As it was summertime and Castelnaudary was too small to hold the huge crowd in attendance not least because it had previously been destroyed once or even twice the Count had a number of pavilions erected on a pleasant level place nearby. Everyone, knights as well as clergy, gathered to hear the mass. As the Bishop stood at the alter performing the mass, the Count took Amaury, his eldest son, by his right hand, and the Countess by his left hand; they approached the alter and offered him to the Lord, requesting the Bishop to appoint him a knight in the service of Christ.
The Bishops of Orleans and Auxerre, bowing before the alter, put the belt of knighthood round the youth, and with great devotion led the Veni Creator Spiritus. Indeed a novel and unprecedented form of induction into knighthood! Who that was present could not refrain from tears? In this way, with great ceremony, Amaury became a knight.
Simon died on 25th June while besieging Toulouse. During a typically brave action to retrieve a siege engine called a "cat" he was struck full on the head by a stone from a trebuchet, traditionally claimed to have been operated by the women of Toulouse. Amaury had participated in the Albigensian Crusade under his father's command. Now he inherited the County of Toulouse, and was elected as the new leader of the Crusade, as the people of the Languedoc celebrated his father's death.
Amaury could not fill his father's shoes. Only with the help of France could he avoid utter defeat. He removed his father's body from the Cathedral at Carcassonne probably fearing what would happen to it if he left it there and took it with him to his ancestral home near Paris. In he participated in the Sixth Crusade and was taken prisoner after the defeat at Gaza.
He was imprisoned in Cairo and was freed in , but died the same year in Calabria while on his way home. According to later stories, his birth and infancy were attended by many marvels forecasting his great sanctity. In Saint Dominic entered the University of Palencia, where he remained for ten years. We do not know the date of his ordination, but he became a cannon of the Cathedral of Osma in Passing through the Midi on his way back from Denmark in he started preaching against the Cathars of the Languedoc. He had planned, with the help of God, he said to convert Cathars to the Roman faith by preaching to them.
Despite God's help his preaching proved a failure. Spurred by his lack of success he hit on the idea of using schools to teach people the Catholic faith - one of many ideas he was to copy from the Cathars. At this time the Catholic Church did not normally encourage education for the laity, and indeed actively discouraged it, especially for women.
But the Languedoc was a special case. Dominic's establishment was in effect the first Dominican nunnery. The Church also tried open debates as a way of winning converts. Debates were permitted because the Roman clergy thought that they could humiliate the opposition intellectually and so facilitate mass defections to the Roman Church. This did not happen. Once again the the Roman Church made no progress, and if anything confirmed its role as a figure of fun and reservoir of ignorance and bigotry.
It is not proper for you to speak in a debate of this sort". Such attitudes voiced in front of a liberal educated audience succeeded only in confirming the extent of the gulf between the Roman Church and the general population of the Languedoc. In any case, even with God's personal help, the Roman Church once again failed to secure mass conversions, or indeed any conversions at all among the Parfaits. More vigorous action was called for. The great Bernard of Clairvaux St Bernard had asserted that "The Christian glories in the death of a pagan, because Christ is thereby glorified".
Were not heretics even worse than pagans, even more deserving of death. Dominic was a friend and companion of the famously brutal Simon de Montfort. We find him by de Montfort's side at the siege of Lavaur in , and at the capture of La Penne d'Ajen in In the latter part of he was at Pamiers at the invitation of de Montfort. By this time he had attracted a small group of disciples. He had never forgotten his purpose, formulated eleven years before, of founding a religious order. Dominic had several times been offered, and had refused, the office of bishop. He had bigger plans.
Foulques, the Bishop of Toulouse, made him chaplain of Fanjeaux and in July, , where he established the community whose mission was the propagation of the Roman Catholic faith and the extermination of heretics. In this same year a wealthy citizen of Toulouse put a house at their disposal. In this way the first convent of the Order of Preachers was founded on 25th April A year later Foulques established them in the church of Saint Romanus.
Dominic had dreamed of a world-wide Order. In November, , a General Council The Fourth Lateran was to meet at Rome "to deliberate on the improvement of morals, the extinction of heresy, and the strengthening of the faith". Dominic was present at its deliberations hoping to win permission to establish his new Order.
The council was opposed to the institution of any new religious orders, and legislated to that effect. Dominic's petition was refused. This reversal did not stop Dominic. He simply found a way around what the Catholic Church holds to be an infallible ruling. Returning to Languedoc at the close of the Council in December, , Dominic and his followers adopted the rule of St Augustine , which, because of its generality, could be adapted to any form Dominic might wish to give it.
On 22 December, , a Bull of confirmation was issued. He became a favourite of the new pope. The following year he received the office and title of Master of the Sacred Palace , or as it is more commonly called, the Pope's Theologian , In he formulated a plan to disperse his seventeen followers over all Europe. The following year, to facilitate the spread of the order, Honorius III, addressed a Bull to all archbishops, bishops, abbots, and priors, requesting their favour on behalf of Dominic's new Order. By another Bull later in Honorius bestowed on the order the church of Saint Sixtus in Rome, which thus became the first monastery of the Order in Rome.
Shortly after taking possession of this church, Dominic was given the apparently difficult task of cleaning up the activities of Catholic nuns in Rome. As the Catholic Encyclopedia gnomically puts it " Dominic began the somewhat difficult task of restoring the pristine observance of religious discipline among the various Roman communities of women". With the support of the pope, Dominic next started a campaign of rapid expansion of his Order, attracting large numbers of followers keen to be associated with a movement sponsored by the papacy.
A foundation near the University of Paris was followed by another at the University of Bologna where the church of Santa Maria della Mascarella was placed at the disposal of the Dominicans. In Rome the basilica of Santa Sabina was handed over to them. Next a convent was established at Lyons and then a monastery in Spain. Next came a convent for women at Madrid, similar to the one at Prouille. At the same time a foundation at Viterbo was authorised.
In Lombardy large numbers of people were abandoning the Roman Catholic Church for the Cathar Church, as they had done a few years earlier in the Languedoc. Honorius III addressed letters to the abbeys and priories of San Vittorio, Sillia, Mansu, Floria, Vallombrosa, and Aquila, ordering that members be deputed to begin a preaching crusade under the leadership of Saint Dominic. As it turned out no support was forthcoming, and despite propaganda to the contrary involving a series of wondrous miracles, Dominic's mission failed.
As in the Languedoc, those who committed the crime of choosing a religion for themselves would eventually be extirpated by Dominican Inquisitors. Towards the end of Dominic returned to Rome. Here he received more concessions for his order. In January, February, and March of three consecutive Bulls were issued commending the order to all the prelates of the Church.
In at Bologna he contracted an illness and died three weeks later. His faithful Dominicans spawned the Medieval Inquisition , with all its horrors, pioneering new methods of torture and creating new crimes. Ordinances were passed which imposed new penalties for heresy. It was the beginning of the first modern police state in the world. The role of Dominic himself is debated. When the Catholic Church was less sensitive about the record of the Inquisition , Dominic was hailed as its founder and his role as an Inquisitor was undoubted.
Berruguete painted panels on the life of Dominic Guzman which originally formed part of an altarpiece in the monastery, and this panel may have been one of these. Saint Dominic, recognisable by his mantle ornamented with stars, is seated on a throne presiding over the tribunal, surrounded by other judges, one of them bearing the standard of the Inquisition.
Below, two of Dominic's victims are tied to stakes awaiting their fate, being burned alive, having been sentenced by Saint Dominic. As the record of the Inquisition becomes more ever more out of step with modern sensibilities, there has been a tendency on the part of the Catholic Church to dissociate Dominic from his role as father of the Medieval Inquisition - sometimes pointing out that earlier Inquisitions had existed suggesting that he could not therefore be the founder of "The Inquisition " , sometimes that the Medieval Inquisition was not given formal papal sanction until after his death suggesting that "The Inquisition " did not exist in his lifetime, so he could not have been any part of it.
A third option for exculpation is employed by the Catholic Encyclopedia under the entry on Saint Dominic "If he was for a certain time identified with the operations of the Inquisition , it was only in the capacity of a theologian passing judgement upon the orthodoxy of the accused. Whatever influence he may have had with the judges of that much maligned institution was always employed on the side of mercy and forbearance, as witness the classic case of Ponce Roger [sic].
Nor does the letter show him as as being particularly merciful, forbearing or lenient - see box to the right. Dominic explicitly claims for Saint Dominic the title of First Inquisitor.
Afrique du nord
The Dominicans were allowed to set up their Inquisition at Toulouse, at Albi and at Narbonne; large numbers of heretics were arrested and examined and the majority of them were burnt. Sir Steven Runciman,. Dominic is now venerated as St Dominic, and is regarded by many Christians as one of the most holy men ever to have lived. Dominic's legacy has certainly been spectacular.
As well as running various Inquisitions , Dominicans monopolised medieval philosophy leading it into the barren desert of scholasticism where it languished until revived by Enlightenment thinkers, not a single significant advance having been made for centuries except, arguably, by heretical Franciscans. Modern Dominicans consistently deny that Dominic ever exercised the office of Inquisitor, pointing out that the Papal Inquisition was formally constituted only after Dominic's death. Some see this as perhaps a little disingenouous, since Inquisitors were operating on the authority of papal legates under Innocent III well before the institution of the Inquisition reporting directly to the Pope was given a formal charter.
Below is conclusive evidence that Dominic was an authorised Inquisitor even before the start of the Wars against the Cathars in For Cathars who chose not to deny their faith the penalty was death. So too for those who recanted but then returned to their chosen faith. For confessed first-offender heretics judgements were less harsh - often in the form of penances - but with a more severe reserve judgement if the penances were not fulfilled. This letter was written by Dominic about the year and concerns a converted Cathar called Pons Roger. In virtue of the Sacrament which has been administered, we command that, three Sundays or days of major feasts, a priest march him, stripped to the waist and under continuous flogging, from the entrance to the city to the church.
Moreover, we command him to abstain at all times from meat, eggs, and cheeses, or all things which are conceived from the seed of flesh, except on Easter Sunday, Pentecost Sunday, and Christmas, when, for the rejection of his former error, we command him to eat these things. He should keep three Lents each year, fasting and abstaining from fish. Three days every week, perpetually, he should fast and abstain from fish, olive-oil, and wine, unless bodily infirmity or summer heat makes a dispensation necessary.
He should wear clothes which are religious in both their style and colour, with a small cross sewed on each side over the breast. If it is opportune, he should hear Mass daily and, on major feast days, he should go to church for Vespers. Wherever he may be, he should praise God at all hours of night and day in the following way: seven times a day he should say the Our Father ten times, at midnight, twenty.
He should observe total chastity and live at Treveille. He should show this letter to his chaplain every month. Moreover, we command the chaplain to supervise his life with diligent care, until the Lord Legate otherwise expresses his will on these matters. Should he refuse to observe these directives, we command that he be deemed a perjurer and a heretic excommunicated from association with the faithful. I, pp. There several notable points in this letter:. No other role fits the circumstances. Most of the penances oblige Pons Roger to live in the same manner as a Cathar Parfait.
There are several theories as why Dominic should have required Pons Roger to do this, but they lie outside of the present discussion. Note also the use of the word "command". Genuine penance is by definition voluntary.
Sentences of death were rarely committed to writing, but we know that Inquisitors were responsible for burning countless people to death. This sentence has survived possibly because it was passed on someone who was now a Catholic. A relapsed and excommunicated heretic would be burned alive. Note also the use of the word "command" again, this time the command is to a third party - something an Inquisitor could do but a simple preacher could not.
Dominic's canonisation in was marked by a revealing incident at Toulouse. The bishop, Raimon de Fauga, and a number of Dominican friars had just solemnly celebrated the admission of their new Saint into heaven. As they were leaving the church for a celebratory feast, news arrived that a dying woman in the city had just received the Cathar Consolamentum. The bishop, the Dominican prior and his Dominican retinue promptly set off to deal with this crime. They found the woman at home in bed, gravely ill.
The men of God entered the house where she lay dying. In her delirium she mistook the Catholic bishop for a Cathar bishop and confessed to him her wish to die a good death. At this, and without any sort of trial, the bishop had her removed from the house. Lying on her deathbed, she was carried to a nearby field and there burned alive still in her bed. Their holy mission complete the bishop, prior and friars retired to enjoy their celebratory banquet, having first given thanks "to God and the Blessed Dominic".
As both Catholics and non-Catholics have observed at different times, it was a most suitable way to mark Dominic Guzman's canonisation. Dominc Guzman's own record is recognised in the special language of the Catholic Encyclopedia , which sometimes appears carefully crafted to carry a subtly different message to the devout reader than it does to those familiar with history:. If he abominated heresy and laboured untiringly for its extirpation it was because he loved truth and loved the souls of those among whom he laboured".
From a secular point of view there was no harm at all in the Cathars, and no reason for them to be even mildly persecuted, let alone burned alive. Yet it is not difficult to find Roman Catholic authorities who seek to justify the Church's genocide and make out that it acted for the best. This is as close as the Catholic Encyclopaedia comes to admitting fault:. His failure as a preacher is not mentioned, nor the fact that even using trickery and torture almost no Parfaits could be induced to abandon their faith.
The thousands of Cathar deaths are not referred to except in the most oblique terms:. The long and arduous task was at length successful, and by the end of the fourteenth century Albigensianism, with all other forms of Catharism, was practically extinct. This anti-human heresy, by destroying the sanctity of the family, would reduce mankind to a horde of unclean beasts Dominic's Preaching Friars Dominicans and their Inquisition were soon operating throughout Europe, introducing their Inquisitorial techniques to new lands: The following text is from a record of the deeds of the Archbishops of Trier contemporary with the events described.
In the year of our Lord began a persecution of heretics throughout the whole of Germany, and over a period of three years many were burned. The guiding genius of this persecution was Master Conrad of Marburg; Throughout various cities the Preaching Friars cooperated with him and with his aforementioned lieutenants; so great was the zeal of all that from no one, even though merely under suspicion, would any excuse or counter plea be accepted, no exception or testimony be admitted, no opportunity for defense be afforded, nor even a recess for deliberation be allowed.
Forthwith, he must confess himself guilty and have his head shaved as a sign of penance, or deny his crime and be burned. Furthermore, one who has thus been shaved must make known his associates, otherwise he again risks the penalty of death by burning.
Furthermore, if anyone had once abjured this impiety and was reported to have relapsed, he was apprehended and without any reconsideration was burned. There is not a hint of remorse or regret for the holocaust, and one can only assume that, if it could, the Roman Church would act in the same way again if similar circumstances arose in the future, lead perhaps by another charismatic leader like Saint Dominic. As Dominicans have become reticent about tradional aspects of their Catholic faith, attempts have been made to minimise associations with practices such as mortification of the flesh, Inquisitions, torture, auto-da-fes, exuming and burning the dead, and persecuting Jews.
Another of these traditional Christian practices was slavery. Dominicans were major slave owners in Spanish, Portuguese and French territories. A prime slave colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola what is now Haiti was associated with and previously named in honour of saint Dominic. The economy of Saint-Domingue was based on slavery, and the practice there was known as the most brutal in the world. Escaped slaves there were burned at the stake. Under Article 3 of the famous Code Noir, only Catholics were permitted to own slaves. The present capital of Haiti is still named after its patron saint, Saint Dominic.
Now in the Museo del Prado, Madrid. Detail showing Saint Dominic presiding. Note the fire breathing dog - a portent. His noble mother wears a crown. He wears ahalo originally silver? From the Early Life of St. Commemorative Road Sign at Minerve where - Cathars were burned alive for disagreeing with Catholic theology.
It was needful, too, that women converted from heresy should be safeguarded against the evil influence of their own homes. To supply these deficiencies, Saint Dominic, with the permission of Foulques, Bishop of Toulouse, established a convent at Prouille in To this community, and afterwards to that of Saint Sixtus, at Rome, he gave the rule and constitutions which have ever since guided the nuns of the Second Order of Saint Dominic. A recurring miracle in Catholic Tradition is one in which it proves impossible to burn holy scripture, while heretical works burn like any other books.
It is essentially the same miracle as that applied by the medieval Church to humans in certain forms of Trial By Fire. According to some sources, this miracle occurred at an early Church Council, and enabled the council to establish the correct books to include in the New Testament. A similar miracle was attributed to Dominic at Fanjeaux , where his writings were immune from the flames, and it seems that this miracle is still credited.
The Catholic Encyclopedia under the entry at Saint Dominic refers to "The failure of the fire at Fanjeaux to consume the dissertation he had employed against the heretics, and which was thrice thrown into the flames". See painting on the left. Dominic wears a halo technically an auriole. An heretical book burns while while the holy one miraculously levitates above the flames. Voltaire noted how unfortunate it was that this sort of miracle no longer seems to be available to distinguish holy writings from any other.
St Dominic prays in the traditional manner with St Francis behind him. Saint Dominic with a halo , Arnaud Amaury, and other Cistercian abbots crush helpless Cathars underfoot - a sanitised version of the persecution of the Cathars. Saint Dominic was a proponent of the scourge or "discipline" to mortify the flesh. Here he is flagellating himself with iron chains.
Penitent St. Dominic, by Alonso Florin, The Singing Nun committed suicide in Dominique, nique, nique s'en allait tout simplement Routier pauvre et chantant, En tous chemins, en tous lieux, Il ne parle que du bon Dieu Il ne parle que du bon Dieu. Dominic, nique, nique, just goes travelling, Poor traveller, singing, On every road, in every place He just talks about the good God He just talks about the good God.
One day a heretic took him through the thorns But our Father, Dominic, happily converted him. Ni chameau, ni diligence il parcout l'Europe a pied Scandinavie ou Provence dans la sainte pauvrete. Without a horse or cart he crossed Europe on foot From Scandinavia to Provence in holy poverty. Enflamma de toute ecole filles et garcons pleins d'ardeur Et pour semer la Parole inventa les Freres-Precheurs. To inflame girls and boys from every school with ardour And to spread the word, he invented the Friar Preachers [ Dominicans ]. Chez Dominique et ses freres le pain s'en vint a manquer Et deux anges se presenterent portant de grands pains dores.
Dominique vit en reve les precheurs du monde entier Sous le manteau de la Vierge en grand nombre rassembles. Dominique, mon bon Pere, garde-nous simples et gais Pour annoncer a nos freres la Vie et la Verite. Dominic, my good Father, keep us simple and happy To announce to our brothers the Life and the Truth. Bernard had been dead for half a century by the start of the Cathar Crusade - but he was an important figure in the Catholic Church when the Cathar "heresy" in the Languedoc first attracted attention. His influence was felt in many ways during the Crusade.
Bernard was born at Fontaines, near Dijon, in France. His father, a knight, died on crusade. His mother died while Bernard was still a child. One of these daughter monasteries, Clairvaux, was founded in , in a valley of a tributary of the river Aube. Bernard, a recent initiate, was appointed abbot. Bernard became the primary builder of the Cistercian monastic order.
In he was invited to the synod of Troyes, where he was instrumental in obtaining the recognition of the new order of Knights Templar, the rules of which he is said to have drawn up. The Templars were essentially fighting Cistercian monks. Saint Bernard with the halo accepting a new recruit into the Cistercian Order, while Cistercian nuns also accept a new recruit.
His was the main voice of conservatism during the 12th century Renaissance. Bernard was the prosecutor at Peter Abelard's trial for heresy. Bernard had been hostile to Peter Abelard and other scholars at the University of Paris, the center of the new learning based on Aristotle. Abelard was one of the greatest - arguably the greatest - scholastic philosopher of the Middle Ages. Bernard, not an intellectual himself, found it objectionalble that people should learn "merely in order that they might know".
For Bernard, education served a single purpose: the indoctrination of priests. The trial was not determined by the strength of the cases put forward by the prosecution and the defence. When Abelard lost he appealed to Rome where Bernard's word was enough to confirm his condemnation. Abelard died soon afterwards. Towards the middle of the twelfth century the preaching of a priest called Henry of Lausanne was drawing attention to what he saw as flaws in Roman Catholic theology and practices.
In June , at the invitation of Cardinal Alberic of Ostia, Bernard would travel to the territories of the Count of Toulouse to combat heresy. The threat was not at this time perceived as Catharism , but the teachings of Henry who had come to Occitania having been, as Bernard said, "forced to flee from all parts of France". Here is a translation of an extract from a letter from St Bernard to Alphonse Jordan, Count of Toulouse , written in before he set off to follow Henry to the Languedoc.
It gives an idea of how popular Henry's taching had been. The Churches are without congregations, congregations are without priests, priests are without proper reverence, and, finally, Christians are without Christ. Bernards's secretary, Geoffrey of Auxerre, writing in the same year repeats Bernard's comments and goes on: The life of Christ was barred to the children of Christians so long as the grace of baptism was denied to them. Prayers and offerings for the dead were ridiculed as were the invocation of saints, pilgrimages by the faithful, the building of temples, holidays on holy days, the anointing with the chrism; and in a word, all the institutions of the [Catholic] Church were scorned.
With the invective removed it sounds as though the Reformation has arrived in the Languedoc some three centuries before Martin Luther introduced it to Germany. After his visit, Bernard's main impression seems to have been the shameless corruption in his own Church. The people of the Languedoc had abandoned the Roman Catholic Church en mass for unnamed heresies As regards his life and conduct, he cheats no one, pushes ahead of no one, does violence to no one.
Moreover, his cheeks are pale with fasting; he does not eat the bread of idleness; he labours with his hands and thus makes his living Women are leaving their husbands, men are putting aside their wives, and they all flock to those heretics! Clerics and priests, the youthful and the adult among them, are leaving their congregations and churches and are often found in the company of weavers of both sexes. Although he does not mention the word Cathar, there are several indications here that Bernard is referring to Cathars: living the Christian ideal; pale through fasting; working for a living; appealing equally to men, women, and Catholic priests.
The term "weaver" is frequently used as a synonym for Cathar Parfait , since this was their most favoured itinerant trade. Bernard may have had some sympathy for the Cathars. He never said so explicitly, but he did share some of their views. The world had no meaning for him save as a place of banishment and trial, in which men are but "strangers and pilgrims" Serm. I; Serm. The words could have been taken from a Cathar instruction manual.
Despite any sympathy he might have had, he was happy enough to see those whom he saw as his enemies destroyed. Speaking of heretics, he held that "it would without doubt be better that they should be coerced by the sword than that they should be allowed to draw away many other persons into their error. Killing god's enemies was not merely permitted, but glorious.
Who's Who In The Cathar War
He asserted in a letter to the Templars "The Christian who slays the unbeliever in the Holy War is sure of his reward, the more sure if he himself is slain. The Christian glories in the death of the pagan, because Christ is thereby glorified". For him all infidels were creatures of Satan. After being asked about how heretics could bear the agony of the fire not only with patience but even with joy, Bernard answered the question in a sermon where he ascribed the steadfastness of heretical "dogs" in facing death to the power of the devil.
Bernard played the leading role in the development of the cult of the Virgin Mary - which many historians have seen as an attempt to counter the prominent role of women in new movements - notably those of the troubadours and the Cathars. Bernard preached the Second Crusade. His eloquence was extraordinarily successful. It was said that when Bernard preached, women went in fear.
Mothers hid their sons from him, wives their husbands, and companions their friends. Bernard proudly informed the Pope of his success in preaching a crusade: "I opened my mouth; I spoke; and at once the crusaders have multiplied to infinity. Villages and towns are now deserted. You will scarcely find one man for every seven women. Everywhere you will see widows whose husbands are still alive".
His patter was reminiscent of that of a high-pressure salesman selling to credulous punters: But to those of you who are merchants, men quick to seek a bargain, let me point out the advantages of this great opportunity. Do not miss them. Take up the sign of the cross and you will find indulgence for all sins that you humbly confess. The cost is small, the reward is great. Actually the cost was death. Most of those women were soon to become real widows for the crusader army was chopped to pieces in Anatolia before getting anywhere near to the Holy Land. The disastrous outcome of the crusade was a blow to Bernard, who found it difficult to understand why God would let his own army down like this.
Perhaps the best solution was that the outcome had been a great success after all, because it had transferred so many Christian warriors from God's earthly army to his heavenly one. Not everyone was convinced. The disaster was so severe that Christians throughout Europe started considering the ultimate blasphemy - that after all God might be on the side of the Moslems. On receiving the news of the catastrophe, an effort was made to organise another crusade.
Bernard attended a meeting at Chartres in convened for this purpose. He was elected to lead the new crusade, but Pope Eugene III failed to endorse him or his project, and it came to nothing. Bernard was discredited and looked like a spent force, but his influence was greater than it appeared, and Cistercians in his image would promote further Crusades. The Crusade against the Cathars of the Languedoc was precipitated by the murder of a Cistercian legate, preached by Cistercian orators, initially lead by a Cistercian abbot, supported by Cistercian monks, and even documented by Cistercian chroniclers.
Bernard was canonised in and declared a Doctor of the Roman Catholic Church in Bernard preaching a Crusade.
Bernard receiving milk from the breast of the Virgin Mary at Speyer Cathedral in Bernhard de Clairvaux, Lactatio. Virgin de la Leche with Christ Child and St. Bernard Clairvaux detail , By an unknown artist from Peru, Peyton Wright Gallery, Santa Fe. Cistercian nuns also accept a new recruit by the laying on of hands and touching the head with a testament. Fulk came from a Genoese merchant family in Marseille. He was also a wealthy citizen with some renoun. A contemporary John of Garlande later described him as "renowned on account of his spouse, his progeny, and his home.
Gallica - Erreur
His love songs were lauded by Dante. There are 14 surviving cansos, one tenson, a lament, an invective, three crusading songs and one religious song although its authorship is disputed. Like other troubadours , he was credited by biographies of the Troubadours with having conducted love affairs with noblewomen about whom he sang and with causing William VIII of Montpellier to divorce his wife, Eudocia Comnena. Folquet's life changed around when he renounced his former ways and abandoned his family for the Catholic Church.
He placed his wife and two sons in monastic institutions as well. He soon rose in prominence as a Cistercian and was elected abbot of Thoronet. A few years later Papal legates - fellow Cistercians - deposed the Bishop of Toulouse , Raymond Ramon de Rabastens, and were probably instrumental in arranging Folquet's nomination for the position in As Bishop of Toulouse , Folquet now referred to as Fulk, sometimes Fulk of Toulouse Folquet de Tolosa, Foulques de Toulouse took an active role in combating Catharism, the favoured religion of the area.
Throughout his Episcopal career he sought to encourage Catholic religious enthusiasm and suppress other forms of Christianity primarily Cathar and Waldensian. In he created what would later become the convent of Prouille near to Fanjeaux to offer women a religious community that would rival similar existing nearby Cathar institutions. When a preaching mission led by his fellow Cistercians failed to make any impression other than attracting popular derision, he participated in a preaching mission led by Bishop Diego of Osma.
They soon developed into the Dominican Order and Prouille became a Dominican convent. Because of his abrasive style, Bishop Fulk had tumultuous relations with his diocese, exacerbated by his support of the Cathar Crusade , widely perceived then as now as a war of aggression against Toulouse and the whole region - then independent but annexed to France when the aggression proved successful. Soon afterwards he instructed all clerics to leave the city of Toulouse. He was present at the siege of Lavaur in April-May , which ended in a massacre; he then travelled north to France, where he preached the Albigensian Crusade alongside a fellow Cistercian Guy of les Vaux-de-Cernay.
In July Folk issued a diocesan letter instituting Dominic Guzman 's brotherhood of preachers which became the Domincan Order. Foulques' attempted settlement led to further violence. He tried to relinquish his position but his requests to the pope were declined. In October , when Simon de Montfort was besieging Toulouse , he sent a group of sympathisers to Paris to plead for the help of the French king, Philippe Augustus.
This group included Fulk as well as Simon's wife, the countess Alix de Montmorency. They returned in May , bringing a party of new Crusaders including Amaury de Craon. Fulk spent much of the following decade outside his diocese, assisting the crusading army and the Church's attempts to subdue the region. He was at the Council of Sens in After the Peace of Paris ended the Cathar Crusade in , Fulk returned to Toulouse and began to construct further institutions - in addition to the Dominican Inquisition - designed to control the region and extirpate the Cathars.
He helped to create the University of Toulouse and also administered an Episcopal Inquisition. He died in and was buried, beside the tomb of William VII of Montpellier, at the Cistercian abbey of Grandselves, near Toulouse , where his sons, Ildefonsus and Petrus had been abbots. Type of guest search: Book beds. Book rooms. Guests: 1 adult 2 adults 3 adults 4 adults 5 adults 6 adults 7 adults 8 adults 9 adults 10 adults 11 adults 12 adults 13 adults 14 adults 15 adults 16 adults 17 adults 18 adults 19 adults 20 adults.
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Paris, F: Editions de la Revue de Paris. Dugast, Francine ed. Paris, F: Editions Flammarion. Faux titre in French. Amsterdam, NL: Editions Rodopi. Souvenirs indiscrets [ Indiscreet memories ] in French. Retrieved April 21, In Livia, Anna ed. Translated by Livia, Anna. Brussels, B: Editions de l'Hippogriffe. Raisons d'Etre - - Paris.
Paris, F: Karthala Editions. MPLF in French. I Chronique d'art. Paris, F: Editions Gallimard. A book of women poets from antiquity to now. Anne-Marie Kegels was born in Belgium where she currently lives. Belgian women poets: an anthology. Belgian francophone library. August French women poets of nine centuries: the distaff and the pen. Le Guetteur Wallon. Tournai, B: Unimuse. Paris, F: Actuelles Formes et Langages. Le Bayou. Brami, Joseph; Delcroix, Maurice eds. Correspondance — [ "A will without bending". Correspondence — ]. Paris, F: Editions Gallimard published November 7, Paris, F: Cercle de la Librairie.
July Annales de Bretagne in French. Rennes, F: Presses Universitaires de Rennes. Une femme en apesanteur [ A woman in weightlessness ].