First performance: unknown. Variation I , as in the G major variations, is for piano solo, but this time in a technically treacherous, jumping style. Variation II is a sweeping and virtuosic statement for the cello in the instrument's high register. Variation III Long, sustained notes in the cello act as foils for a virtuosic display in the left hand of the piano. Variation IV is a dialogue, the cello making sustained, lugubrious statements answered by a gently dancing figure in the piano.
Variation V breaks the calm and features two distinct motifs: a rollicking arpeggio and a hammering dotted rhythm played in unison. Variation VI The pianist takes over and shows off the right hand. The cello makes occasional comments. Variation VII features meandering scales in the piano and suggestive comments from the cello. Variation VIII is an all-staccato piece which steadily increases in intensity to the finish. Variation IX is composed entirely of leaping eighth-notes phrased across the main beats, creating a playful, syncopated dance. Variation X , marked Adagio, darkens the mood, moving into the key of F minor.
The piano states a noble version of the theme, and the cello repeats it starkly, recalling a funeral march. Variation XI As if descending to the underworld, the cello sings a dour tune in its lowest register. A tragic-sounding coda leads to: Variation XII , a joyous finale, full of life and vigor. At the end of this variation a brilliant, extended coda is added An unexpected jolt sets a chromatic passage in motion which arrives at the unlikely key of D major, where the theme is briefly stated. A quirky modulation brings back the home key, and the coda builds to its climax before evaporating to nothing at the conclusion.
The sober nature of the Theme dictates the tone for the entire work. The cello also has an increased role, this time sharing the theme with the piano. Variation I is a lively canon for both instruments with some spiky dissonances. Variation II is an interesting mixture of staccato and legato scales, some brilliant, some lyrical. Variation III places a genteel and elegant melody over a steadily pulsating accompaniment. The variation turns boisterous by the end. Variation IV is written in the somber key of E-flat minor.
The piano begins high and descends, and the cello enters in the low register and remainsthere for the entire variation. There is a dramatic moment in the exotic- sounding key of C-flat major near the end Variation V is the only humorous one in the work and is marked at a faster tempo. Triplets shoot like bullets between the instruments. Repeated notes in the left hand of the piano bubble nervously Variation VI , marked Adagio, is an ornate song with moments of great tenderness. Variation VII , the finale, is jumpy and happy, except for a surprisingly angry coda in Beethoven's signature stormy key, C minor The new prominence of the cello, the sweeping use of the instrument's range, and the long, singing lines all herald the full flowering of the cello's role in the duo sonata.
Composed: sketches appear in amongst those for the Fifth Symphony. Completed in Vienna in the spring of Beethoven was Dedicated to: Baron Ignaz von Gleichenstein, an amateur cellist and one of Beethoven's closest friends and advisers from Gleichenstein helped to organize a consortium of sponsors who offered Beethoven a guaranteed annual stipend to remain in Vienna.
It is thought that the dedication of the sonata was a gesture of thanks to Gleichenstein. After the agreement was signed, Beethoven asked Gleichenstein to help him find a wife. First performance: not documented. A year after the work was completed, Beethoven complained that the sonata "had not yet been well performed in public. Linke was the cellist of the Razumovsky Quartet, which premiered many of Beethoven's quartets. Published: , Leipzig. The music is then repeated with the roles reversed, the cello playing an ascending cadenza marked dolce.
The mood is rudely broken by a ferocious version of the theme in minor that quickly dissipates to allow for the entrance of the second subject , a beautiful combination of a rising scale cello against a falling arpeggio piano. The cello and piano continue trading motifs, each repeating what the other has just played.
A heroic closing theme is the culmination of the section and a brief, contemplative recollection of the opening motif leads to the repeat of the exposition. The development explores even more incredible worlds, turning mysterious , rhapsodic , stormy , soaring , and mystical before reaching the recapitulation, where the cello plays the theme in its original form against triplet decorations in the piano. The coda is thoughtful, and an extended chromatic buildup leads to a heroic statement of the theme.
After some dreamy, languishing music almost dies away, Beethoven finishes this great movement with a surprise forte. The extraordinary Scherzo: Allegro molto is the only appearance of a scherzo meaning "joke" in all five sonatas. The music begins on the upbeat, and the rhythm never ceases, even in the happier trio section Although there are many clever exchanges, the incessant, manic energy leaves the distinct impression that this scherzo is no joke.
A short Adagio cantabile, a beautiful song for both instruments, relieves the nervousness of the scherzo. A moment of hesitation leads to the quiet, almost surreptitious appearance of the final Allegro vivace. The theme, though happy like its predecessors in the earlier sonatas, is more lyrical and has greater emotional depth.
It introduces a movement in which the composer employs virtuosity not as an end in itself, but as a means of creating internal excitement. The second subject presents a difference of opinion between cello and piano, the cello singing a short phrase, the piano responding with percussive eighth-notes. The development section is mostly wild, with flying scales and pounding octaves. Approaching the recapitulation, Beethoven employs the basic materials of the movement: the rhythmic eighth-note accompaniment is combined with chromatic gropings for the main theme The coda is full of thoughtfulness and pathos.
There is a senseof reflection amidst excitement, of Beethoven yearning to be understood yetwith satisfaction denied. After a series of repeatedly unsuccessful attempts to reach the home key , A major is finally attained, as the eighth-note melody accelerates to frenzied sixteenths. The ending is triumphant, as Beethoven hammers his point home, the cello repeating the first bar of the theme over and over again with the piano pounding out the eighth-note accompaniment "I will not give up!
The Late Sonatas of Sonatas Op. They are the last works Beethoven wrote for piano and a solo instrument. Many of Beethoven's works were played at her house concerts, and she remained loyal to Beethoven in his later years when his music was losing its widespread public appeal. First performance: summer, , at the country estate of the countess. Joseph Linke was the cellist and the countess played the piano. The harmony is highly chromatic, touching on the same areas heard at the end of the re-transition at [m.
At the culmination, the theme from the B section, with its distinctive opening leap, is heard in the piano a half-step higher than before, in F-sharp minor. The theme is immediately shifted to F-sharp major by the cello, and the music settles down. The volume diminishes, and the cello leaps up for its last beautiful cadence as the piano plays its last chords over a slow rising arpeggio. The piano, marked mezza voce , begins the passionate, rhythmically fluid scherzo theme, whose outline closely resembles that of the finale from the Third Symphony and is in the same key.
It is played primarily, but not exclusively, in doubled sixths. This becomes even more pronounced when the cello enters in the fifth bar with wide leaps that shadow the piano bass. The piano responds with a cascading descent harmonized in thirds and fourths.
This is repeated with the cello leaping to a higher long note. Two similar but abbreviated cello statements with piano responses follow. Under this, the piano makes a rhythmic shift. The piano plays forceful, almost angry chords in this new rhythm. At the end of its rising scales, the cello also moves to this duple subdivision before its cadences.
The piano continues with a transition that moves back to F minor. The cello plays a melancholy line that begins in F minor but immediately moves back to C minor. Its cadence, decorated with a small trill, is repeated and extended. The piano plays low bass octaves with right hand responses. These responses begin with a double third and then leap downward. The repeated cadence is followed by a very brief harmonic transition. The first four bars of the scherzo mm. This frees the left hand to add fuller harmonies to the melody. It now begins in the home key of F minor rather than C minor, the passage with the motion to C minor having been skipped.
The harmony is unstable, however, and the abbreviated statements are more unsettled. They lead to a more sustained ascent that still uses the turning figures from the main scherzo theme. The cello holds a high note F-sharp , while the piano plunges downward, maintaining the dissonant harmony, but diminishing quickly.
The cello is absent for these bars. The first four bars of the scherzo, transposed to that key, are now taken by the cello, the piano adding a galloping accompaniment. These four bars are followed by a repetition of the mysterious, muttering four bars from [m. The left hand is repeated exactly, but the right hand chords are rhythmically displaced, now played on the weak beats. The chords themselves are subtly altered to indicate a motion to F-sharp minor. The cello, in its lowest register, maintains the constant turning, neighbor-note motion typical of the theme.
In four-bar units, the music, steadily building, moves through F-sharp minor, D minor, and B-flat minor. At this last shift, the key signature moves back to four flats, indicating an impending return to the home key. Here, the piano left hand also helps to stabilize the galloping rhythm by playing octaves on the strong and weak beats. The right hand chords move downward instead of upward. The right hand chords, which re-establish the home key of F minor, are now syncopated, entering off the beat before the weak second part of the bar.
These transitional bars lead to the return of the opening material. The opening material is presented with a thicker and more elaborate scoring. The cello continues the melodic presentation at the point where it had entered before in an accompanying role the fifth measure. The two-bar extension is shifted, avoiding the motion to C minor and firmly establishing F minor. Again, the instruments switch roles. The piano plays the opening gesture in full harmony, including a chord underneath the long note. The cello replaces the plunging piano responses with arching arpeggios.
The role reversal continues with the first scale. The cello moves to leaping figures in the duple subdivision. The second scale returns to the original pattern, with the cello playing the scale and the piano playing thick chords in the duple subdivision before the cadence. The strong cadence in F minor again leads to the transitional passage, now moving to B-flat minor. A three-note descent in the piano, with a contrary ascent in the bass, is imitated a fourth below by the cello.
This pattern is repeated twice more, each time a step lower. The right hand and cello repeat this twice more, each time a fourth lower. The harmonies of this passage move through the circle of fifths to arrive back at F minor. This time, the cello has the duple subdivision, which it maintains in wide leaps until the final chords. These also continue until the last chords. The third chord is delayed by a syncopated pause on a strong beat. It is followed by a closing low octave F, which ends the scherzo. The three-bar transition repeats the closing octave F, then moves to two outward expanding F-major chords, quickly changing the mode for the onset of the Trio.
TRIO F major [m. It is marked dolce espressivo and has a mostly stepwise, downward contour.
It is also in pure F major. The last three notes are repeated. The harmonic and rhythmic interest is in the piano part. In the second half of the phrase, the piano harmonies make a distinct turn toward the minor key, especially as they move lower under the repeated cello notes at the end.
The middle of the phrase turns to C major with a hint of minor. First phrase, as at The key suddenly shifts down to the rather remote D-flat major. The first phrase combines elements from both Part 1 phrases in the cello part. The merging of elements, with a half-close leading directly into the second half, results in a seven-bar phrase, the only such irregular phrase in the trio section. The piano accompaniment in both hands is similar to that of the first phrase from Part 1. Its first half continues in the vein of the D-flat phrase that preceded it.
The second half re-spells G-flat as F-sharp, and the pattern shifts. The cello moves to oscillating figures that lean into longer notes , while the piano, richly harmonized, moves to the rising element from Part 1 that was just heard in the cello. The phrase recedes and breaks off, avoiding any close in F-sharp. A long passage begins that will eventually move to the return of Part 1. The same pattern continues in both instruments, but Brahms now begins a very slow and steady crescendo.
The trio to this point has only had isolated strong accents. The cello soars upward to its high register. Following the preceding climax, the volume diminishes in preparation for the return of the Part 1 material. The piano is mostly the same, but the last bar is a hollow octave C instead of a full C-major chord.
This assists in eliminating the motion toward C that happened at this point in Part 1. This confirmation takes the place of the previous shift toward C in the second phrase of part 1. It is reduced to four bars. The last four bars of the second phrase had served to lead back to F, but in this case, the music is already there, so the phrase is abbreviated and leads into the full repeat of Part 2. Seven-bar phrase in D-flat combining Part 1 elements, as at It appears as if there will be an arrival at an F-major cadence, but the piano right hand comes to a halt, the volume diminishes, and the harmony makes a decisive change from F major to F minor in preparation for the reprise of the main scherzo.
First phrase of scherzo, mainly presented by the piano, with two-bar extension, as at the beginning. Slightly altered repetition of first four bars, as at Opening material with thicker scoring, avoiding motion to C minor, as at It then settles into the rhythmic pattern of a quarter note followed by two eighths long-short-short , which is also used by the accompanying piano chords.
No. 2: Scherzo - Cello - Cello scored for String Quartet
These are set quite low, with the right hand in the tenor range and the left hand in the low bass. Some variety is created by the chromatic note E-flat at the beginning of the third and fifth measures and the full repetition of the sixth measure as the seventh. The theme comes to a full cadence at the ninth measure, but the next statement has already begun. The piano right hand, now in the treble range, takes the melodic lead in this second statement.
The left hand plays rising triplet arpeggios that conflict with the straight rhythm of the melody. These arpeggios become more regular after the first two measures, where they pause halfway through the bar. The cello also plays triplet figures, its first arching ones responding to the piano left hand. After the first two bars, the cello responses to the left hand are more continually active. The melodic line in the repeated measures is altered, making a brief turn to D minor before the approach to the cadence.
The F-major cadence arrives after a brief buildup, and is a satisfying moment of restrained jubilation. The jubilant mood continues for two measures, with a fully harmonized piano melody and a solid cello bass. The jubilant material begins to turn harmonically in the third measure. Its characteristic two-note rising figures become a steady pulse in an inner voice, and are briefly grouped in three-beat units.
These octaves begin with a syncopated downward leap in long notes followed by rising scale figures. Another firm E-minor arrival follows. The cello takes over the syncopated downward leap and the following scale figures. Its notes are the same as the piano octaves until the end of the second set of scale figures. The alteration at the end of the cello line and its accompanying piano chord leads to another sudden, decisive shift, now to C major. Because of the major key, the triplets are of a more jubilant character than the earlier triplet passage in E minor.
This time, the triplet figures, all generally rising, are passed from the cello to the piano, whose left hand quickly moves away from the pedal point C. Then the cello plays two triplet runs beginning at a lower level against piano chords that seem to move briefly to G minor. The piano takes over the triplet runs, now in both hands and a mixture of scales and arpeggios.
After playing two pizzicato chords, the cello has another triplet run against strong piano chords passed from the left hand to a syncopated right hand. A brief pause precedes the return of the rondo theme. While the left hand of the piano maintains the throbbing low notes in long-short-short rhythm, the right hand continues the triplet patterns, now arpeggios, from the previous section, clashing with the rhythm of the theme and making it more dynamic. Partita no. M ozart. Sonata K. Beeth oven.
Sonata op. Rondo op. Sonata in F sharp minor D. Sonata in C minor D. Impromptu op. Gretchen am Spinnrade. Die junge None. Standhen von Shakespeare. Ballade no. Scherzo no. Sonata no. Andante spianato and Grand Polonaise brilliante op. Polonaise-Fantasie op. From Annees de Pelerinage - Italy:.
Home of RBSO
Sonetto del Petrarca. Etude de Concert no. Papillons op. Kreisleriana op. Humoresque op. Fantasy op. Preludes op.
Chopin: Scherzo No.2 in Bb minor Op.31 Analysis
Etudes Tableux op. Zvi Avni Israeli Composer. Concerto Repertoire List. Choral Fantasy op.
- Cello Sonata No. 3.
- Just A Settin and A Rockin.
- Take Me Away.
- The Official Soviet AK-74 Manual: Operating Instructions for the 5.45mm Kalashnikov Assault Rifle (AK-74 and KS-74) and Kalashnikov Light Machine Gun (RPK-74 and RPKS-74)?
- No. 2: Scherzo - Cello - Cello Sheet Music by Felix Mendelssohn.
- Undoing Privilege: Unearned Advantage in a Divided World?
Concerto in A minor. Concertino Chaconne for Violin and Piano in G minor.