Also, the fact that agrarian problems are so simply and subtly explained leads us to conclude that it would be redundant to treat the question of social injustice as a primary cause of conflict within the range of problems that beset Spain at the time. Therefore, indirectly — through the figure of Paco — we reason that he, as a Spanish peasant, personifies the spirit of change and social justice that had been sown deep within the most disadvantaged sections of society. The Republic was the point of departure for such aspirations to take form.
However, as happens in the film Tierra de rastrojos, the Republic remains a mere ideal suppressed by war. It acquires no substantive form. All this said, the subtlety of the message allows for the establishment of the central theme in this social drama, which is clarified in the final scene. The townspeople turn their backs on these characters. The film offers another way of telling the story: tackling it from the present with a critical gaze which focuses on events that so deplorably tainted the future of both the peasantry of this period and the Second Republic.
Another important feature of cinema lies not so much in the stories told, but how it tells them and gives them life and shape in its own internally-credible universe, through imagery. The reviews advise that such credibility was not fully achieved. Bibliography Aguado, A. Madrid: Abada Editorial S. Ya, September 14, La Vanguardia, September 30, Directed by, no. Hoja del lunes, September 29, Godicheau Editors.
La Vanguardia, September 14, Figura 1. Las ciudades objeto de estudio en la sociedad del conocimiento. Tabla 1. Tabla 2. Establecimientos de sectores creativos e intensivos en conocimiento , Tabla 3. Esfuerzo innovador. Tabla 4. Instituto de Comercio Exterior 3. La capacidad innovadora de las empresas. Para analizar la capacidad innovadora de las empresas se han realizado encuestas en las tres ciudades objeto de estudios. Figura 2. Tabla 5. Tabla 6. Agentes socio-institucionales con presencia activa en las ciudades. Figura 3. Se trata en los dos casos de redes establecidas dentro del espacio regional.
Entre los factores que explican tales comportamientos, hay que destacar la capacidad de respuesta de los actores locales ante los problemas y retos a los que deben hacer frente. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, Milieux innovateurs en Europe. Revista Internacional de Desenvolvimiento Local, vol. Approaches, Experiences and Perspectives, Oxford, Elsevier. Hacia un desarrollo equilibrado y sostenible del territorio de la UE.
Valencia, Universidad de Valencia. Territoires apprenants. Caravaca, I. The idea of transformation prevails symbolically over permanence, and that of rupture over continuity, even when, at times, this might create instability and an impression of insecurity. Theoretical framework and bases of the investigation. The stiff competition to which businesses and territories find themselves subordinated in a heavily globalized economic system conditions their integration within the space of flows and networks, obliging them to remain ever-vigilant in order to make the most of those opportunities which might confer advantages, and moreover, to search out solutions to whichever new problems they must confront.
The technological revolution is the force majeure behind such processes, which are closely related with economic globalization and constitute the base of the society of knowledge Drucker, ; Machlup, ; Boisier, ; UNESCO, ; Rohrbach, …. In this context, the capacity for incorporating knowledge and effecting innovations conditions the way in which businesses and territories insert into an unbalanced and highly changeable world, in which there exist counterposing creative areas capable of successfully responding to those new challenges and of assisting those other businesses left straggling behind because of their structural deficiencies which, in conjunction with their scarce interest in learning and lack of innovatory spirit, impede the reactions necessary for adapting to the logic of the society of knowledge.
It is no wonder, by consequence, that knowledge and innovation have been converted into the point of confluence for different epistemological currents and for scientific disciplines preoccupied with the relations between economic activities and territories Feldman, ; Maillat-Kebir, ; Cating-Lacour-Lung, ….
Understood from an all-at-once economic and socio-institutional perspective, innovation is thereby converted into an important factor which conditions territorial development as well as economic dynamism. In this respect, the conceptual category of the intermediate city Gault, is used to refer to those which, aside from being of a size considered to be medium within corresponding urban systems, are able to act like intermediaries between big cities and rural spaces, thereby contributing to territorial equilibrium.
Such would be the cities which would deserve to belong to the category intelligent cities; these would be recognized as such for their ability to generate or incorporate the necessary knowledge to put their own resources to use in efficient and rational ways which contribute creative, responsible and committed solutions, not only for increasing the competitive capacity of their businesses, but also and above all, for improving the quality of life for the inhabiting populations.
As part of this general context, the object of this article is to create an analysis of the more or less dynamic, competitive or innovatory behaviour of three medium-sized Andalusian cities, observing the unequal capacity of local actors to respond to the new challenges they must confront, and the ways in which they position themselves and integrate in the so-called society of knowledge.
As is known, Andalusia is a peripheral region, both in European and Spanish contexts, and is afflicted by a range of structural weaknesses which encumber the developmental process there; a process which demands more effort from its institutions, businesses and society to overcome the inherent difficulties of such circumstances. As a counterpoint to the above, the process requires a territorial resource of special interest for the approach followed here: a well-balanced urban system which can facilitate the dissemination of innovation and knowledge through a large-scale network of medium-sized cities which are well distributed within the region.
To select cities which meet the requirements of the study, diverse criteria relating to their size, the territorial context where they are located, and the functionality of the economic base to which they belong, have been considered. Figure 1. Object cities of interest in the study of the Society of Knowledge. In close relation with the reflections and newly enlivened debate surrounding the so-called society of knowledge, the studies which have sought to compare the position of the cities in this context by utilizing indicators related to the formation of human capital, the presence of intensive knowledge-based activities, the innovatory efforts made by businesses, or the results of those efforts, are already diverse in range.
Bearing these in mind, the most up-to-date information has been selected, although for some indicators, the only available source was census data from , once more evidencing the deficiencies of local records. One first group of indicators is related with the resources and infrastructures relating to knowledge and innovation. Among these, of special interest is a resource quite as basic as the population with a greater preparation for effecting innovation, as well as their weight in the job market. This demonstrates that in these municipalities, the job market has, compared to other cities in the region, a higher absorption capacity for the more qualified part of the population.
Table 1. Resources and infrastructures for innovation. The specialization of activities particular to the society of knowledge can be measured through the number of business establishments with connections to them. Table 2. Establishments in the creative and intensive sectors of knowledge , For the analysis of the innovatory effort exerted by these businesses, it is useful to consider the number of projects which have received public financing and the investment mobilized for these projects and the help or incentives received, as well as the strategies of differentiation based on the support for good quality.
Table 3. Innovatory effort. Lastly, the results of innovation can be measured from the number of registered patents and the capacity of businesses to insert into external markets. Table 4. Results of innovation. The innovatory capacity of businesses. There is already a great tradition of the analysis of business innovation in scientific literature. For quite a long time, this analysis was identified with the transmission of codified knowledge and, for this reason, it was knowledge which was easily reproducible and therefore apt for exchange and acquisition on the market; besides this, it was considered to be related with the internal factors of the firm itself Lundvall, The emphasis, then, was put on tacit knowledge which, not being codified, is transferred through interpersonal relations.
Agreeing with the aforesaid, Moulaert insists on the deeply rooted character of knowledge and on the prominence that the territory acquires with it. For the above reasons, the more or less innovatory behavior of businesses conditions the extent of integration of cities within the economy and society of knowledge. Surveys have been carried out to analyse the innovatory capacity of businesses in the three cities being studied.
The behavior of Antequera turns out to be very different because the weight of the strategies of differentiation which use brands or emblems of quality is significant. Figure 2. Source: surveys However, the innovatory capacity of the businesses is in good measure conditioned by the collaborative relations they establish with other firms and socio-institutional agents — something which makes this an aspect which deserves attention.
Even so, in all three cities, only scarce development of cooperation networks between businesses is observed, while the most common networks are those established with socio-institutional actors. Table 5. Socio-institutional innovation and networks of cooperation. Confronted by the traditional perspectives which attempt to explain socio-economic and territorial behavior through isolated decisions, a greater attention to collective learning and socio-institutional innovation is now advocated, because it is considered that they constitute an important base for construction processes in innovatory cities.
In this way, joined to business innovation, the relationship between other private and public socio-economic and institutional agents is gaining increasing importance; agents which act in each sphere while conditioned in greater or smaller measure by territorial contexts, inherited socio-economic structures and by the presence of those resources which make up their endogenous capital. This implies that the characterization of an innovative territory must include, along with the diverse forms of business innovation considered before, those others related with socio-institutional innovation: social mobilization, compromise and agreement, cooperation among distinct institutions with competences in the territory, and the active participation of the society in the determination of its future.
In this way, if the reticular and relational conception of territories reinforces the role of medium-sized cities, the socio-institutional networks of cooperation will contribute to their insertion into the Society of knowledge. In these, physical proximity helps to facilitate the exchange of tacit knowledge and trust among the actors; although for this trust to exist, a great interest in the existence of norms and common values has arisen — that is to say, of cultural proximity.
In order to analyze socio-institutional networks, it is necessary to identify the distinct types of agents that act in each one of the cities under analysis. In this sense, table 6 gathers together those which appear to be more pertinent. Table 6. Socio-institutional agents with an active presence in the cities.
Through the use of sociograms, figure 3 attempts to synthesize the fabric of established relations among those actors with a more active presence in the studied urban spaces. In this last instance, part of the economic and innovatory dynamism is derived from the proceedings of private entities outside the city. Figure 3. This has to do with the two cases of established networks within this regional space.
Strategies for action and their relationship with resources. The construction of innovatory intermediate cities must be associated with the utilization and intelligent management of the resources available in them, and with the objective of being able to advance development processes in each. In this sense, some strategies of procedure come to be of special interest: those ones carried out in each space with the objective of advancing the construction of a specific city project that can determine the ways in which the cities can be integrated into the society of knowledge.
From the economic perspective, its already cited territorial centrality leads it to continue to bet on a specialization in logistics and distribution and which is transforming its traditional primary-activity-and-industry-based and first-transformation economic structure. Among the changes experienced by Antequera during recent years, the arrival of the high-velocity train AVE should be highlighted; this has entailed the construction of a new station, a long way from the urban nucleus in order to meet the dual-strategy of reducing costs and generating a new focal-point of urban and economic development.
This logic is taken up by a good number of local socio-institutional agents, who continue to bet on economic and urbanistic growth based on the creation of strong transport infrastructure, considered to be indispensable as the base for a strategy for specializing in distribution functions. A fair part of the projected infrastructure is generating support as well as doubts. The first of these have to do, above all, with improvements in accessibility, as much in the city as in the territorial space that surrounds it, on the understanding that they will assist in dynamizing the economy.
Special mention is due for those other strategies directed towards the promotion of knowledge. This is a project which, as well as counting on a course of sensitization within the culture of enterprise, makes an attempt to reduce student failure rates, to educate through values and to foment an interest in learning. In this vein, its integration in the International Association of Educating Cities, made-up by a significant number of urban centres in thirty-six countries, is explained.
Finally, the Proyecto Territorio Socialmente Responsable Socially Responsable Territorial Project , in which business and social institutions, businesses, trade unions, universities and also the regional administration are participating, is being carried to its conclusion. Its objective is to involve the local society in an economically dynamic, environmentally sustainable and socially cohesive city project.
The requirements of this agriculture and the growing push for fruit and vegetable commercialization has fostered a process of business teamwork which has formed a complex productive system created from the standpoint of developing an entrepreneurial fabric consisting in businesses of varying sizes, and which are dedicated to the treatment of garden produce, to the inputs and services in agricultural operations, to businesses which treat the produce, and to the commercialization of production.
In this manner, parallel to the development of greenhouse agriculture, the creation or installation of biotechnological industries, of providers of agricultural machinery, irrigation systems, synthetic substrates and agrochemicals, as well as of plastics for making greenhouses, has been continuing.
In turn, the complexity of agricultural operations has required very specific and appropriate activities connected with the provision of IT and telematic services, agricultural consultation, analysis laboratories and tests. This last item should be viewed with relation to the creation of a certain number of centres and institutes for investigation that continue to prove most efficient for generating technology.
Agro-commercial activity and, in smaller measure, tourism, constitute an economic base which sustains a city connected with those other administrative activities characteristic of a provincial capital. One the one hand, it occurs at the expense of traditional agricultural land, and on the other, greenhouses are installed not only in zones which were previously looked-down-upon or rejected for being less productive, but even on industrial land.
These structural disorders owe in good part to a lack of reflection about the urban model and the resultant lack of a city Project. Besides this, no strategic plan has been made and, until very recently, even the diagnostic report which constitutes the base for the Local Agenda 21 was not forthcoming. In this context, civic forums are debating possible development strategies to help to rouse the city from this lethargic state, while some local agents, both public and private, are carrying out certain actions.
Among those actions spearheaded by the Town Council, the endorsement of an integral regeneration project of the historic center within the Urban Initiative, partly financed using European Union funds, is essential. The measures related to tourist development are much more concrete: the organization of theatrical guided visits, the creation of a cinema museum, the management of a Film Office… Some of the infrastructural actions most under demand from businesses and citizens — of which the arrival of the high velocity train and the creation of an aeronautic service to connect the city with the regional capital are worth highlighting — are being carried out by the regional administration.
Knowledge and innovation are gathering growing prominence in territorial development processes as they condition the way with which resources are taken advantage of, as well as the way in which territories are inserted into global space and into the so-called society of knowledge. In turn, this increases the amount of attention aroused by those medium-sized cities which are capable of acting as intermediaries between those greater in size and rural spheres, in this way contributing to territorial equilibrium and development.
This then, furnishes the analysis of the behavior of these medium-sized cities — an analysis undertaken by observing their capacity to innovate, the way in which they utilize their resources and their level of insertion within the society of knowledge — with special interest. Among the factors which explain such behavior, the capacity of local actors to respond when facing-up to the problems and challenges which confront them should be highlighted.
This last point is closely related with the strategies carried out by city institutions and city projects which are to be realized in each of the studied cities. Edited by Craig H. University of Illinois Press. Antonio y David Hurtado Torres — — mescolanza, los aires preflamencos. Todos ellos tienen ritmo ternario, que suele organizarse internamente, de forma muy frecuente, en hemiolia.
Por ejemplo, los canarios, son la base evidente de los tanguillos. Los 7 tercios de este fandango de , sin duda, constituyen un rasgo arcaico. Para D. Juan de Miranda. M Biblioteca Nacional, Op. EarlyMusic, Vol. Estos aires musicales no eran solamente formas danzadas, sino que el canto estaba presente en todos ellos. Fragmento de Zarabanda para guitarra Gaspar Sanz.
Los Canarios Danza procedente de las Islas Canarias. Fragmento de Zarambeque, para guitarra. I, 10 The study of Flamenco contrasts sharply with other historiographical disciplines: in archaeology, for example, the investigator has to reconstruct a remote past that moves at intervals of thousands of years through immense geographical spaces; and sometimes with only scant remnants. When on the terrain of the musicological study of Flamenco, on the other hand, it may be easier to reconstruct the past if one has sufficient historico-musical knowledge.
This is because Flamenco dates back to relatively recent times and, up to a certain point, there exist a number of historical sources that allow us to trace a fairly clear and well-documented evolutionary line. And with precise relation to this point, we should bear a decisively important thought in mind. Inarguably and above all, Flamenco is an eminently musical natural-phenomenon. Therefore, the most centrally important thing is that which leads us to a more intimate, direct and complete acquaintance with Flamenco: the music itself.
This is because the principal objective is the music — an of-itself highly ethereal and abstract thing — which would otherwise continue to be totally unknown, denying us any initiation in its secrets. However, we would remain tied up in the cavern and any information about its true source or the much-cited Pureza would be withheld.
We fully agree on this as, when we speak about the study of music, we refer to a study that is all-at-once analytic, historical, musical and literary; or rather, it is a musicological study in which knowledge of musical technique is only the principal tool and in which the history of music which itself includes many other disciplines needs to be thoroughly mastered.
Furthermore, we are not only interested in the broad, general history of music; indeed, the musical styles of Beethoven, Chopin and Wagner bear scarce or zero relation to our objectives. Our principal interest is, rather, the history of the music, forms and key actors from the middle ages, the Renaissance and the Mannerist and Baroque periods.
Moreover, if music already seems of-itself wholly abstract to the layperson, as soon we move inside this territory, the mystery becomes utterly huge.
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Indeed, it remains daunting even for the many musicians who specialize in other musical fields. Apart from the above, it is necessary for all of this musical knowledge to be governed, guided and unified by a profound, exhaustive knowledge of times prior to Flamenco per se. Also, one must master and internalize other types of musical knowledge quite apart from the essential things learnt in a broader education in music and related subjects.
In summary, if one does not possess sufficient musical knowledge — especially of old music and Flamenco — it is impossible to undertake a rigorous study about its musical origins and evolution, simply because the necessary tools and perspectives are lacking. As a result, every approximation would turn out to be reductivist and superficial.
It is therefore indispensable that, before anything else, we depart from this knowledge basis to broach an upright and sensible musical study of Flamenco. This is necessary to build up a central corpus of knowledge. Afterwards, all other contributions from the other sciences can help to complete the picture with additional details.
This could be, for example, knowledge of a piece from the 18th century, such as the Guajira — a type of Cuban folk song. And we could travel back further centuries and still encounter this rhythm. In this way, we would at the very latest arrive in Classical Greece, the country considered to be the birthplace of the rhythmic concept of the Hemiolia.
Needless to say, it is probable that this rhythmic form was used intuitively in some place and at some moment before the Greeks. But if we travel back in time indiscriminately and without any clear criterion, there will come a moment when this remote affiliation bears no relation to Flamenco, even though we might come across similar musical materials. Equally, the much-talked-of Greek Modes, about which such enormous confusion and ignorance exist, bear no relation to the Flamenco art form.
Therefore, if the aim is to undertake a musical study with relation to musical prehistory and the evolution of Flamenco, a number of things are of paramount importance. Firstly, we should refer to the necessary knowledge in this field and then secondly, precisely delimit the chronological and musical context on which our study is centered. Of course, we would also have to discern and distinguish the musical elements which are and are not relevant to our study.
Otherwise, it would be as if we were studying oceanography from a house in the middle of a field, without any connection to the internet or knowledge of mathematics, physics, or biology… The aim of these pages will be to describe briefly, clearly and in a well-documented way, the most remote antecedents of Flamenco music. Some general considerations with regard to the harmony and rhythm in pre-Flamenco music Pre-preflamenco and pre-Flamenco music from the 15th century until approximately the end of the 18th century are based on rhythmic and harmonic schemes constructed on the fixed and repetitive movements of a solemn, instrumental voice.
These structures served as supports, allowing the musicians to improvise and develop variations as their imaginations dictated. Pre-Flamenco music works in the same way. This started to be evident for the first time and with an unmistakable personality at the beginning of the Baroque movement. These antecedents are summarized in the joint appearance of the following three musical elements: the progressive emancipation of the V Dominant in virtue of which the V Dominant of the minor mode also underwent a process of emancipation until it took on a personality of its own, like the I Tonic of the Phrygian Mode; frequent descending harmonic movements through IV-III-II-I of the Phrygian mode with the rhythm of the Hemiolia.
The emancipation of the V or Dominant Pre-Flamenco music appears and develops at approximately the same time as the laws of classical harmonics during the 17th and 18th centuries. With this in mind, pre-Flamenco music could be understood in terms of a peculiar evolution of or variation in these laws. Estos cantares no eran ni seguirillas, ni tangos, ni soleares, ni tientos, ni martinetes.
Pero, repetimos: estos romances no tienen nada que ver con los que hoy se consideran romances flamencos. Escenas Andaluzas. Asamblea General, Op. Dicho en Castellano popular: llamaron negro a lo que era blanco, y blanco a lo que era negro. Otro tanto hay que decir de los conceptos voz gitana o cantes gitanos. Es decir: los grandes artistas antiguos cantaban todos igual de bien.
El primero de Madrid, la segunda, de Barcelona. Esto es una idea muy antigua y pasada de moda, originada principalmente en el Romanticismo. Solamente crean e interpretan algunos individuos capacitados para ello, dentro de cada pueblo. Todas las naciones las tienen. Se trata de El Pueblo Andaluz. Sus tipos, sus costumbres, sus cantares. En su tercera parte se recogen numerosos cantares flamencos populares, entre los cuales hay gran cantidad de playeras o seguidillas gitanas y carceleras.
Madrid, sin fecha. Los Cantes Flamencos. Sevilla, The Zincali; or an Account of the gypsies of Spain. Albemarle Street. Para entendernos. Translation - English Chapter II The founding of Flamenco Literature Throughout the 19th century and parallel to the development of the purely musical aspects of Andalusian singing, diverse literary works were published which would come to comprise, little by little, the aesthetic and ideological canons which now define the Flamenco Cante.
In that fervent climate, the majority of artists professed their admiration for popular trends which already existed in the 18th century. This work is infused by the passion and defensiveness of popular music, which was considered a national genre. This contrasts with the French and Italian styles which prevailed in the Spain of the 18th century, something we discussed in the previous chapter.
In this sense, this selection of Coplas is an impassioned defence of that which, according to the nacionalista conception that started to gain strength in the 18th century, was the only authentic popular music and likewise, the symbol of national identity. However, one other work from needs mention.
This is a work discussed in the first chapter and, owing to its importance, to which we will continue to refer on multiple occasions throughout the present work. The Escenas comprise a dedication or prologue and twenty-two folkloric and traditional stories of diverse themes. For that reason, we will spend a few moments commenting on some extremely important things offered up by this historical source.
In Un Baile en Triana and Asamblea General, the author intervenes in the narration as a spectator at numerous proto-Flamenco gatherings. These were all celebrated in the Sevillian barrio of Triana and attended by the mythical El Planeta and El Fillo, among other artists from the initial years of Flamenco. These vignettes are absolutely indispensable for refuting a series of erroneous and distorted ideas about Flamenco which, nevertheless, have been maintained over many years.
It is said that they formed an instrumental group — described as a small orchestra — made up by a singing and guitar playing El Planeta and two other musicians with various bandolinas mandolins. Those cantes were already being interpreted by professional Flamenco singers who had also already obtained mythical status in the history of the art form. But, we repeat: these Romances have nothing to do with those thought of today as Flamenco Romances. And as we will see in the following chapters, the Polo of that time was not the Polo that we know today, but a proto-Flamenco air based on the Fandango.
Certainly, these songs were still not the Flamenco cantes that are known nowadays and, although they are already very close to Flamenco, for a higher level of precision, the term proto-Flamenco should be used. Spoken of in advance, the term refers to an epoch in which one could already begin to talk of Flamenco, though still not with the late 19th century form in mind. As discussed, the term pre-Flamenco, should be reserved for the earlier periods of the evolution of these songs and dances.
Another issue of paramount importance and on which Escenas Andaluces sheds some light, is the following idea, which came to be en vogue in Flamenco in the second half of the twentieth century around : to sing Flamenco, one needed a hoarse, broken and rough voice and had to interpret the cantes without embellishments while taking-in breath forty or fifty times in each tercio of a copla. There is a moment in Asamblea General when the singers El Planeta and El Fillo perform and which helps to rebuke this notion.
The first of these is a veteran artist born at the end of the 18th century who enjoyed a great reputation at the time the story was written; the second of them — El Fillo — was a young singer and disciple of El Planeta and who, it seems, had a hoarse voice without range or ability.
Another fragment that suggests to us that really nobody from those years liked a hoarse, limited voice, appears in Un Baile en Triana, when the author is describing how a fiesta of cante and dancing unfolded and how the guests participated. Also, note that there is another allusion to an orchestra, almost certainly comprising violins, guitars and different percussion instruments, as well as the bandolinas referenced before in this book.
This is, more or less, the style that Pandas — traditional groups from Malaga — have been using in modern times for Fandangos Verdiales. In the same vein, another highly important work needs consideration. Despite its huge importance, it is very little known and is not even translated into Spanish. This is the already-cited report on Spanish music by Francois Auguste Gevaert wherein, besides producing a very detailed description of the Andalusian songs that he interpreted, he also made it manifestly clear that the vocal style he liked was one of a great virtuosity; this, he contended, made the singing of high notes easier and, united with a very good respiratory technique, meant that the cante could be sung in one breath.
The insult was threefold. On the one hand, some tried to denigrate a number of great artists precisely for continuing to cultivate Flamenco forms according to the oldest customs referenced by chroniclers. On the other hand, some looked down the oldest singing of all — the Fandango — and, in passing, insulted an instrument so beautiful and of such noble antiquity as the Gaita, referring to it in degrading terms. While on this thread, allow us the following highly-useful reflection, especially enlightening for those readers who are not up-to-speed on what has happened in the world of Flamenco in the last 50 years: We have mentioned the word puro pure , a term which has been talked about at length in the world of Flamenco, and no we will take a glance at its etymology: Puro: Del Latin Purus Clean, clear, brilliant.
Madrid Edited by Stanley Sadie. Macmillan Publishers Limited. En se menciona por primera vez la Chacona. Revista Candil. Barcelona, Ethnomusicology, Vol. Society of Ethnomusicology. Escritos flamencos. Deben a su herencia oriental el sentido del ritmo. Gitanos, Moriscos y Cante Flamenco. RC Editor. Sevilla Publicado originalmente en Editorial Turner. Espacio, tiempo y forma. Serie IV, Historia moderna, t. Los marginados en el mundo medieval y moderno. De Telethusa a la Macarrona. Bailes andaluces y flamencos. En el Museo de la Ciudad de Munich se conservan diez esculturas en madera policromada del artista Erasmus Grasser ca.
Sus obras, sus autores. Editorial Labor. Como el fandango, se dice que ha sido importada de la Habana y que las dos son de procedencia negra. Sus obras y sus autores. But, what reality has not been like this? It was the legacy of multiple influences that had been consolidated in different epochs and places and which had remained diffuse and fragmented until the precise moment in which they were brought together, as if conjured by the Romantic Spirit.
A new mythical and immortal artistic expression was born: a cause of universal admiration from its very first moment. In the same century, a little after its birth, this artistic synthesis started to be called Flamenco. Nevertheless, every birth is no more than the culmination of a prior genesis and evolution. The genealogy of Flamenco dates back some four-hundred years before its birthday. The Principal objective of this book is to shed light on the key parts of this ascendancy.
The Stages of Flamenco music Musicologically and historically speaking, studiable documented forms of the earliest and most embryonic musical examples of what was known by the end of the 19th century through continuing evolution over many years as the Flamenco repertoire, start to appear in the last quarter of the 15th century. However, it would not be until towards the second half of the 16th century and, to a greater extent, until the start of the 17th century, when those musical manifestations were fixed for the first time in a stylistic language that we can recognize and call, unequivocally, pre-Flamenco Music.
We must take into account that — apart from all the historically documented influences that we are going to discuss — before this pre-Flamenco epoch 17th century there also had to have been, by necessity, an original Hispanoandalusian musical basis with Oriental — or more precisely, Arabic — influences, upon which all subsequent transformations and influences would take place. Hence these represent the remotest Flamenco-generating sources to which future Phrygian-Mode Flamenco cantes can be traced. On the other hand, however, the first reference to the Zarabanda — originating from black peoples — dates to , and is possibly the first musical style within the stylistic remit of the later Major Mode Flamenco cantes.
In or , according to other versions , Juan Carlos Amat ?
At some moment around the other principal pillar of Flamenco — this time from the Afro-Hispanic-American World — comes to the fore: the Fandango. In this epoch, the spectacular development of pre-Flamenco guitar was underway, already with techniques now considered characteristic to Flamenco like the Rasgueado, the Punteado , and the rhythmic golpes on the body of the guitar. This new song and dance — just like the Fandango — would develop in the 19th century as a Flamenco cante. In the s, the old Spanish Seguidilla not Seguirilla and the Fandango, were stylized and submitted to fixed rules.
At around , the Bolero was invented, having as it did these two dances as a basis; it was a dance whose forms would be used to model all of the popular songs and dances that existed from that moment. In general terms, the music of this period is more measured and much less aflamencada made in a Flamenco style than in the preceding Baroque epoch.
These were still highly reliant on dance and with the strong pre-Flamenco identity that was evident in earlier periods. Tradens Traducciones garantiza la coherencia de las traducciones, su calidad y la confidencialidad. Sin embargo, incluye la posibilidad de recurrir a un tutor de Tradens Traducciones en el caso de necesitar resolver cualquier duda o consulta relacionada con el programa formativo.
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The changes that these public areas experimented -symbol of Roman culture- were instrumental in the genesis of the new Late Antiquity city and the consolidation of a urban model that finally break with the Classical past. In Hispania, the process was characterized by start, in many cases, when the city was at its peak, implying therefore that the original functionality of the forum and the new uses which the space gained were overlap at some point.
A gradual process in which the loss of public use of space was one of the main drivers of change. Nos estamos refiriendo, por ejemplo, a los casos de Carteia Bernal , y ss. Estas tres ciudades tuvieron evoluciones particulares y se vieron afectadas por situaciones diferentes -como el terremoto que el siglo III tuvo lugar en Corduba-, sin embargo coincidieron en el mantenimiento estructural y funcional de sus espacios forenses en esta cuarta centuria e, incluso, en la quinta.
En Tarraco, el complejo Foro Provincial-circo mantuvo sus funciones originales al menos hasta mediados del siglo V. Poco a poco, la funcionalidad forense se fue diluyendo en los nuevos usos privados. VD; Lorrio , Foro de Ercavica, a partir de Lorrio Aparecen evidenciadas las estructuras tardoantiguas y los enterramientos. Sin embargo, los casos anteriores si bien son probables, no son ni mucho menos seguros y son muchos los autores que ni si quieran consideran estos ejemplos Arce , El uso por privados de los antiguos foros fue sin duda una de las primeras particularidades de la ciudad tardoantigua que se estaba generando.
Abascal, J. Aguarod, C. Aranegui, C. Arce, J. Barroso, R. Berlanga, M. Bernal, D. Carteia, Madrid, pp. Bonnet, C. Bosch, F. Campos, J. III, pp. Coarelli, F. Periodo repubblicano e augusteo, Roma. Correia, V. De Man, A. De Miquel, L. De Ruggiero, E. Diarte, P. Paisaje urbano, arquitectura, programas decorativos y culto imperial en los foros de las ciudades hispanorromanas, Murcia, pp. Escribano, V. El caso de Zaragoza" en Mostalac, A. Etxebarria, A. Florensa, F. Fuentes A. Ponencia y comunicaciones, Zaragoza, pp. Garriguet, J. Gurt, J. V-VI d. Hidalgo, R. Patrimonio cultural y territorio en el Valle de Duero.
Actas Coloquio Internacional, Valladolid, pp. Lorrio, A. Mar, R. Mateos, P. Melero, F. Morenas de Tejada, G. Las ruinas de Uxama", Por esos mundos, pp. Noguera, J. Nolla, J. Osuna, M. Palol, P. Toledo, pp. Ribera, A. Romo, A. Rubio, R. Saquero, B. Orfila, M. El foro colonial de Clunia, Burgos. Tarradellas, M. Ted'a : "El Foro Provincial de Tarraco. Tuset, F. Walde, A. The changes that these public areas — symbols of Roman culture — underwent were essential in the genesis of the new Late Antiquity city and the consolidation of an urban model that finally broke with the Classical past of the High Roman Empire.
In Hispania, this process of change characteristically began when the city was at its peak; this meant, therefore, that the original functionality of the forum and the new uses which the forum-space had been developing would overlap at some point. It was a gradual process in which the loss of the forum-space for public usage was one of the main driving forces of change. In Hispania, as in the rest of the empire, this process was fundamental in the genesis of the new urban reality of the Late Antiquity period Gurt , In general, all public spaces and buildings with the exception of the majority of the amphitheaters, whose distance from the urban nucleus condemned them, subsequent to the loss of their original function, to far fewer visitors and a reduction in status to quarries underwent a process whereby their structures or parts of them began to be subject to transformative processes; because of these, their newly acquired functions would in turn help to bestow the ancient spaces, themselves symbols of Romanness, with a new physiognomy.
Within the urban zone, Roman public buildings are conspicuous architectural structures because of their distinct form, the large volumetric space they occupy and the amount of material used in their construction. These and other qualities are the reason why they generally escaped widespread abandonment Diarte , This situation occurred mainly in cities that did not survive Late Antiquity, but also in those that did. In the latter group, we find that the buildings to which we refer were outside the Late-Antiquity main urban center, a space that usually coincides with the Classical urban center.
The location of buildings in the urban fabric was, for this reason, fundamental in their evolution. In fact, as has been noted, amphitheaters are the best possible illustration of this because, with exceptions such as Tarraco or Valentia, these buildings were located farthest from the core of the city, extending, at times, outside even the urban space itself.
Beyond the amphitheater, the peripheral position of public buildings relative to the Late-Antiquity city centers caused important differences in their evolution and led to the cessation of visits to certain areas which were, at best, then relegated to being used as sites of plunder. This process can be observed in different types of Roman public spaces. Thus, the theaters located near the center of the city, such as those of Corduba or Caesarugusta, never lacked attendance in and around the space they occupied; meanwhile, in cities such as Singilia, Barba, Acinipo, Regina, Pollentia or Carteia, where, both during the High Roman Empire and in Late Antiquity, the theaters were further from the center of the city, we can observe how the the peripheral location was the prime reason for the lack of redevelopment in the area after the building had lost its original function.
Evidently, the location of Roman public spaces was a crucial consideration for entertainment spaces, Roman baths or any other type of buildings, with one exception: the forums. Indeed, the forums are the only buildings which can be non-controversially excluded from this maxim, since their typically central position generally prevented them from being abandoned.
In Hispania, as in other provinces of the Empire, the forums were the most characteristic and centralizing element of Roman urban planning and acted as a multifunctional public space, without which Roman cities would probably have created scattered poles of attraction.
Despite the indisputable preeminent position of the forums within the urban layout, in the geometric center where Kardo Decumanus and Decumanus Maximus intersect, there exist questions surrounding topography, accessibility and appropriate zone-communication, or the traditional interest there was in a place; all these things could produce variations in its position Etxebarria , Nevertheless, it is clear that the importance of the forum is restricted to the varied but complementary functions it fulfilled and which precisely constitute the dignitas forensis so characteristic of this space.
In Hispania, most of the forums we know of are located in a central position and reflect a similar architectural development that was established once the model was practically consolidated.
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The temple, on a high podium, was, for example, defined as the centerpiece of a large arcaded square whose extension was curtailed on one side by a basilica. On one hand, there are forums with a basilica located on the opposite side to that which housed the religious building, with the longest side perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the forum, as is the case with Caesaraugusta, Clunia, Baelo, Claudia or Segobriga.
On the other hand, there are forums that have the basilica on the long side of the square, parallel to the longitudinal axis, such as the Conimbriga and Turobriga forums, and perhaps also Tiermes. Above and beyond these formal differences, there can be no doubt that these forums shared a common importance in their cities. Excavations in recent years, however, have highlighted that, even if these invasions actually took place, they had no direct effect on the archaeological record.
Without evidence of any kind of violent action, from the third century on, in cities such as Caesaraugusta, Segobriga, Valentia or Complutum , we begin to see the face of public spaces alter with the walling-up of some porticos, new divisions of space, the appearance of abandoned spaces and even some areas being used as landfills. Yet the forums continued to function with apparent normality. In fact, many continued to have honorary pedestals; this shows that the monumentum had not ceased and, even if the image did not correspond exactly to the one they had in mind at the time of construction, their functionality continued virtually intact.
Moreover, it is certain that, even if it is undeniable that the majority of well-known Hispanic forums began to be modified in the third century, during this century and in many cases until the mid-fourth century or even the fifth century, these structures continued to function as forums. Such is the case with Caesaraugusta, whose forum was built under Emperor Tiberius. Throughout the fourth century its compound remained largely intact, although the sewer that was placed under the forum and which and ran toward the river Ebro had been walled up at the end of the previous century Mostalac and Perez , In any case, and despite the continuous renovations to the ornamentation of the forum between the late third century and the beginning of the fourth , it seems that, since the beginning of the second half of the third century, major changes were to occur in this public space, including reforms to the pavement and the walling-up of certain spaces.
By way of contrast, in Valentia, we know that a fire in the basilica left the building in ruins and turned it into a site for quarry materials, while a new epigraph dedicated to the emperor Probus was constructed in the forum square. In both cases, it is clear that the process did not lead to total abandonment, but was simply a result of adapting the spaces to changes which occur inevitably over the course of time.
On the other hand, these changes are easily identified in archaeological records from the third century onwards. This does not mean that small changes which the eye of the archaeologist might find difficult to pinpoint had not existed before, but that those which occurred in the third century were much more determinant in terms of the impact and effect on the image of the forum spaces. These spaces maintained their function for a long period of time, and thus the forums did not cease to function as did those in the third century.
Obviously, the picture which appears is not uniform and there are some examples on the Iberian Peninsula where the start of the transformations brought about the end of the original use of this public space. This situation applies only to a few cities, but we have noticed that it is particularly true in the centers that would not survive Late Antiquity, such as Clunia , or those which survived despite moments of great difficulty, such as Cartima and Saguntum ; the usual urban transformations, which in other forums began during the third century and intensified in the fourth and fifth, would undergo a remarkable acceleration.
In these cases, the process began at the same time that the High-Empire period was dawning. While in Cartima the forum was ruined as a result of violent destruction at the end of the second century Melero, , ; Berlanga and Melero , and, apparently, reconstruction was never commenced, in Clunia we can see that not all of the urban development would be undertaken in a uniform way.
Apart from these cases, characterized by having begun their transformation in the High-Empire period, or examples of towns affected by natural disasters, it seems that, in Hispania, most forum-spaces entered the third century still performing the functions for which they were conceived, even though their architectural structures were already undergoing the first changes that would come to mark the beginning of Late Antiquity. Although there is no doubt that the third century was the turning point, the process did not affect all forums with the same intensity.
We have been able to see that the majority of towns that began their reformations and fully completed them in the third century — i. Or, put another way, they were urban centers whose premature ending had been heralded by an early and complete transformation of their forums. This was, for instance, the case of Carteia Bernal , et seq. In other words, the intense development of these towns led to the loss of the characteristic features of the Classical city: this process affected mainly public spaces and the forums especially, preventing them from keeping the functionality for which they were created.
Despite the existence of many cities which did not survive the Late Antiquity period — whose premature ending, as we have pointed out, can be seen not only in the appearance of their forums but also in their use — there are many others that did survive. During the third century in these urban centers, the appearance of some areas of the forum space was modified, but their functionality was not eliminated.
This is the case not only with the aforementioned Valentia or Caesaraugusta, but also and above all with the provincial capitals Augusta Emerita, Tarraco and Corduba. These three cities underwent specific changes and were affected by different situations, such as the earthquake that occurred in Corduba in the third century. However, all three maintained the structural and functional characteristics of their forum spaces in the fourth century and even in the fifth.
In Tarraco, the Provincial Arena Forum maintained its original function until at least the middle of the fifth century. Before that, however, the first modifications had already occurred: for example the plundering of the Flavian-era structures, which began in the second quarter of the fifth century. The presence of two open landfills within the temenos, however, does not necessarily mean that the entire provincial forum lost its official capacity Bosch et al, , Penney and all other partiesinvolved," Ackman said in a statement released by the company onTuesday.
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Now the regime needs to station more troops to prevent a fsa repeat. What sort of work do you do? The occasion? A high-profile gathering of education innovators, and as guests sipped cocktails and nibbled hors d'oeuvres, the mood was upbeat.
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Her hands were bound behind her back, her feet were bound and a T-shirt was wrapped around her lower face. Do the math, as I have and tell the truth for a change. But you would never do that would you, since you believe the American are too stupid to understand what you are doing. A grassroots groups tipped a truckload of 8 million five-rappen coins and a petition calling for a referendum at the parliament on Friday.
How much is a First Class stamp? All wildlife will give you a sign. Some species will put their ears back. Some will scrape their paws. Some will give verbal cues," said Patterson. Who would I report to? Penney sank It may extend that by 10 workingdays to 35 working days, to consider either a company's proposedremedies or an EU member state's request to handle the case. The 3, men and women of Reuters answered those challenges.
How much were you paid in your last job? That night, the family slept together at their home in the city's Dorchester neighborhood for the first time since Martin's death. They'd been determined none of them would sleep in their own beds "until all of us could do so. Walgreen alsoacquired a 45 percent stake in Alliance Boots Holdings Ltd, which runs Europe's largest pharmacy chain, in and has the option to buy the rest in about two years. We felt compelled to do something. To our astonishment, none offered us much comfort. They talked about wonderful food, superlative facilities, excellence in health and safety, anti-bullying and, of course, their great results, but none ever volunteered a zero-tolerance policy on boredom.
He could not be reached for comment and his lawyer declined to speak about the case. Will I get travelling expenses? After a brief consultation with a tournament official, play was suspended. Stephens received a rousing ovation walking off the court while Bartoli became the villain in the piece. The costs cuts and debt loads - together with occasional bankruptcies - has attracted the ire of politicians and regulators since the leveraged buyout industry began in the s.
Washington and Tehran have not had diplomatic relations since Where do you study? We are concerned about the degree of illumination that will intrude into our property. Islamist militants in the area have vowed to attack army and police targets there until Mursi is reinstated. Other studies have found that exposure to certain insecticides and plastics disrupt gut bacteria, which may stimulate appetite, slow digestion and accelerate fat storage.
And some studies propose a link between the lifestyle habits of great grandparents and their great grandchildren's weight status. What you can do is make them better and stronger and more caring people by showing you are. Bankruptcy looks bad. But Detroit is already a poster child for urban failure. Nor is it just about being locked out of capital markets - few would lend to the city anyway. At the moment they are really getting more preorders than what they saw before.
Could I order a new chequebook, please? Weidman ended Silva's seven-year undefeated mark, and became the first fighter to knock Silva out in an MMA match. Then we would induce their labour. If this space doesn't inspire them, it's hard to imagine what will. The president wages war, conducts diplomacy negotiates economic treaties, imposes sanctions, and works to promote U. Strategic intelligence should inform all of these decisions, not simply those that involve the military.
Bush and Clinton had an official meeting on Monday for the first time since the presidential elections. These forums amassed much knowledge and experience and were making a difference. They had access to all levels of trust management and had the right to inspect any NHS premises, without warning if necessary.
Have you seen any good films recently? He described the Republican strategyon Obamacare as, "'We've got to shut this thing down beforepeople find out that they like it. That promises to be far more exciting than "The Winslow Boy. The government will subsidize coverage for many working-class and middle-class families, while poorer citizens may be covered by the law's expansion of the existing Medicaid program for low-income families. As their impact fades, solid job gains, more business spending and a steady recovery in housing should help accelerate growth.
With that information, we can more accurately evaluate each region's relative importance for conservation, and assess international priorities accordingly. How would you like the money? Senate prepared for a last ditch effort onWednesday to avoid a historic lapse in the government'sborrowing authority, a breach that President Barack Obama hassaid could lead to default and deliver a damaging blow to theglobal economy.
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The order book rose 20 percent inthe United States alone. A new iPad mini will sport the high-definition screen now on the iPhone and bigger iPads, the people said. Can I call you back? But Dan Auerbach said she has made two suicide attempts and that one was made in the presence of their child.
His wife denies it. If the Union would help not help pay back those debts, then they saw no reason why the U. After all, virtually all of it had been borrowed to fund the Union war effort. I reckon not! The Class B stock, held by 13 individuals as of June 30, is critical for approval of any deal. Far Cry 3 was surprisingly excellent, one of the better games I played last year. It basically guarantees that Far Cry 4 will be good enough to be fun and new enough to be interesting. Oh yes, and having sex more than four times a week. Her mother has channeled her buying instincts into a shopping blog.
A little over a year ago they moved into a new house. A cleaning person comes regularly. Scott Eastwood is at it again, showing off his ripped physique for all his fans to see, but this time in front of a tank on the set of Fury, his upcoming movie with Hollywood stars Brad Pitt and Shia LaBeouf. The dashing son of Clint Eastwood recently posed shirtless on the front of Town and Country magazine looking. A brilliant 66 that saw Mickelson birdie four of the last six holes, including a capping footer for birdie on 18 that all but sealed the win.
We accept no liability for the comments made and always advise users to exercise caution. Both smartphones arrived on the market with high hopes for turning around the sagging fates of their respective vendors, but have been met with middling sales, forcing their price tags to plummet as vendors and carriers attempt to keep inventory levels in check. They filed suit when they were suspended for defying the ban on their school's Breast Cancer Awareness Day.
But we can do more. Insurance details would then be recorded during the registration process which applies to all patients at GP surgeries and health centres. The actress tied the knot with musician Martyn Lenoble during a private ceremony at their Los Angeles home on Feb. As for the ring? The platinum piece of jewelry was custom designed by celebrity favorite Neil Lane and combines her engagement ring and wedding band into one enormous and gorgeous bauble. However, sources close to thesituation told Reuters earlier that the rescue plan envisagedthe state injecting million euros into the airline, the sameamount as existing shareholders, while banks would provide anadditional million euros in new loans.
Worryingly, they account for half of all of the corporate debt in the country. The new device, which is available for preorder and will be released Nov. Urban Outfitters shares fell3. Gap Inc declined 2. Still, unknowns from modest backgrounds, like Andreessen andJobs, are relatively rare among today's Valley start-ups. Muchmore typical are entrepreneurs such as Instagram co-founderKevin Systrom, who followed a well-trod path from Stanford toGoogle to start-up glory.
When can you start? On May23, Obama ordered Holder to review the department's guidelines. She also makes a delicious squash soup with chicken stock and rice, flavoured with nutmeg and black pepper. Garnished with bacon rashers and mozzarella, this soup is served in a large hollowed squash tureen. He was attending an international conference of Afro-descendent mayors and government officials in Cartagena on Colombia's Caribbean coast. Stavrianakis said the witness testimony was "fake and made up". Earlier this year he signed a new long-term agreement with the label, which is releasing the album he is recording here in Salt Lake City.
Yet he seems uncomfortable with his own success; whenever I refer to it, he closes me down. Data were collected from to by interviewers and with self-administered computer surveys. The belt nips in her waist while the absence of sleeves really shows off her toned arms to best effect. And cut to hit the knee this is a classy midi that will never go out of style. Besides the lifelong education of judges and judicial officials, training in European law is expanded in the initial professional training of trainees in judicial bodies and those attending the State School for Judicial Officials.
He told the TV station that at least two jurors were afraid of retaliation from Bulger associates. Mike Coupe, Sainsbury's commercial director, said: "The support from customers as well as respected bodies such as the National Farmers' Union and the Woodland Trust has been overwhelming. They agree with us that where our food comes from and how it is produced really do matter, and that Tesco should not be allowed to argue they don't. A rep for the TV host confirmed that 'they are engaged, but no date has been set.
Rounds will soon be, however, stepmom to O'Donnell's four children from her previous marriage to Kelli Carpenter Could you tell me the dialing code for? Early in the period, yields on corporate bonds increased, and bond mutual funds and bond exchange-traded funds experienced large net redemptions in June; the rate of redemptions then slowed in July.
The index's price to earnings ratio is also at historic lows. By PM in New York, the stock was down 5. Kelly tore up the stage in front of his hometown crowd. He said trust in the KFC brand has improved in China since last December, but that it wasn't yet fully restored. We have a plan in place and are making progress, but we will not stop until the doors to Healthcare. Could I borrow your phone, please?
New K. Islam's holy month of Ramadan is calculated on the sighting of the new moon and Muslims all over the world are supposed to fast from dawn to dusk during the month. Where did you go to university? At this price, the stock is about 10p above the state's minimum break-even price of Will I have to work on Saturdays? Her concert started about 30 minutes after the Zimmerman verdict began to circulate. The team would be made up of House and Senate Republicans and Democrats, and would immediately start negotiating on debt limit and other fiscal issues.
He went 0-for-4 with a hard lineout to right in his first at-bat, followed by three strikeouts. Rodriguez insisted afterwards that the quad pain would not considerably delay his return to the Yankees. Some of them surely shouted out Jesus Christ, or some other religious curse as they methodically blew people away, yet people do not automatically assume that their religion made them do it. But when a Muslim goes postal, and shouts Ala Akbar, the non-Muslim cries for an murderous assault on Islam ring out loud and clear. However, there is no evidence that Major Hassan is anything other than another garden variety crazy shooter looking for publicity by pandering his story to Fox News.
The rabid foaming at the mouth of Islamophobes is just what Hassan wants, and people should be smart enough to deny him that pleasure. However, the rating is constrained by the company's small size and its niche position. Last year's campaign was a massive success and this year it could be even bigger. Experts expect hydrofoiling designs tolikewise end up on recreational sailboats very soon.
And an attempt to embarrass Bruno over his abuse of the state helicopter mushroomed into the so-called Troopergate imbroglio. Like the five-door Civic on which it is based upon, the Civic Tourer comes with either a 1. This was the Cahill who had impressed so much in the recent Uefa Super Cup for Chelsea against Bayern Munich, not the one who looked less assured for England of late. Both Washington and Tehran are now looking to find progress through diplomacy. This year, the Chinese manufacturer is poised to get into the top 10 mobile phone makers for with releases from high-end models to modest devices, all priced aggressively.
The new Lenovo tablet exemplifies this. In England travelled to the World Cup finals in Mexico as one of the favourites; they will be lucky to qualify for Brazil That is some decline. Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland show similar shrinkage in their international status, all of the sides damaged by the rapacious growth of imported players into the domestic club game.
MLB makes it clear that punishment under the game's collectively bargained drug agreement comes under the auspices of the commissioner's office and the Players Association, not the individual clubs. How many weeks' holiday a year are there? The leading ideas would reduce the government involvement in housing finance, which would mean higher rates for consumers. How much is a Second Class stamp? It's a lot of decisions. And if you add a cognitive [mental] burden on top of that it's a lot to ask. Several outlets reported that the year-old singer refused treatment by paramedics or hospitalization.
Weltman said he hopes to hire a representative in Shanghai next year. With Fox director Bill Webb and coordinating producer Pete Macheska deciding to let viewers follow behind Rivera, first walking, then running, in from the Citi Field bullpen, the drama was heightened. However, Indian officials seem to have backtracked as part of a concerted campaign to increase tourism to the country. Will I be paid weekly or monthly? And a newgovernment bill would cut off public funds to parties if leadersare charged with felonies.
But independent legal experts seelittle to suggest prosecutors have exceeded their authority. But neither spy chief discussed proposed reforms; instead they were questioned about new potential abuses that have come to light since then. When Whisenhunt was fired and Arians came in, the new coach had an idea that he'd like some kind of package with Peterson on offense. It was the fifth time this season the Mets have played at least 13 innings and the second game in the last five days that went at least 15 frames. The interest-only period of these loans ends after three years, when borrowers will have to meet the higher, full repayment cost.
This is likely to kick in at a time when rates are generally higher than today or at best heading higher. He's also worried fish and coral larvae could get pumped through some of the equipment the watercraft use and die. In Russia, she said, a family is a marriage between a man and a woman with children, preferably at least three. Mizulina declined requests for an interview. The Metro train would be quicker, but hauling an infant and all of his necessities the one mile from the closest station to the upper-deck seats was impractical.
How are you gonna fit all the stuff you need for your baby in that small bag? Could you ask him to call me? They volunteered the comparison. And the military uses these games for simulation of real-life experiences. In games, you are using a mouse or a joystick and you are interacting with the content and that makes it much easier to internalize the violent actions that are going on. Com Rep. And this is the only way we have," a striking power worker opposed to the division of the state told the NDTV news channel. I feel like God works best when it seems like there is no hope. I think a lot of people are going to be surprised at the end.
The U. It is its weakerpartner that must now undergo a radical self-reckoning. These cookies store no personally identifiable information. KKR, which had teamed up with Sycamore Partners LLC,another buyout firm, was the only party vying to buy the wholecompany, the people said. We will not allow Egypt to enter a dark tunnel of conflict or internal fighting or civil war. Convention on the Rights of the Child.
Patriots fans whining like 5-year-olds in the aftermath of Push-Gate need to stare at themselves in a full-length mirror. Two words: Tuck Rule. He has a commanding physical presence though I am not convinced that he moves nimbly enough to win all his sword-fights if they were happening in real life. He delivers his lines with attack and energy. He gives the impression of having thought hard about both the part and the play.
And soon, as American and European sanctions melt away, Myanmar will join the list. When do you want me to start? The company had no immediate comment. CTT's website said its system controls condensation on aircraft, including the , and is in use on other aircraft. His name was cheered by Arsenal's supporters, housed in the Smethwick End of the Hawthorns after it was read out by the stadium announcer.
There's a good following from north London, around 5, Richard D. But that was down from 65 mph kph onThursday and 50 mph 80 kph on Friday, and National HurricaneCenter forecasters in Miami said data from an Air Forcereconnaissance plane showed Karen could soon lose its status asa tropical storm.
More likely it was cheapened to take cost out of it in pre-production. This is incompetence and should be rewarded with the boot. The Adam is a pretty little car and as it is based on the Corsa - which got 5 stars, I can't quite see why this one didn't. GDF did not give details ofthe purchase price. Nicks missed only three games in , but his receiving yards , touchdowns 3 and yards per catch Thestock was down 0.
Egypt's interior minister denied that police had opened fire on Saturday, saying residents living close to the site of the pro-Mursi rally had clashed with the protesters, and police had used teargas to try to break up the fighting. Miami fans have brought items such as photos, shirts, footballs and helmets for players to sign at past events like CanesFest. He returns to his cancer patient analogy: if the diagnosis is the patient is going to die, but there is some uncertainty on exactly when, you do not just throw out the initial diagnosis of death. A classic romper, or playsuit, is the perfect way to mark the passing of the season as it can be worked into a whole host of different looks.
Two sources said an announcement could come as soon as next week. I don't think it will matter one way or another," said Jonathan Lewis, an antitrust expert with Baker Hostetler. One of them reportedly pertained to the requirement on HHS to submit a report to Congress on the "appropriate level of diabetes medical education. Philadelphia celebrated Park ing Day for the first time in with over 25 installations for relaxing, cycling, creating art, education, and socializing.
Department of Agriculture allows beef produced with beta-agonists to be labeled hormone-free, antibiotic-free and "natural," as the drugs do not fall into the same class as either growth hormones or antibiotics. It said two people inside the building had also hung banners from it saying: "Reclaim the power" and "Power to the people".
In London six protesters superglued themselves to the glass door of Bell Pottinger and deployed reinforced arm tubes to stop anyone else getting inside. Another activist climbed the High Holborn building and unfurled a banner bearing the words: "Bell Pottinger - fracking liars". The patents in the latest case are considered commercial and non-essential. The Obamaadministration has noted that it has concerns about the Houselegislation.
Editing by Stephen Nisbet. Amazon's flagship lineup, the Kindle Fire, was mainly successful due to the affordable price tag, but a Snapdragon would make it difficult to keep the cost down. There were no more games. Many will be worth multi-millions," said Arthur Wolk, one of the top personal injury attorneys specializing in air crashes. The Philadelphia-based Wolk said that, as of Monday, he had not been retained by any of the passengers or their families. Rode first heard about Tasul through a newspaper clipping handed to her by a collaborator at Washington State University.
The article talked about two polar bears at the Oregon Zoo Tasul and her male compatriot Conrad that were well behaved enough to offer their paws to zookeepers to take blood samples. But by late Thursday night, there was not even a line outside Apple's flagship Beijing store. And this was at The busy road, following the route taken by the Romans almost 2, years earlier, kept the site as open ground and preserved the remains from being destroyed by pile driving and foundations.
This could make it seem as if Costello had run out of ideas, but anyone familiar with his work and his massive level of output knows that is not the case. This practice merely ties this album to the rest and the best of his work. Americans, we are asking that you please suffer with your Cancer and those that have family with Cancer, well you may not get it, even though it has been proven that you are genetically predisposed to get it. The company also said its adjustedoperating income would be lower than it previously projected.
Auntie Pippa and Uncle James Middleton had also been to see the boy. However, the Duke and Duchess did not stay in London for long. By Wednesday afternoon they had left town for the quietness of Bucklebury, where they can get on with learning to be parents, undisturbed. These include active axial spondyloarthritis SpA , ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis nr-axSpA.
While escaping, some of the jewelry spilled on to the street. Yields climbed after Lisbondelayed its creditors' next review of the country's bailoutbecause of a political crisis. The letter points to recent activities by both gun rights and gun control advocates at its stores, saying that it has been "thrust unwillingly" into the middle of the national debate over firearms.
The company was forced to stop miningat the site in July so it could fix part of the roof. Michael's Catholic Grammar School, north London, said To purchase your ticket for this event go to Mets. He was a genuinely nice young man which can be seen from all the tribute messages that have been left for him. Now she has won a prize that brings a huge boost in profile, publicity and sales, and whose laureates include V.
Lavrov also thanked Francefor supporting a U. But Jordan also lets Oscar's reckless tendencies and irresponsibility peak through his outward benevolence. Though Jordan had memorable roles in "The Wire" and "Friday Night Lights," his performance in "Fruitvale Station" is surely a break-out for the year-old actor. Games let you do something. That should just be part of a nursing home's regular operating costs," says Robyn Grant, head of public policy and advocacy at the National Consumer Voice for Quality Long-Term Care, a residents' advocacy group.
Grant says the failure to require audits even when surveys pick up other problems with trust funds is especially troubling, given those errors could be signs of trouble. But he said Tokyo Electric would have created a political firestorm by moving ahead with the step. He visits the Beatles memorial in downtown Ulan Bator, where Paul McCartney is inexplicably standing barefoot, apart from the rest of the band.
Take-home: If you sign up for health insurance, this is where the government is going to stick it. Noble said the split of 44 drilling rigs and other assets fromits "high-specification" rigs would take place by the end of, and that the separation may be preceded by an initialpublic offering of up to 20 percent of the new company's stock. One was for a simple assault case and another for violating an order to stay away from the victim in that case. Bush, describes as a "fiscal Gordian knot. Yet six scientists published relevant papers in , and thousands more have worked to detect the Higgs at the CERN research centre's giant particle-smasher near Geneva.
In August this year members of HotUKDeals, a discount voucher site, claimed to be saving hundreds of pounds at Tesco after bulk buying ice creams at an 88pc discount. He was given positive reviews from Republicans for his handling of the crisis, though it again exposed the tenuous grasp he holds over the fractious House GOP conference.
What is the degree of acceptability of the French society? Is French society a bastion of conservatism wrapped in liberalism? He told The Independent that the brewery, which supplies 3, litres of beer weekly, was named after Redwell Street in Norwich and that the choice had nothing to do with the Austrian-based firm. But she will now have co-pays when she goes to the doctor.
The time All-Star is on something of a farewell tour, receiving creative gifts at each opposing ballpark he visits for the final time. Avio is a key supplier to theEurofighter, which competes with other combat planes powered byGE engines. It is clear that, although it has a number of political opponents, pursuing different agendas, the Assad regime enjoys considerable support among the Syrian people. Uncertainty about the politics within the Syrian opposition has also made western powers more cautious about wholeheartedly supporting that war effort. But the political costs may far outweigh the temporary reprieve from intra-party squabbling.
His wife, Jonaki Bose, 41, a statistician for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, was also deemed non-essential and shut out of her office at the U. Department of Health and Human Services. McCollum with the 10th pick overall. McCollum is perfect for that role. Theyappear to be locked in to an earlier period when fears aboutpeaking oil and gas supplies were prevalent, and not yet to haveadapted to the effects of the U. There has been a lot of recent heartbreak for the year-old.
Most recently, he lost a one-shot lead on the final day of the PGA Championship, a year after a bogey on the par-5 16th cost him the U. Then with a chance to help the United States in the Ryder Cup, he bogeyed the final two holes and lost a key point to Sergio Garcia. Federal law enforcement is 0-for-2 after tangling with Roger Clemens and Barry Bonds; however those cases were brought in California and Washington. Adhesive postage stamps were introduced in This lets the charge be redistributed in a tiny fraction of a second, enabling the creation things like speakers, which must vibrate at rates of thousands of times per second.
Therefore the decision by the Government to universally cut the bereavement grant in the budget raises serious ethical questions about the type of society it is creating and specifically how it treats its citizens at one of the most vulnerable period of their lives," Ms Keegan said. If your smartphone doesn't have HDMI, it can still be a part of your home theater. There are infrared attachments that turn a smartphone into a powerful universal remote.
If you have a newer TV, check to see if the TV manufacturer has a remote control app.
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Ifyour employer provides comprehensive coverage that costs youless than 9. What the hell is the point of hiding things from the people? Personally, I think that kid was doing his civic duty in revealing those files. Our government has no right, nor any need to hide anything from the general public, nor would they go out of there way to hide something as trivial as those thousand files released. Supposedly, the entire nuclear research information has already made it to the public and the rest of the world.
What was he on the verge of showing us? A New Can of Worms has just been opened.. Egypt's least worst option? Pakistan, if it should be so lucky. Things in Egypt are now so bad that resembling Pakistan is as good as it can realistically get any time soon. The worst possibility is outright state failure. The interest rate hike would also not affect students who have already taken out loans, but would affect students taking out loans after July 1, He called such an attitude "irresponsible," and specifically addressed the solid rocket motor rings, saying: "If this problem is not fixed, sooner or later, it could be one of the factors in a catastrophy sic.
She conspired, clearly, with Big Pharma to keep those drugs brand name so the drug companies could continue to reap giant profits. One such drug, Procrit, went generic in Europe way back in It was even available in South Africa as a generic in Gee, thanks a lot Woodock.