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The Quran uses cosmological and contingency arguments in various verses without referring to the terms to prove the existence of God. Therefore, the universe is originated and needs an originator, and whatever exists must have a sufficient cause for its existence. Besides, the design of the universe is frequently referred to as a point of contemplation: "It is He who has created seven heavens in harmony. You cannot see any fault in God's creation; then look again: Can you see any flaw? The doctrine of the last day and eschatology the final fate of the universe may be reckoned as the second great doctrine of the Quran.

Some suras indicate the closeness of the event and warn people to be prepared for the imminent day. For instance, the first verses of Sura 22, which deal with the mighty earthquake and the situations of people on that day, represent this style of divine address: "O People! Be respectful to your Lord. The earthquake of the Hour is a mighty thing. The Quran is often vivid in its depiction of what will happen at the end time. Watt describes the Quranic view of End Time: [32]. The Quran does not assert a natural immortality of the human soul , since man's existence is dependent on the will of God: when he wills, he causes man to die; and when he wills, he raises him to life again in a bodily resurrection.

According to the Quran, God communicated with man and made his will known through signs and revelations. Prophets , or 'Messengers of God', received revelations and delivered them to humanity. The message has been identical and for all humankind. Angels acting as God's messengers deliver the divine revelation to them.

This comes out in Quran , in which it is stated: "It is not for any mortal that God should speak to them, except by revelation, or from behind a veil, or by sending a messenger to reveal by his permission whatsoever He will. Belief is a fundamental aspect of morality in the Quran, and scholars have tried to determine the semantic contents of "belief" and "believer" in the Quran. People are invited to perform acts of charity, especially for the needy. Believers who "spend of their wealth by night and by day, in secret and in public" are promised that they "shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve".

A number of practices, such as usury and gambling, are prohibited. The Quran is one of the fundamental sources of Islamic law sharia. Some formal religious practices receive significant attention in the Quran including the formal prayers salat and fasting in the month of Ramadan. As for the manner in which the prayer is to be conducted, the Quran refers to prostration. Charity, according to the Quran, is a means of self-purification. The astrophysicist Nidhal Guessoum , while being highly critical of pseudo-scientific claims made about the Quran, has highlighted the encouragement for sciences that the Quran provides by developing "the concept of knowledge.

Lastly, both assertions and rejections require a proof, according to verse It's generally accepted [ by whom? In many of these verses the study of nature is "encouraged and highly recommended" , and historical Islamic scientists like Al-Biruni and Al-Battani derived their inspiration from verses of the Quran. The physicist Abdus Salam , in his Nobel Prize banquet address, quoted a well known verse from the Quran —4 and then stated: "This in effect is the faith of all physicists: the deeper we seek, the more is our wonder excited, the more is the dazzlement of our gaze".

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Salam also held the opinion that the Quran and the Islamic spirit of study and rational reflection was the source of extraordinary civilizational development. Salam was also careful to differentiate between metaphysics and physics, and advised against empirically probing certain matters on which "physics is silent and will remain so," such as the doctrine of "creation from nothing" which in Salam's view is outside the limits of science and thus "gives way" to religious considerations.

The Quran's message is conveyed with various literary structures and devices. In the original Arabic, the suras and verses employ phonetic and thematic structures that assist the audience's efforts to recall the message of the text. Muslims [ who? The language of the Quran has been described as "rhymed prose" as it partakes of both poetry and prose; however, this description runs the risk of failing to convey the rhythmic quality of Quranic language, which is more poetic in some parts and more prose-like in others.

Rhyme, while found throughout the Quran, is conspicuous in many of the earlier Meccan suras, in which relatively short verses throw the rhyming words into prominence.

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The effectiveness of such a form is evident for instance in Sura 81, and there can be no doubt that these passages impressed the conscience of the hearers. Frequently a change of rhyme from one set of verses to another signals a change in the subject of discussion. Later sections also preserve this form but the style is more expository. The Quranic text seems to have no beginning, middle, or end, its nonlinear structure being akin to a web or net. Brown , acknowledges Brown's observation that the seeming disorganization of Quranic literary expression—its scattered or fragmented mode of composition in Sells's phrase—is in fact a literary device capable of delivering profound effects as if the intensity of the prophetic message were shattering the vehicle of human language in which it was being communicated.

A text is self-referential when it speaks about itself and makes reference to itself. According to Stefan Wild, the Quran demonstrates this metatextuality by explaining, classifying, interpreting and justifying the words to be transmitted. Self-referentiality is evident in those passages where the Quran refers to itself as revelation tanzil , remembrance dhikr , news naba' , criterion furqan in a self-designating manner explicitly asserting its Divinity, "And this is a blessed Remembrance that We have sent down; so are you now denying it?

According to Wild the Quran is highly self-referential. The feature is more evident in early Meccan suras. The Quran has sparked a huge body of commentary and explication tafsir , aimed at explaining the "meanings of the Quranic verses, clarifying their import and finding out their significance". Tafsir is one of the earliest academic activities of Muslims. According to the Quran, Muhammad was the first person who described the meanings of verses for early Muslims.

Exegesis in those days was confined to the explanation of literary aspects of the verse, the background of its revelation and, occasionally, interpretation of one verse with the help of the other. If the verse was about a historical event, then sometimes a few traditions hadith of Muhammad were narrated to make its meaning clear.

Because the Quran is spoken in classical Arabic , many of the later converts to Islam mostly non-Arabs did not always understand the Quranic Arabic, they did not catch allusions that were clear to early Muslims fluent in Arabic and they were concerned with reconciling apparent conflict of themes in the Quran. Esoteric or Sufi interpretation attempts to unveil the inner meanings of the Quran. Sufism moves beyond the apparent zahir point of the verses and instead relates Quranic verses to the inner or esoteric batin and metaphysical dimensions of consciousness and existence.

They indicate possibilities as much as they demonstrate the insights of each writer. Sufi interpretation, according to Annabel Keeler, also exemplifies the use of the theme of love, as for instance can be seen in Qushayri's interpretation of the Quran. Quran says:. Let me see you! Moses fell down unconscious. When he recovered, he said, 'Glory be to you!

I repent to you! I am the first to believe! Moses, in , comes the way of those who are in love, he asks for a vision but his desire is denied, he is made to suffer by being commanded to look at other than the Beloved while the mountain is able to see God. The mountain crumbles and Moses faints at the sight of God's manifestation upon the mountain. In Qushayri's words, Moses came like thousands of men who traveled great distances, and there was nothing left to Moses of Moses.

In that state of annihilation from himself, Moses was granted the unveiling of the realities. From the Sufi point of view, God is the always the beloved and the wayfarer's longing and suffering lead to realization of the truths. Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei says that according to the popular explanation among the later exegetes, ta'wil indicates the particular meaning a verse is directed towards. The meaning of revelation tanzil , as opposed to ta'wil , is clear in its accordance to the obvious meaning of the words as they were revealed.

But this explanation has become so widespread that, at present, it has become the primary meaning of ta'wil , which originally meant "to return" or "the returning place". In Tabatabaei's view, what has been rightly called ta'wil , or hermeneutic interpretation of the Quran, is not concerned simply with the denotation of words. Rather, it is concerned with certain truths and realities that transcend the comprehension of the common run of men; yet it is from these truths and realities that the principles of doctrine and the practical injunctions of the Quran issue forth.

Interpretation is not the meaning of the verse—rather it transpires through that meaning, in a special sort of transpiration. There is a spiritual reality—which is the main objective of ordaining a law, or the basic aim in describing a divine attribute—and then there is an actual significance that a Quranic story refers to. According to Shia beliefs, those who are firmly rooted in knowledge like Muhammad and the imams know the secrets of the Quran. According to Tabatabaei, the statement "none knows its interpretation except God" remains valid, without any opposing or qualifying clause.

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But Tabatabaei uses other verses and concludes that those who are purified by God know the interpretation of the Quran to a certain extent. According to Tabatabaei , there are acceptable and unacceptable esoteric interpretations. Acceptable ta'wil refers to the meaning of a verse beyond its literal meaning; rather the implicit meaning, which ultimately is known only to God and can't be comprehended directly through human thought alone.

The verses in question here refer to the human qualities of coming, going, sitting, satisfaction, anger and sorrow, which are apparently attributed to God. Unacceptable ta'wil is where one "transfers" the apparent meaning of a verse to a different meaning by means of a proof; this method is not without obvious inconsistencies.

Although this unacceptable ta'wil has gained considerable acceptance, it is incorrect and cannot be applied to the Quranic verses. The correct interpretation is that reality a verse refers to. It is found in all verses, the decisive and the ambiguous alike; it is not a sort of a meaning of the word; it is a fact that is too sublime for words.

God has dressed them with words to bring them a bit nearer to our minds; in this respect they are like proverbs that are used to create a picture in the mind, and thus help the hearer to clearly grasp the intended idea. One of the notable authors of esoteric interpretation prior to the 12th century is Sulami d. Sulami's major commentary is a book named haqaiq al-tafsir "Truths of Exegesis" which is a compilation of commentaries of earlier Sufis.

From the 11th century onwards several other works appear, including commentaries by Qushayri d. These works include material from Sulami's books plus the author's contributions. Many works are written in Persian such as the works of Maybudi d. Rumi makes heavy use of the Quran in his poetry, a feature that is sometimes omitted in translations of Rumi's work.

A large number of Quranic passages can be found in Mathnawi , which some consider a kind of Sufi interpretation of the Quran. Rumi's book is not exceptional for containing citations from and elaboration on the Quran, however, Rumi does mention Quran more frequently. He reconciled notions of God's manifestation through and in the physical world with the sentiments of Sunni Islam. His work ruh al-Bayan the Spirit of Elucidation is a voluminous exegesis. Written in Arabic, it combines the author's own ideas with those of his predecessors notably Ibn Arabi and Ghazali. Unlike the Salafis and Zahiri, Shias and Sufis as well as some other Muslim philosophers believe the meaning of the Quran is not restricted to the literal aspect.

Henry Corbin narrates a hadith that goes back to Muhammad :. The Quran possesses an external appearance and a hidden depth, an exoteric meaning and an esoteric meaning. This esoteric meaning in turn conceals an esoteric meaning this depth possesses a depth, after the image of the celestial Spheres, which are enclosed within each other. So it goes on for seven esoteric meanings seven depths of hidden depth. According to this view, it has also become evident that the inner meaning of the Quran does not eradicate or invalidate its outward meaning.

Rather, it is like the soul, which gives life to the body. Commentaries dealing with the zahir outward aspects of the text are called tafsir , and hermeneutic and esoteric commentaries dealing with the batin are called ta'wil "interpretation" or "explanation" , which involves taking the text back to its beginning. Commentators with an esoteric slant believe that the ultimate meaning of the Quran is known only to God. Reappropriation is the name of the hermeneutical style of some ex-Muslims who have converted to Christianity. Their style or reinterpretation is ad hoc and unsystematized and geared towards apologetics.

This tradition of interpretation draws on the following practices: grammatical renegotiation, renegotiation of textual preference, retrieval, and concession. Translating the Quran has always been problematic and difficult. Many argue that the Quranic text cannot be reproduced in another language or form.

Nevertheless, the Quran has been translated into most African , Asian , and European languages. The first fully attested complete translations of the Quran were done between the 10th and 12th centuries in Persian. Later in the 11th century, one of the students of Abu Mansur Abdullah al-Ansari wrote a complete tafsir of the Quran in Persian. The manuscripts of all three books have survived and have been published several times. Islamic tradition also holds that translations were made for Emperor Negus of Abyssinia and Byzantine Emperor Heraclius , as both received letters by Muhammad containing verses from the Quran.

In , translations in languages were known. In , George Sale produced the first scholarly translation of the Quran into English; another was produced by Richard Bell in , and yet another by Arthur John Arberry in All these translators were non-Muslims. There have been numerous translations by Muslims. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has published translations of the Quran in 50 different languages [] besides a five-volume English commentary and an English translation of the Quran.

As with translations of the Bible, the English translators have sometimes favored archaic English words and constructions over their more modern or conventional equivalents; for example, two widely read translators, A. Yusuf Ali and M. Marmaduke Pickthall, use the plural and singular "ye" and "thou" instead of the more common " you ".

The oldest Gurumukhi translation of the Quran Sharif in Gurmukhi has been found in village Lande of Moga district of Punjab which was printed in Arabic Quran with interlinear Persian translation from the Ilkhanid Era. The proper recitation of the Quran is the subject of a separate discipline named tajwid which determines in detail how the Quran should be recited, how each individual syllable is to be pronounced, the need to pay attention to the places where there should be a pause, to elisions , where the pronunciation should be long or short, where letters should be sounded together and where they should be kept separate, etc.

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It may be said that this discipline studies the laws and methods of the proper recitation of the Quran and covers three main areas: the proper pronunciation of consonants and vowels the articulation of the Quranic phonemes , the rules of pause in recitation and of resumption of recitation, and the musical and melodious features of recitation. In order to avoid incorrect pronunciation, reciters who are not native speakers of Arabic language follow a program of training in countries such as Egypt or Saudi Arabia. The recitations of a few Egyptian reciters were highly influential in the development of the art of recitation.

Southeast Asia is well known for world-class recitation, evidenced in the popularity of the woman reciters such as Maria Ulfah of Jakarta. There are two types of recitation: murattal is at a slower pace, used for study and practice. Mujawwad refers to a slow recitation that deploys heightened technical artistry and melodic modulation, as in public performances by trained experts.

It is directed to and dependent upon an audience for the mujawwad reciter seeks to involve the listeners. Vocalization markers indicating specific vowel sounds were introduced into the Arabic language by the end of the 9th century. The first Quranic manuscripts lacked these marks, therefore several recitations remain acceptable.

The variation in readings of the text permitted by the nature of the defective vocalization led to an increase in the number of readings during the 10th century. He studied various readings and their trustworthiness and chose seven 8th-century readers from the cities of Mecca , Medina , Kufa , Basra and Damascus. Ibn Mujahid did not explain why he chose seven readers, rather than six or ten, but this may be related to a prophetic tradition Muhammad's saying reporting that the Quran had been revealed in seven " ahruf " meaning seven letters or modes.

This edition has become the standard for modern printings of the Quran. The variant readings of the Quran are one type of textual variant.

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Nasser categorizes variant readings into various subtypes, including internal vowels, long vowels, gemination shaddah , assimilation and alternation. Occasionally, an early Quran shows compatibility with a particular reading. A Syrian manuscript from the 8th century is shown to have been written according to the reading of Ibn Amir ad-Dimashqi. Before printing was widely adopted in the 19th century, the Quran was transmitted in manuscripts made by calligraphers and copyists. The Hijazi style manuscripts nevertheless confirm that transmission of the Quran in writing began at an early stage.

Probably in the ninth century, scripts began to feature thicker strokes, which are traditionally known as Kufic scripts. Toward the end of the ninth century, new scripts began to appear in copies of the Quran and replace earlier scripts.


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The reason for discontinuation in the use of the earlier style was that it took too long to produce and the demand for copies was increasing. Copyists would therefore choose simpler writing styles. Naskh was in very widespread use. More distinct is the Bihari script which was used solely in the north of India. In the beginning, the Quran did not have vocalization markings. The system of vocalization, as we know it today, seems to have been introduced towards the end of the ninth century. Since it would have been too costly for most Muslims to purchase a manuscript, copies of the Quran were held in mosques in order to make them accessible to people.

In terms of productivity, the Ottoman copyists provide the best example. This was in response to widespread demand, unpopularity of printing methods and for aesthetic reasons. Folio from the "Blue" Quran. Wood-block printing of extracts from the Quran is on record as early as the 10th century.

Arabic movable type printing was ordered by Pope Julius II r. Printed copies of the Quran during this period met with strong opposition from Muslim legal scholars : printing anything in Arabic was prohibited in the Ottoman empire between and —initially, even on penalty of death. Very few books, and no religious texts, were printed in the Ottoman Empire for another century. A Quran was printed with this press in , reprinted in and in Saint Petersburg, and in in Kazan. This edition was the result of a long preparation as it standardized Quranic orthography and remains the basis of later editions.

The Quran's statements on the creation of the universe and earth, the origins of human life, biology, earth sciences and so on have been criticized by scientists as containing fallacies, being unscientific, and likely to be contradicted by evolving scientific theories.

The Quran attributes its relationship with former books the Torah and the Gospels to their unique origin, saying all of them have been revealed by the one God. In fact, Moses is mentioned more in the Quran than any other individual. Some non-Muslim groups such as Baha'is and Druze view the Quran as holy. Unitarian Universalists may also seek inspiration from the Quran. After the Quran, and the general rise of Islam, the Arabic alphabet developed rapidly into an art form.

Although Arabic, as a language and a literary tradition, was quite well developed by the time of Muhammad's prophetic activity, it was only after the emergence of Islam, with its founding scripture in Arabic, that the language reached its utmost capacity of expression, and the literature its highest point of complexity and sophistication. Indeed, it probably is no exaggeration to say that the Quran was one of the most conspicuous forces in the making of classical and post-classical Arabic literature.

The main areas in which the Quran exerted noticeable influence on Arabic literature are diction and themes; other areas are related to the literary aspects of the Quran particularly oaths q. As far as diction is concerned, one could say that Quranic words, idioms and expressions, especially "loaded" and formulaic phrases, appear in practically all genres of literature and in such abundance that it is simply impossible to compile a full record of them.

For not only did the Quran create an entirely new linguistic corpus to express its message, it also endowed old, pre-Islamic words with new meanings and it is these meanings that took root in the language and subsequently in the literature Its outstanding literary merit should also be noted: it is by far, the finest work of Arabic prose in existence. It may be affirmed that within the literature of the Arabs, wide and fecund as it is both in poetry and in elevated prose, there is nothing to compare with it. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The central religious text of Islam. List English translations by Ahmadis.

Abrogation Biblical narratives Esoteric interpretation Hermeneutics Persons related to verses. Main article: History of the Quran. Main article: Sources for the Quran. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Profession of faith Prayer Fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage. Texts and sciences. Culture and society. Related topics. Main articles: I'jaz and Challenge of the Quran. See also: Salah. Main articles: God in Islam , Prophets and messengers in Islam , Islamic attitudes towards science , Biblical and Quranic narratives , and Historical reliability of the Quran. Main article: Islamic eschatology. Main article: Tafsir. Main article: Esoteric interpretation of the Quran. Main article: Quran translations.

See also: List of translations of the Quran. See also: Tajwid.


  1. Part 5: The Order of the Qur'an's Revelation and the Growth of the Qur'anic Sciences.
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  7. See also: Qira'at. Main article: Islamic calligraphy. Main article: Criticism of the Quran. See also: Biblical and Quranic narratives and Sources for the Quran. Quran portal Islam portal. Retrieved 4 November Dawood 's judgement. The Leaders Are Coming! WestBow Press. Williams; Michael R. Drew Vanguard Press. Tauris Publishers. The Words and Will of God. Princeton University Press. Wheeler Encyclopedia of Islam.

    Facts On File. Indiana Univ. Prophets in the Quran: an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. Retrieved 31 August Quranic Sciences. ICAS press.

    Zahra Publ. Archived from the original on 26 August Montgomery Watt Bell's introduction to the Qur'an. Holt, Ann K. Lambton and Bernard Lewis The Cambridge history of Islam Reprint. Cambridge Univ. Islamic Foundation. Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement. Sometimes the Angel comes in the form of a man and talks to me and I grasp whatever he says. Journal of Quranic Studies. Retrieved 26 February Retrieved 16 February The Blackwell companion to the Qur'an [2a reimpr.

    For eschatology, see Discovering final destination by Christopher Buck, p. For literary structure, see section Language by Mustansir Mir, p. For the history of compilation see Introduction by Tamara Sonn pp. Gade pp. Oxford University Press, pp. Peters , pp. The Qur'an: an Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. For eschatology, see Eschatology by Zeki Saritoprak, pp. For searching the Arabic text on the internet and writing, see Cyberspace and the Qur'an by Andrew Rippin, pp.

    For calligraphy, see by Calligraphy and the Qur'an by Oliver Leaman, pp. For translation, see Translation and the Qur'an by Afnan Fatani, pp. For recitation, see Art and the Qur'an by Tamara Sonn, pp. Basic Mechanics of Islamic Capitalism. Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Studia Islamica 91 : 5— Publisher: Luna Plena Publishing.

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    Being the holy book of Islam and the center of veneration of Muslims, the Qur'an has extensively been studied by Muslim scholars. This interest developed 'Ulum Al-Qur'an" or "the Sciences of the Qur'an" into a discipline that comprehensively studied every aspect of the Book of Allah. This book focuses on one of those sciences, which is studying the names of the chapters suras of the Qur'an. It explains where each chapter name has come from and tries to identify naming patterns.

    The book is divided into two main parts. The first contains seven chapters each of which focuses on certain elements of the subject. The second part analyzes in detail the name of each of the Qur'anic chapters. Among the topics it covers: - An introduction to the Qur'an. Visit Seller's Storefront. Books should arrive within business days for expedited shipping, and business days for standard shipping. Standard shipping can on occasion take up to 60 days for delivery.

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