit its documentation in a fresco in an anticamera of the theatre, painted by Maganza in 1 0, who depicted them in Spanish dress in primo piano listening to the oratory in their honour, surrounded by the clergy, and with the noblility of Vicenza on the steps above.
As with that in the Papal chapel, this fresco documents a highly unusual event but is nonetheless relatively little known today. The party progressed to Verona on July 10, where the boys were guests of the Veronese nobleman Conte Mario Bevilacqua, who showed them his collection of paintings and musical instruments. We cannot believe that he did not also offer music for their pleasure, for he had a personal musical ridotto whose excellence achieved national renown.
He was also the president of the Accademia Filarmonica of Verona, and as a powerful patron of Renaissance music, one of its most prestigious members, the dedicatee of a host of works by distinguished composers. It is unfortunate that the records of the Accademia Filarmonica, which might have been enlightening regarding the entertainment of the boys in Verona, have been lost for this year.
Music r icen a an er na We hear today a composition by e ne e ni, who was born in Verona ca. Leoni dedicated his first book of five part madrigals to Count Mario Bevilaqua, in whose ridotto he had performed in his youth. By Leoni had he other scenes depicted are the openin performance at the eatro limpico of e ip s Re ith music by Andrea abrieli , the orneo of and the performance of the comedies amor costante by iccolomini and ofonis a by rissino. It is thought that Bevilacqua, a member of the Accademia limpica of Vicenza, introduced Leoni into the circles of this academy, of which Leoni had become a member by 15 1.
Also a member of the Accademia Olimpica, and its custodian, was the musican Antonio Pellizzari. So it is entirely appropriate that we offer here a madrigal by Leone Leoni, lci aci s a i, in the form of diminutations for cornetto and dulcian, in the manner of the Pellizzari sisters, accompanied by organ, as in the concert that the boys heard. Mantua The imminent arrival of the boys in Mantua created a flurry of activity. The Duke of Mantua instructed his son Vincenzo to prepare for their visit and to make sure they were suitably received.
Madrigali in Seminario: musiche vocali profane da una miscellanea storica a Bressanone. Beta version with editions of ca. Questo volume a cura di Daniele Biancardi, Saggi ariosteschi. La presente preziosa pubblicazione, La presente preziosa pubblicazione, peraltro ricca di numerose illustrazioni a colori, accoglie i seguenti esemplari studi in ordine di apparizione nel volume , frutto di approfondite ricerche, colte riflessioni e rare competenze:Marco Bertozzi, Dennis Looney, Andrea Marchesi, Lucio Scardino, Enrico Scavo, Daniele Biancardi, Andrea Balasso, Marco Dorigatti.
Giovanni Battista Guarini
The Case of Filippo Massini. Epitome Musical. Brepols Publishers n. ISBN Inoltre, vi si delineano la storia degli effetti della Bibbia in diverse forme culturali e artistiche. Enrico Scavo, Firenze, LoGisma, The collection of madrigals Il Fior novello by Giovanni Maroni is an interesting link between different figures in Italian literature and some players of the political events of the late Sixteenth century. Il Fior novello was in fact Il Fior novello was in fact published in in Venice by Ricciardo Amadino and is dedicated to the young Marchese Ambrogio Spinola, the governor of Milan at the time when the events narrated in the Promessi Sposi by Alessandro Manzoni took place.
There are numerous unresolved questions opened by this book: the biography of the author, the authorship of the texts and their poetic object. The present volume proposes, together with the introductory study, a modern transcription, according to rigorous and up-to-date ecdotic criteria, but attentive to editorial solutions that allow easy reading to those who want to actualize their content today in a live performance.
This article is a musical analysis of the piece presenting This article is a musical analysis of the piece presenting its formal aspects, the treatment of the text, and its relationship to its reference material, Gesualdo's late polyphonic madrigals. Published in the Belgian journal "Carnets du Forum des Compositeurs" in Such bias has prevented an understanding of Privitera, Analitica gesualdiana prospettica. Das Madrigal um in Italien und England.