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Manual The Spurn Gravel Trade - A Conflict between Commerce and Coastal Erosion

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If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you! Published by Miles Cook Modified over 3 years ago. What are the methods used to manage coastal environments and how successful are these strategies? Management means controlling development and change in the coastal zone and undertaking work according to agreed principles and criteria. Stages in management: Understand the causes of the problems Undertake works to reduce or solve the problems.

East of Hull – Keeping Spurn Wild

Improve prediction and make contingency plans. As things like coastal tourism have become more frequent, humans have found it increasingly necessary to attempt to control the effects of the sea. The main reasons for coastal management are: to protect the coast from the erosive effects of the sea. The aim of each SMP is to provide the basis for sustainable coastal defence policies and to set objectives for future management of the shoreline.

Physical, environmental, engineering and planning constraints are taken into account. Do nothing — carry out no new coastal defence activities except for safety measures 2. Retreat the Existing Defence Line — move by intervention the exisitng defence landward 3. Hold the existing defence line — by intervention, with additional defences where and when necessary. Advance the Existing Defence Line — by intervention to move the existing sea defence seaward. This means that there are many different groups of people who have an interest in what happens in coastal areas and how they are managed.

Some of the common-interest groups involved in coastal management issues are: Local residents Environmental groups Developers Local councils National governments Tourist boards National Parks Authorities, such as the Pembrokeshire National Park Authority. What is meant by hard and soft coastal engineering? What are the hard and soft engineering options? What are the advantages and disadvantages of these options? Key skills: Communication Working with others Improving own learning and performance Problem solving. Hard Engineering Hard engineering options tend to be expensive and short-term options.

They may also have a high impact on the landscape or environment. The table shows the most common hard engineering solutions. Soft engineering Soft engineering options are often less expensive than hard engineering options. They are usually also more long-term and sustainable, with less impact on the environment. There are two main types of soft engineering. What is meant by coastal management? Why is it necessary to protect the coast? Outline differences between hard and soft engineering responses to coastal management.

What is a SMP? Which groups of people will most likely be concerned with the management of the coastline? Who deals with coastal management in the UK? Advantages Protects the base of cliffs against erosion. Can prevent coastal flooding in some areas. Land and buildings are protected from erosion. Disadvantages A sea wall is expensive to build. Curved sea walls reflect the energy pf the waves back to the sea. This means that the waves remain powerful. Over time the wall may begin to erode.

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The cost of maintenance is high. Building groynes - Wooden barrier built at right angles to the coast. Advantages Prevents the movement of beach material along the coats through the process of longshore drift. Allows the build up of a beach a natural defence against erosion and an attraction for tourists. Disadvantages Can be seen as unattractive. Can be costly to build and maintain. Advantages Absorb the energy of the waves. Allows the build up of a beach. Disadvantages Can be expensive to obtain and transport the boulders.

Various forms available. Can be buried by sand and vegetation. Permeable face absorbs wave energy and encourages upper beach stability. Disadvantsages Expected life span of 20 — 25 years, as the steel will rust. Limited life, leading to unsightly and hazardous wire baskets along beach and the release of non- indigenous cobbles to the beach system. Wire affected by saltwater, vandalism and abrasion by trampling or gravel beach impacts. Revetments Structures placed on banks or cliffs in such a way as to absorb the energy of incoming water or explosives.

They are usually built to preserve the existing uses of the shoreline and to protect the slope, as defense against erosion, Wooden, steel, or concrete fence-like structures that allow sea water and sediment to pass through, but the structures absorb wave energy. A beach can build up behind the revetment and provide further protection for the cliff. These are used as part of coastal defences. The main advantage is that beaches are a natural defence against erosion and coastal flooding.

Beaches also attract tourists. While it can be a relatively inexpensive option it requires constant maintenance to keep replacing the beach material as it is washed away. Managed retreat This is where areas of the coast are allowed to erode and flood naturally. Usually this will be areas considered to be low value.

The advantages are that it encourages the development of beaches a natural defence and salt marshes important for the environment and cost is low. While this is a cheap option, it will not be free as people will need to be compensated for loss of buildings and farmland. There are two main types of soft engineering:. You are representatives for different coastal management strategies. You must argue your case for your strategy to be used on a particular stretch of coastline. You must use negative points about other strategies to support your argument.

You are a panel who will decide which coastal strategy to invest in after considering all arguments. The stretch of coastline is suffering from rapid removal of beach material by longshore drift and thus is experiencing increased erosion of the cliff face by waves at high tide. This is having a negative effect on tourism. Problems of disrupting the natural coastal system: Whenever you tamper with nature there are going to be knock on effects, which could, in time, become worse than the original problem.

Coastal defence strategies are often very localised, and can cause problems further down the coast. One such example could be seen where groynes are used to trap sediment. Further down the coast there could be a reduction in the amount of material available to protect the coast there. This in turn would mean an increased amount of coastal erosion. First time just watch. Second time make notes on: Hallsands Minehead Porlock Complete a case study card for each of the three case studies. In order to build a new docklands at nearby Plymouth, large amounts of shingle, used to make concrete were dredged from Hallsands.

Butlins is built on an area of marshland prone to flooding. This natural defence system however is changing and will not be able to prevent flooding of the land. Or Do they let the land behind flood and let nature take its course? Although it may loose some farmland, it would stop the surprise flooding. Building sea defences would be pointless, as they would only be destroyed in high tides and storms. This growth in business has made the beach an even more valuable asset than ever before. But Bournemouth has always had a problem holding on to its sand: longshore drift, which is very active here, tends to carry it away in vast quantities.

To stop this process, groynes were built — wooden barriers to hold back the sand. But wrestling with nature is an expensive business: a single groyne costs almost a quarter of a million pounds. In fact, at high tide there is no beach at all. Waves act directly on the cliffs. Coupled with the local geology — layers of clays and sands — this leads to rotational cliff slumping on a regular basis. Slumped coastlines are very unstable and dangerous and trying to control them is a serious business.

Any kind of coastal protection in areas like this requires huge and expensive engineering works. This is more or less what happens at Barton. But to the east of the town it would be difficult to introduce an effective coastal protection programme. The property on the top of the cliffs — mainly holiday chalets — is relatively low-value, and the management strategy adopted here is simply to pick them up and move them backwards when they get within an unsafe distance of the clifftop. A large concrete breakwater or groyne has been built there.

The groyne was built in Before that time there was a narrow beach along the full length of the headland. It is clear that the groyne has caused a large build up of sand to the west of the groyne, and a reduction of sand to the east. This could not have happened unless there was a movement of beach material along the coast, from west to east, at Hengistbury Head. This movement is called longshore drift. The foot of the cliff is attacked by the sea and the cliff face is prone to slumping and rotational slip. A sea wall and groynes were built at the foot of the cliff and sheet steel was driven into the cliff face.

Despite this, the cliff still collapsed following heavy rain in Engineers has tried to prevent the natural processes of erosion — and failed. One reason was that longshore drift had probably been lessened due to the groyne at Henigstbury, 7km to the west of Barton. Barton also faces the full force of the south-westerly gales. Strong promontories have been built into the sea and an artificial beach has been made.

Will this save Barton? Only time will tell. Questions: 1. Describe the coastal defence engineering scheme at Barton on Sea. How successful do you think the scheme has been? Make a plan for measures to reduce further erosion at Barton. Draw up your plan as a report, including suitable maps and diagrams. The coastline is mainly made up of cliffs m high , consisting of soft, easily eroded boulder clay.

Holderness Coast. The average annual rate of erosion is around 2 metres per year. The main reason for this is because the bedrock is made up of till. This material was deposited by glaciers over 18, years ago. As a result it is easily eroded by destructive storm waves and the fine nature of the clay means it is transported away from the beach in suspension by longshore drift. Undercutting of the cliff leads to large-scale slumping along the coastline. The consequent containment of loss of material from Bournemouth cliffs had essentially increased the erosion at Hengistbury Head as the arrival of material from the South-west had decreased.

The building of groynes at Hengistbury has helped to contain this loss. Highcliffe had a very large concave beach defence erected in the 's below Steamer Point and considerable work has also been done at nearby Barton. Can be buried by sand and vegetation. Permeable face absorbs wave energy and encourages upper beach stability. Disadvantsages Expected life span of 20 — 25 years, as the steel will rust. Limited life, leading to unsightly and hazardous wire baskets along beach and the release of non- indigenous cobbles to the beach system.

Wire affected by saltwater, vandalism and abrasion by trampling or gravel beach impacts. Revetments Structures placed on banks or cliffs in such a way as to absorb the energy of incoming water or explosives.

1. Coasts - St. Paul's Senior School

They are usually built to preserve the existing uses of the shoreline and to protect the slope, as defense against erosion, Wooden, steel, or concrete fence-like structures that allow sea water and sediment to pass through, but the structures absorb wave energy. A beach can build up behind the revetment and provide further protection for the cliff.

These are used as part of coastal defences. The main advantage is that beaches are a natural defence against erosion and coastal flooding. Beaches also attract tourists. While it can be a relatively inexpensive option it requires constant maintenance to keep replacing the beach material as it is washed away. Managed retreat This is where areas of the coast are allowed to erode and flood naturally. Usually this will be areas considered to be low value. The advantages are that it encourages the development of beaches a natural defence and salt marshes important for the environment and cost is low.

While this is a cheap option, it will not be free as people will need to be compensated for loss of buildings and farmland. There are two main types of soft engineering:. You are representatives for different coastal management strategies. You must argue your case for your strategy to be used on a particular stretch of coastline. You must use negative points about other strategies to support your argument. You are a panel who will decide which coastal strategy to invest in after considering all arguments. The stretch of coastline is suffering from rapid removal of beach material by longshore drift and thus is experiencing increased erosion of the cliff face by waves at high tide.

This is having a negative effect on tourism. Problems of disrupting the natural coastal system: Whenever you tamper with nature there are going to be knock on effects, which could, in time, become worse than the original problem. Coastal defence strategies are often very localised, and can cause problems further down the coast. One such example could be seen where groynes are used to trap sediment. Further down the coast there could be a reduction in the amount of material available to protect the coast there.

This in turn would mean an increased amount of coastal erosion. First time just watch. Second time make notes on: Hallsands Minehead Porlock Complete a case study card for each of the three case studies. In order to build a new docklands at nearby Plymouth, large amounts of shingle, used to make concrete were dredged from Hallsands. Butlins is built on an area of marshland prone to flooding.

This natural defence system however is changing and will not be able to prevent flooding of the land. Or Do they let the land behind flood and let nature take its course? Although it may loose some farmland, it would stop the surprise flooding. Building sea defences would be pointless, as they would only be destroyed in high tides and storms. This growth in business has made the beach an even more valuable asset than ever before. But Bournemouth has always had a problem holding on to its sand: longshore drift, which is very active here, tends to carry it away in vast quantities.

To stop this process, groynes were built — wooden barriers to hold back the sand. But wrestling with nature is an expensive business: a single groyne costs almost a quarter of a million pounds. In fact, at high tide there is no beach at all. Waves act directly on the cliffs. Coupled with the local geology — layers of clays and sands — this leads to rotational cliff slumping on a regular basis. Slumped coastlines are very unstable and dangerous and trying to control them is a serious business.

Any kind of coastal protection in areas like this requires huge and expensive engineering works. This is more or less what happens at Barton. But to the east of the town it would be difficult to introduce an effective coastal protection programme. The property on the top of the cliffs — mainly holiday chalets — is relatively low-value, and the management strategy adopted here is simply to pick them up and move them backwards when they get within an unsafe distance of the clifftop.


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A large concrete breakwater or groyne has been built there. The groyne was built in Before that time there was a narrow beach along the full length of the headland. It is clear that the groyne has caused a large build up of sand to the west of the groyne, and a reduction of sand to the east. This could not have happened unless there was a movement of beach material along the coast, from west to east, at Hengistbury Head. This movement is called longshore drift.

The foot of the cliff is attacked by the sea and the cliff face is prone to slumping and rotational slip. A sea wall and groynes were built at the foot of the cliff and sheet steel was driven into the cliff face. Despite this, the cliff still collapsed following heavy rain in Engineers has tried to prevent the natural processes of erosion — and failed. One reason was that longshore drift had probably been lessened due to the groyne at Henigstbury, 7km to the west of Barton.

Barton also faces the full force of the south-westerly gales.

Strong promontories have been built into the sea and an artificial beach has been made. Will this save Barton? Only time will tell. Questions: 1. Describe the coastal defence engineering scheme at Barton on Sea. How successful do you think the scheme has been? Make a plan for measures to reduce further erosion at Barton.

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Draw up your plan as a report, including suitable maps and diagrams. The coastline is mainly made up of cliffs m high , consisting of soft, easily eroded boulder clay. Holderness Coast. The average annual rate of erosion is around 2 metres per year.

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The main reason for this is because the bedrock is made up of till. This material was deposited by glaciers over 18, years ago. As a result it is easily eroded by destructive storm waves and the fine nature of the clay means it is transported away from the beach in suspension by longshore drift. Undercutting of the cliff leads to large-scale slumping along the coastline. The consequent containment of loss of material from Bournemouth cliffs had essentially increased the erosion at Hengistbury Head as the arrival of material from the South-west had decreased. The building of groynes at Hengistbury has helped to contain this loss.

Highcliffe had a very large concave beach defence erected in the 's below Steamer Point and considerable work has also been done at nearby Barton. Interestingly the beaches at Mudeford and Highcliffe have built up considerably in the last 30 years while the trailing sandbank off Mudeford Spit new seems less prominent.

The end of Mudeford Sandspit has also been reinforced with a rock groyne While the sea defences erected at Bournemouth and at Hengistbury Head have significantly slowed the erosion, regrettably it is difficult to see how full equilibrium can now be restored within this area, without the utilisation of new techniques.

There has been concern of a breach across barn Field which would turn Hengistbury Head into an Island. The village of Mappleton lies on the coast which is made of unconsolidated glacial till — it leaves the cliffs vulnerable to erosion. The cliffs are made up of soft glacial material Boulder Clay - made up of sands and gravels. This is easily eroded by the waves and the cliffs are easily undermined. The Holderness Coast is very exposed; approaching waves have a long fetch over the North Sea. The waves are mainly destructive - eroding the base of the cliffs hydraulic action etc.

Most of the Material eroded from the cliffs is washed out to sea, the rest is moved by longshore drift - the beaches are therefore narrow and do little to protect the coastline. If the beaches were wider, the waves would break on the beaches reducing their erosive power. The coastline is threatened further by sea-level rise.

Supporting approximately 50 properties, the village has been subject to intense erosion at a rate of 2. This material was deposited by glaciers during the last ice age 18, years ago. The two rock groynes at Mappleton have helped develop wide and steep sandy beaches. Here the cliff has been regarded and grassed to make it gentler and less prone to slumping.

Two large groynes built of huge gneiss boulders have been erected with the aim of trapping sediment to build up the beach and so protect the cliff from direct wave attack. Rock armouring has been placed along the foot of the cliff to dissipate wave energy before it reaches the soft boulder clay behind. This does appear to have been successful in reducing the rate of erosion on the village of Mappleton but has; it has been argued resulted in more rapid erosion further downdrift where the beaches are being starved of sediment.

Here the coastal processes and fluvial river processes interact and sediment transported by longshore drift is deposited to form a spit. The spit is in danger of being breached every time there is a major storm as several sections of it have become very narrow as sediment has been transported to the distal end of the spit. The chalk lies in distinct horizontal layers, formed from the remains of tiny sea creatures millions of years ago.

Above the chalk at the top of the cliffs is a layer of till glacial deposits left behind by glaciers 18, years ago, during the last Ice Age. As the cliffs below are worn away by the action of the waves, the clay soil often falls into the sea in huge landslips. However, further south the rate of erosion has increased significantly. This is because material which is being carried south is not being replaced it is trapped within the groynes. Therefore there is no beach to protect the cliffs. Spurn is made up of the material which has been transported along the Holderness Coast.

This includes sand, sediment and shingle. The spit forms a sweeping curve which continues the line of the coast. The sand which forms the spit has been transported along the Holderness Coast by longshore drift. The energy in the waves transporting the material reduces where the North Sea meets the Humber Estuary. As a result the material is deposited. This process is known as deposition. This needs to be protected from the sea — it would be very costly to relocate the terminal. Some ideas have already gone into practice, but are not long term solutions.

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For instance bolstering the cliff face with rocks has already become battered by the sea. Cliffs south of Easington, prior to groynes. Cliffs after the construction of groynes. The spit is an SSSI and the question is to protect the spit and relocate the gas terminal.

Economically, protecting Easington would be worthwhile. Realistically, North Sea gas only has around a 30 year lifespan and so the groynes could be removed and the spit allowed to reform. The beach acts as a vast natural defence, but in very heavy storms the area behind the beach may be flooded. Chesil beach is a natural barrier, 27 km long and m wide. It is a coastal feature of international significance, being one of the three major shingle beaches in Britain. Until , beach material was excavated for commercial activities. The biggest waves sometimes overtop the ridge, sending water and shingle onto the road behind.

In recent years extensive flood alleviation schemes have been implemented by the Environment Agency and the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food MAFF to minimise the impact of such flood events, and a flood warning system alerts residents in the area if a major flood event is predicted. The loss of life from ships wrecked during heavy seas has even been recognised in the local name of the bay off Chiswell - "Deadman's Bay.

In the Fleet was flooded to a depth of over 20 feet causing extensive damage to property and loss of life. The 'Adelaide' ran aground in and her debris can still be found washed up on the beach. Understanding where the beach came from is essential in order to determine what may happen to it and the land behind it in the future.